Chom

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Chom in different ortographies

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Notes on the concept of respect in Dothraki society

The concept of respect plays a big role in Dothraki culture, and thus the use of words dealing with respect carry a huge cultural baggage. On one hand expressions of respect can be very casual and inconsequential, like the common greeting m'athchomaroon ("with respect"), often shortened to m'ach or m'ath. On the other hand a badly placed expression of respect can be a severe insult.

For Dothraki, respect is a thing shared by equals, so Dothraki warrior would not demand respect from a slave or a despised foreigner - and a person of low status should not presume to respect their highers, for they are not considered to have respect to share. This attitude can be seen in the use of word chomat. It is a stative verb, and it means almost as much that the person is respectable as it means that the person is respecting towards others. It can be used with an object in allative case, and then it means that the agent respects the patient - or, that the agent shares respect with the patient. There is no sense of deference, just a strong sense of respectful equality.

While this idea of shared respect is no doubt instrumental in keeping the hot blooded and quarrelsome Dothraki community from falling into pieces, Such a strong concept is a double-edged sword. A monocultural society is full of established practices on what to say and when, and in itself completely harmless word can be taken as ironic insult when the usage deviates from the norm. More often than not the respect is not meant to be outspokenly expressed, and thus, for example, a Dothraki warrior should be wary on calling his fellow warrior chomak ("respectful one"). This would be on most situations taken as sarcastical condescending slur.

Adjectival agreements

Chom adj. respectful

Modifying a singular in nominative case:

Lajak chom dothrae rekke."A respectful warrior is riding there."

Modifying a singular not in nominative case:

Anha tih lajakes choma."I saw a respectful warrior."

Modifying a plural:

Lajaki chomi dothrae rekke."Respectful warriors are riding there."

Stative verb conjugation

Chomat vin. to be respectful; vtr.→all. to respect

Present tense:

Anha chomak."I'm respectful."
Anha vos chomok."I'm not respectful."
Anha chomak lajakaan."I respect the warrior."
Anha vos chomok lajakaan."I don't respect the warrior."
Yer chomi."You're respectful." (singular you)
Yer vos chomi."You're not respectful." (singular you)
Yer chomi lajakaan."You respect the warrior." (singular you)
Yer vos chomi lajakaan."You don't respect the warrior." (singular you)
Me choma."He/she's respectful."
Me vos chomo."He/she's not respectful."
Me choma lajakaan."He/she respects the warrior."
Me vos chomo lajakaan."He/she doesn't respect the warrior."
Kisha chomaki."We're respectful."
Kisha vos chomoki."We're not respectful."
Kisha chomaki lajakaan."We respect the warrior."
Kisha vos chomoki lajakaan."We don't respect the warrior."
Yeri chomi."You're respectful." (plural you)
Yeri vos chomi."You're not respectful." (plural you)
Yeri chomi lajakaan."You respect the warrior." (plural you)
Yeri vos chomi lajakaan."You don't respect the warrior." (plural you)
Mori chomi."They're respectful."
Mori vos chomi."They're not respectful."
Mori chomi lajakaan."They respect the warrior."
Mori vos chomi lajakaan."They don't respect the warrior."
Shafka chomi."You're respectful." (formal you, both singular and plural)
Shafka vos chomi."You're not respectful." (formal you, both singular and plural)
Shafka chomi lajakaan."You respect the warrior." (formal you, both singular and plural)
Shafka vos chomi lajakaan."You don't respect the warrior." (formal you, both singular and plural)

Future tense:

