High Valyrian Noun Declensions

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Declension classes can be defined based on which cases they merge, and (for the most part) their stem vowels. Paucals and collectives have very similar, if not identical, paradigms across all declensions; both seem to merge the vocative case with instrumental, but keep all other cases distinct (irrespective of what happens in the singular and plural). Consequently, mergers will only be listed for the singular and plural.

Forms listed in grey type are guesses, generally based on parallels from other paradigms of the same declension. They should be used very carefully, if at all.

Contents

First Declension

First declension nouns have the stem-vowel a. There are at least two types of first declension nouns, and at least one subtype:

  • Those that end in -a (e.g. vala "man"), mostly lunar.
    • A subtype that ends in -ia (e.g. dāria "queen.")
  • Those that end in -ar (e.g. embar "water"), mostly aquatic.

There do not appear to be solar (*-as) or terrestrial (*-an) types.

The first declension paradigm merges the genitive, dative, and locative plural (as do nearly all nouns), but distinguishes all other forms.

Lunar-type: vala

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. vala vali valun valar
Acc. vale valī valuni valari
Gen. valo valoti valuno valaro
Dat. valot valoti valunta valarta
Loc. valā valoti valunna valarra
Ins. valosa valossi valussa valarza
Com. valoma valommi valumma valarma
Voc. valus valis valussa valarza

Dāria subtype

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. dāria dārī dārȳn dāriar
Acc. dārie dārī dārȳni dāriari
Gen. dārio dārȳti dārȳno dāriaro
Dat. dāriot dārȳti dārȳnta dāriarta
Loc. dāriā dārȳti dārȳnna dāriarra
Ins. dārȳsa dārȳssi dārȳssa dāriarza
Com. dārȳma dārȳmmi dārȳmma dāriarma
Voc. dārȳs dārīs dārȳssa dāriarza

Aquatic-type: embar

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. embar embri embrun embrar
Acc. embri embrī embruni embrari
Gen. embro embroti embruno embraro
Dat. embrot embroti embrunta embrarta
Loc. embār embroti embrunna embrarra
Ins. embrosa embrossi embrussa embrarza
Com. embroma embrommi embrumma embrarma
Voc. embus embis embrussa embrarza

Synopsis

1Lun. Singular Plural
vala
"man"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
vala vale valo valot valā valosa valoma valus vali valī valoti valoti valoti valossi valommi valis
Paucal Collective
valun valuni valuno valunta valunna valussa valumma valussa valar valari valaro valarta valarra valarza valarma valarza
1Lun. (i) Singular Plural
dāria
"queen"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
dāria dārie dārio dāriot dāriā dārȳsa dārȳma dārȳs dārī dārī dārȳti dārȳti dārȳti dārȳssi dārȳmmi dārīs
Paucal Collective
dārȳn dārȳni dārȳno dārȳnta dārȳnna dārȳssa dārȳmma dārȳssa dāriar dāriari dāriaro dāriarta dāriarra dāriarza dāriarma dāriarza
1Aq. Singular Plural
embar
"water"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
embar embri embro embrot embār embrosa embroma embus embri embrī embroti embroti embroti embrossi embrommi embis
Paucal Collective
embrun embruni embruno embrunta embrunna embrussa embrommi embrussa embrar embrari embraro embrarta embrarra embrarza embrarma embrarza

Second Declension

Second declension nouns have the stem-vowel y. There are two types of second declension nouns:

  • Those that end in -y (e.g. trēsy "son"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -ys (e.g. loktys "sailer"), mostly solar.

There are not terrestrial- or aquatic-types, so any word whose citation form ends in -yn or -yr can safely assumed to be reanalyzed paucals and collectives respectively.

The second declension merges the locative and instrumental singular; locative and instrumental plural; and the genitive and dative plural. Critically it distinguishes the locative plural from the genitive/dative, and is the only noun class in the language to do so.

Lunar-type: trēsy

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. trēsy trēsi trēsyn trēsyr
Acc. trēsi trēsī trēsyni trēsyri
Gen. trēso trēsoti trēsyno trēsyro
Dat. trēsot trēsoti trēsynty trēsyrty
Loc. trēsȳ trēsī trēsynny trēsyrry
Ins. trēsomy trēsommi trēsyssy trēsyrzy
Com. trēsomy trēsommi trēsymmy trēsyrmy
Voc. trēsys trēsys trēsyssy trēsyrzy