Anha achomak."I will be respectful."
Anha vos ochomok."I will not be respectful."
Anha achomak lajakaan."I will respect the warrior."
Anha vos ochomok lajakaan."I will not respect the warrior."
Yer achomi."You will be respectful." (singular you)
Yer vos ochomi."You will not be respectful." (singular you)
Yer achomi lajakaan."You will respect the warrior." (singular you)
Yer vos ochomi lajakaan."You will not respect the warrior." (singular you)
Me achoma."He/she will be respectful."
Me vos ochomo."He/she will not be respectful."
Me achoma lajakaan."He/she will respect the warrior."
Me vos ochomo lajakaan."He/she will not respect the warrior."
Kisha achomaki."We will be respectful."
Kisha vos ochomoki."We will not be respectful."
Kisha achomaki lajakaan."We will respect the warrior."
Kisha vos ochomoki lajakaan."We will not respect the warrior."
Yeri achomi."You will be respectful." (plural you)
Yeri vos ochomi."You will not be respectful." (plural you)
Yeri achomi lajakaan."You will respect the warrior." (plural you)
Yeri vos ochomi lajakaan."You will not respect the warrior." (plural you)
Mori achomi."They will be respectful."
Mori vos ochomi."They will not be respectful."
Mori achomi lajakaan."They will respect the warrior."
Mori vos ochomi lajakaan."They will not respect the warrior."
Shafka achomi."You will be respectful." (formal you, both singular and plural)
Shafka vos ochomi."You will not be respectful." (formal you, both singular and plural)
Shafka achomi lajakaan."You will respect the warrior." (formal you, both singular and plural)
Shafka vos ochomi lajakaan."You will not respect the warrior." (formal you, both singular and plural)

Past tense:

Dothrak chom."The rider was respectful."
Dothrak chom lajakaan."The rider respected the warrior."
Dothraki chomish."The riders were respectful."
Dothraki chomish lajakaan."The riders respected the warrior."
Dothrak vos chomo."The rider wasn't respectful."
Dothrak vos chomo lajakaan."The rider didn't respect the warrior."
Dothraki vos chomosh."The riders weren't respectful."
Dothraki vos chomosh lajakaan."The riders didn't respect the warrior."

Imperatives:

Chomi!"Be respectful!" (formal)
Chomi lajakaan!"Respect the warrior!" (formal)
Chomas!"Be respectful!" (informal)
Chomas lajakaan!"Respect the warrior!" (informal)
Vos chomo!"Don't be respectful!" (formal)
Vos chomo lajakaan!"Don't respect the warrior!" (formal)
Vos chomos!"Don't be respectful!" (informal)
Vos chomos lajakaan!"Don't respect the warrior!" (informal)

Infinite:

Azhas dothrakaan chomat."Allow the rider to be respectful."
Azhas dothrakaan chomat lajakaan."Allow the rider to respect the warrior."

Comparative declension

Achoman adj. more respectful

Modifying a singular in nominative case:

Lajak achoman dothrae rekke."A more respectful warrior is riding there."

Modifying a singular not in nominative case:

Anha tih lajakes achomana."I saw a more respectful warrior."

Modifying a plural:

Lajaki achomani dothrae rekke."More respectful warriors are riding there."

Achomanaz adj. most respectful

Modifying a singular in nominative case:

Lajak achomanaz dothrae rekke."The most respectful warrior is riding there."

Modifying a singular not in nominative case:

Anha tih lajakes achomanaza."I saw the most respectful warrior."

Modifying a plural:

Lajaki achomanazi dothrae rekke."The most respectful warriors are riding there."

Ochom adj. unrespectful

Modifying a singular in nominative case:

Lajak ochom dothrae rekke."An unrespectful warrior is riding there."

Modifying a singular not in nominative case:

Anha tih lajakes ochoma."I saw an unrespectful warrior."

Modifying a plural:

Lajaki ochomi dothrae rekke."Unrespectful warriors are riding there."

Ochoman adj. less respectful

Modifying a singular in nominative case:

Lajak ochoman dothrae rekke."A less respectful warrior is riding there."

Modifying a singular not in nominative case:

Anha tih lajakes ochomana."I saw a less respectful warrior."

Modifying a plural:

Lajaki ochomani dothrae rekke."Less respectful warriors are riding there."

Achomanoz adj. least respectful

Modifying a singular in nominative case:

Lajak achomanoz dothrae rekke."The least respectful warrior is riding there."

Modifying a singular not in nominative case:

Anha tih lajakes achomanoza."I saw the least respectful warrior."

Modifying a plural:

Lajaki achomanozi dothrae rekke."The least respectful warriors are riding there."