Solar-type: loktys

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. loktys loktyssy loktyn loktyr
Acc. lokti loktī loktyni loktyri
Gen. lokto loktoti loktyno loktyro
Dat. loktot loktoti loktynty loktyrty
Loc. loktȳ loktī loktynny loktyrry
Ins. loktomy loktommi loktyssy loktyrzy
Com. loktomy loktommi loktymmy loktyrmy
Voc. loktys loktyssys loktyssy loktyrzy


Synopsis

2Lun. Singular Plural
trēsy
"son"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
trēsy trēsi trēso trēsot trēsȳ trēsomy trēsomy trēsys trēsi trēsī trēsoti trēsoti trēsī trēsommi trēsommi trēsys
Paucal Collective
trēsyn trēsyni trēsyno trēsynty trēsynny trēsyssy trēsymmy trēsyssy trēsyr trēsyri trēsyro trēsyrty trēsyrry trēsyrzy trēsyrmy trēsyrzy
2sol. Singular Plural
loktys
"sailer"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
loktys lokti lokto loktot loktȳ loktomy loktomy loktys loktyssy loktī loktoti loktoti loktī loktommi loktommi loktyssys
Paucal Collective
loktyn loktyni loktyno loktynty loktynny loktyssy loktymmy loktyssy loktyr loktyri loktyro loktyrty loktyrry loktyrzy loktyrmy loktyrzy

Third Declension

Third declension nouns have the stem-vowel o. The third declension is very diverse: all four gender-types occur in the third declension, and several subtypes:

  • Those that end in -o (e.g. pēko "olive"), mostly lunar.
    • A subtype that ends in -io (e.g. āeksio "master.")
  • Those that end in -os (e.g. ēngos "tongue"), mostly solar.
    • At least three subtypes, to accommodate such words as rūs "baby," deks "foot," and ȳs "art."
  • Those that end in -on (e.g. belmon "chain"), mostly terrestrial.
    • A subtype that ends in -ion (e.g. dārion "kingdom.")
  • Those that end in -or (e.g. lentor "house"), mostly aquatic.
    • A subtype to accommodate Mȳr (and any other words that might be like it).

The third declension merges the nominative and accusative singular, dative and locative singular; the instrumental and comitative singular; the nominative and accusative plural, and the genitive, dative, and locative plural.

Lunar-type: pēko

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. pēko pēka pēkun pēkor
Acc. pēko pēka pēkuni pēkori
Gen. pēkō pēkoti pēkuno pēkoro
Dat. pēkot pēkoti pēkunto pēkorto
Loc. pēkot pēkoti pēkunno pēkorro
Ins. pēkoso pēkossi pēkusso pēkorzo
Com. pēkoso pēkossi pēkummo pēkormo
Voc. pēkos pēkas pēkusso pēkorzo

Āeksio subtype

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. āeksio āeksia āeksȳn āeksior
Acc. āeksio āeksia āeksȳni āeksȳri
Gen. āeksiō āeksȳti āeksȳno āeksȳro
Dat. āeksiot āeksȳti āeksȳnto āeksȳrto
Loc. āeksiot āeksȳti āeksȳnno āeksȳrro
Ins. āeksȳso āeksȳssi āeksȳsso āeksȳrzo
Com. āeksȳso āeksȳssi āeksȳmmo āeksȳrmo
Voc. āeksios āeksīs āeksȳsso āeksȳrzo

Solar-type: ēngos

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. ēngos ēngossa ēngun ēngor
Acc. ēngos ēngossa ēnguni ēngori
Gen. ēngo ēngoti ēnguno ēngoro
Dat. ēngot ēngoti ēngunto ēngorto
Loc. ēngot ēngoti ēngunno ēngorro
Ins. ēngoso ēngossi ēngusso ēngorzo
Com. ēngoso ēngossi ēngummo ēngormo
Voc. ēngos ēngossas ēngusso ēngorzo

Contracting subtypes

There are several subtypes of the third declension solar paradigm that share the feature of dropping the o from the nominative/accusative/vocative singular, and the instrumental/comitative singular. All other forms are regular.

There are currently four known paradigms of this class, here listen in approximate descending order of frequency:

  • h-stems like rūs (*rūhos*rūhsrūs; *rūhos*rūhsorūso)
  • k-stems like deks (*dekosdeks; *dekosodekso)
  • v-stems like ȳs (*yvos*yvsȳs; *yvoso*yvsoȳso)
  • n-stems like ōz (*onos*onsōz; *onoso*onsoōzo)

To summarize in tabular format:

h-stem k-stem v-stem n-stem
Nom. *rūhos → rūs *dekos → deks *yvos → ȳs *onos → ōz
Acc. *rūhos → rūs *dekos → deks *yvos → ȳs *onos → ōz
Gen. *rūho — rūho *deko — deko *yvo — yvo *ono — ono
Dat. *rūhot — rūhot *dekot — dekot *yvot — yvot *onot — onot
Loc. *rūhot — rūhot *dekot — dekot *yvot — yvot *onot — onot
Ins. *rūhoso → rūso *dekoso → dekso *yvoso → ȳso *onoso → ōzo
Com. *rūhoso → rūso *dekoso → dekso *yvoso → ȳso *onoso → ōzo
Voc. *rūhos → rūs *dekos → deks *yvos → ȳs *onos → ōz
Rūs subtype

Words of the h-stem type include rūs "baby," kiōs "spring," baes "summit," jaes "god." In the contracted fom the h of the stem disappears. All known nouns of this class are one syllable long, and most contain a long vowel or a diphthong (even in uncontracted forms).

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. rūs rūhossa rūhun rūhor
Acc. rūs rūhossa rūhuni rūhori
Gen. rūho rūhoti rūhuno rūhoro
Dat. rūhot rūhoti rūhunto rūhorto
Loc. rūhot rūhoti rūhunno rūhorro
Ins. rūso rūhossi rūhusso rūhorzo
Com. rūso rūhossi rūhummo rūhormo
Voc. rūs rūhossas rūhusso rūhorzo
Deks subtype

The k-stem paradigm includes deks "foot," eleks "ear," and Aeliks "Aelix." They are actually fairly simple, as only the o drops and no change is made to the stem.

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. deks dekossa dekun dekor
Acc. deks dekossa dekuni dekori
Gen. deko dekoti dekuno dekoro
Dat. dekot dekoti dekunto dekorto
Loc. dekot dekoti dekunno dekorro
Ins. dekso dekossi dekusso dekorzo
Com. dekso dekossi dekummo dekormo
Voc. deks dekossas dekusso dekorzo


Ȳs subtype

The v-stem class includes ȳs "art" and Lȳs "Lys." In both known cases the yv becomes ȳ in contracted forms.

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. ȳs yvossa yvun yvor
Acc. ȳs yvossa yvuni yvori
Gen. yvo yvoti yvuno yvoro
Dat. yvot yvoti yvunto yvorto
Loc. yvot yvoti yvunno yvorro
Ins. ȳso yvossi yvusso yvorzo
Com. ȳso yvossi yvummo yvormo
Voc. ȳs yvossas yvusso yvorzo
Ōz subtype

The n-stem type is known only from the noun ōz. The uncontracted form is ŏno-, and the contracted form is ōz-. This paradigm is extremely unusual in that, due to nasal deletion, the citation form ends in z.

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. ōz onossa onun onor
Acc. ōz onossa onuni onori
Gen. ono onoti onuno onoro
Dat. onot onoti onunto onorto
Loc. onot onoti onunno onorro
Ins. ōzo onossi onusso onorzo
Com. ōzo onossi onummo onormo
Voc. ōz onossas onusso onorzo

Terrestrial-type: belmon

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. belmon belma belmun belmor
Acc. belmon belma belmuni belmondi
Gen. belmo belmoti belmuno belmondo
Dat. belmot belmoti belmunto belmondo
Loc. belmot belmoti belmunno belmorro
Ins. belmoso belmossi belmusso belmorzo
Com. belmoso belmossi belmummo belmormo
Voc. belmos belmas belmusso belmorzo

Dārion subtype

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. dārion dāria dārȳn dārior
Acc. dārion dāria dārȳni dārȳndi
Gen. dārio dārȳti dārȳno dārȳndo
Dat. dāriot dārȳti dārȳnto dārȳndo
Loc. dāriot dārȳti dārȳnno dārȳrro
Ins. dārȳso dārȳssi dārȳsso dārȳrzo
Com. dārȳso dārȳssi dārȳmmo dārȳrmo
Voc. dārios dārīs dārȳsso dārȳrzo

Aquatic-type: lentor

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. lentor lentra lentrun lentror
Acc. lentor lentra lentruni lentrori
Gen. lentro lentroti lentruno lentroro
Dat. lentrot lentroti lentrunto lentrorto
Loc. lentrot lentroti lentrunno lentrorro
Ins. lentroso lentrossi lentrusso lentrorzo
Com. lentroso lentrossi lentrummo lentrormo
Voc. lentos lentas lentrusso lentrorzo


Mȳr subtype

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. Mȳr Mȳra Mȳryn Mȳror
Acc. Mȳr Mȳra Mȳryni Mȳrori
Gen. Mȳro Mȳroti Mȳryno Mȳroro
Dat. Mȳrot Mȳroti Mȳrynto Mȳrorto
Loc. Mȳrot Mȳroti Mȳrynno Mȳrorro
Ins. Mȳroso Mȳrossi Mȳrysso Mȳrorzo
Com. Mȳroso Mȳrossi Mȳrymmo Mȳrormo
Voc. Mȳs Mȳras Mȳrysso Mȳrorzo