Stative verb conjugation of comparative declensions

  chom achoman achomanaz ochom ochoman achomanaz
INF chomat achomanat achomanazat ochomat ochomanat achomanozat
1SG.PRES chomak achomanak achomanazak ochomak ochomanak achomanozak
1SG.NEG.PRES vos chomok vos achomanok vos achomanazok vos ochomok vos ochomanok vos achomanozok
2SG.PRES chomi achomani achomanazi ochomi ochomani achomanozi
2SG.NEG.PRES vos chomi vos achomani vos achomanazi vos ochomi vos ochomani vos achomanozi
3SG.PRES choma achomana achomanaza ochoma ochomana achomanoza
3SG.NEG.PRES vos chomo vos achomano vos achomanazo vos ochomo vos ochomano vos achomanozo
1PL.PRES chomaki achomanaki achomanazaki ochomaki ochomanaki achomanozaki
1PL.NEG.PRES vos chomoki vos achomanoki vos achomanazoki vos ochomoki vos ochomanoki vos achomanozoki
2PL.PRES chomi achomani achomanazi ochomi ochomani achomanozi
2PL.NEG.PRES vos chomi vos achomani vos achomanazi vos ochomi vos ochomani vos achomanozi
3PL.PRES chomi achomani achomanazi ochomi ochomani achomanozi
3PL.NEG.PRES vos chomi vos achomani vos achomanazi vos ochomi vos ochomani vos achomanozi
1SG.FUTURE achomak vachomanak vachomanazak vochomak vochomanak vachomanozak
1SG.NEG.FUTURE vos ochomok vos vachomanok vos vachomanazok vos vochomok vos vochomanok vos vachomanozok
2SG.FUTURE achomi vachomani vachomanazi vochomi vochomani vachomanozi
2SG.NEG.FUTURE vos ochomi vos vachomani vos vachomanazi vos vochomi vos vochomani vos vachomanozi
3SG.FUTURE achoma vachomana vachomanaza vochoma vochomana vachomanoza
3SG.NEG.FUTURE vos ochomo vos vachomano vos vachomanazo vos vochomo vos vochomano vos vachomanozo
1PL.FUTURE achomaki vachomanaki vachomanazaki vochomaki vochomanaki vachomanozaki
1PL.NEG.FUTURE vos ochomoki vos vachomanoki vos vachomanazoki vos vochomoki vos vochomanoki vos vachomanozoki
2PL.FUTURE achomi vachomani vachomanazi vochomi vochomani vachomanozi
2PL.NEG.FUTURE vos ochomi vos vachomani vos vachomanazi vos vochomi vos vochomani vos vachomanozi
3PL.FUTURE achomi vachomani vachomanazi vochomi vochomani vachomanozi
3PL.NEG.FUTURE vos ochomi vos vachomani vos vachomanazi vos vochomi vos vochomani vos vachomanozi
SG.PAST chom achoman achomanaz ochom ochoman achomanoz
SG.NEG.PAST vos chomo vos achomano vos achomanazo vos ochomo vos ochomano vos achomanozo
PL.PAST chomish achomanish achomanazish ochomish ochomanish achomanozish
PL.NEG.PAST vos chomosh vos achomanosh vos achomanazosh vos ochomosh vos ochomanosh vos achomanozosh
IMP1 chomi achomani achomanazi ochomi ochomani achomanozi
IMP1.NEG vos chomo vos achomano vos achomanazo vos ochomo vos ochomano vos achomanozo
IMP2 chomas achomanas achomanazas ochomas ochomanas achomanozas
IMP2.NEG vos chomos vos achomanos vos achomanazos vos ochomos vos ochomanos vos achomanozos

More words derived from root chom

Chomolat vin. to grow respectful; vtr. to give respect to, to honour

In the intransitive sense comparative forms are also possible: achomanolatto grow more respectful, achomanazolatto grow most respectful, ochomolatto turn unrespectful, ochomanolatto turn less resectful and achomanozolatto turn least respectful.

Acchomat vtr. to make respectful

Athchomar ni. respect, reverence

Chomak na. one who is respectful

Chomokh ni. honor

Vichomer adj. respectable

And all verb forms thereof

Vichomerak na. one who is respectable

Note that while vichomerak and chomak (as well as vichomer and chom) have definite difference in tone, due to reciprocity of Dothraki concept of respect, they are not categorically different in meaning and can be considered near synonyms.

Zichome adj. disrespectful

And all verb forms thereof

Phrases using chom-words

Yer chomoe anna. — You do honor to me.
M'athchomaroon!simple greeting
Athchomar chomakaan! (also in plural: Athchomar chomakea!) — formal greeting, used mainly to invite people under the common respect
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