Synopsis

3Lun. Singular Plural
pēko
"olive"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
pēko pēko pēkō pēkot pēkot pēkoso pēkoso pēkos pēka pēka pēkoti pēkoti pēkoti pēkossi pēkossi pēkas
Paucal Collective
pēkun pēkuni pēkuno pēkunto pēkunno pēkusso pēkummo pekusso pēkor pēkori pēkoro pēkorto pēkorro pēkorzo pēkormo pēkorzo
3Lun. (i) Singular Plural
āeksio
"master"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
āeksio āeksio āeksio āeksiot āeksiot āeksȳso āeksȳso āeksios āeksia āeksia āeksȳti āeksȳti āeksȳti āeksȳssi āeksȳssi āeksīs
Paucal Collective
āeksȳn āeksȳni āeksȳno āeksȳnto āeksȳnno āeksȳsso āeksȳmmo āeksȳsso āeksior āeksȳri āeksȳro āeksȳrto āeksȳrro āeksȳrzo āeksȳrmo āeksȳrzo
3Sol. Singular Plural
ēngos
"tongue"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
ēngos ēngos ēngo ēngot ēngot ēngoso ēngoso ēngos ēngossa ēngossa ēngoti ēngoti ēngoti ēngossi ēngossi ēngossas
Paucal Collective
ēngun ēnguni ēnguno ēngunto ēngunno ēngusso ēngummo ēngusso ēngor ēngori ēngoro ēngorto ēngorro ēngorzo ēngormo ēngorzo
3Sol. (h) Singular Plural
rūs
"baby"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
rūs rūs rūho rūhot rūhot rūso rūso rūs rūhossa rūhossa rūhoti rūhoti rūhoti rūhossi rūhossi rūhossas
Paucal Collective
rūhun rūhuni rūhuno rūhunto rūhunno rūhusso rūhummo rūhusso rūhor rūhori rūhoro rūhorto rūhorro rūhorzo rūhormo rūhorzo
3Sol. (k) Singular Plural
deks
"foot"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
deks deks deko dekot dekot dekso dekso deks dekossa dekossa dekoti dekoti dekoti dekossi dekossi dekossas
Paucal Collective
dekun dekuni dekuno dekunto dekunno dekusso dekummo dekusso dekor dekori dekoro dekorto dekorro dekorzo dekormo dekorzo
3Sol. (v) Singular Plural
ȳs
"art"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
ȳs ȳs yvo yvot yvot ȳso ȳso ȳs yvossa yvossa yvoti yvoti yvoti yvossi yvossi yvossas
Paucal Collective
yvun yvuni yvuno yvunto yvunno yvusso yvummo yvusso yvor yvori yvoro yvorto yvorro yvorzo yvormo yvorzo
3Ter. Singular Plural
belmon
"chain"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
belmon belmon belmo belmot belmot belmoso belmoso belmos belma belma belmoti belmoti belmoti belmossi belmossi belmas
Paucal Collective
belmun belmuni belmuno belmunto belmunno belmusso belmummo belmusso belmor belmondi belmondo belmondo belmorro belmorzo belmormo belmorzo
3Ter. (i) Singular Plural
dārion
"kingdom"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
dārion dārion dārio dāriot dāriot dārioso dārioso dārios dāria dāria dārȳti dārȳti dārȳti dārȳssi dārȳssi dārīs
Paucal Collective
dārȳn dārȳni dārȳno dārȳnto dārȳnno dārȳsso dārȳmmo dārȳsso dārior dārȳndi dārȳndo dārȳndo dārȳrro dārȳrzo dārȳrmo dārȳrzo
3Aq. Singular Plural
lentor
"house"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
lentor lentor lentro lentrot lentrot lentroso lentroso lentos lentra lentra lentroti lentroti lentroti lentrossi lentrossi lentas
Paucal Collective
lentrun lentruni lentruno lentrunto lentrunno lentrusso lentrummo lentrusso lentror lentrori lentroro lentrorto lentrorro lentrorzo lentrormo lentrorzo
3Aq. (*) Singular Plural
Mȳr
"Myr"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
Mȳr Mȳr Mȳro Mȳrot Mȳrot Mȳroso Mȳroso Mȳs Mȳra Mȳra Mȳroti Mȳroti Mȳroti Mȳrossi Mȳrossi Mȳras
Paucal Collective
Mȳryn Mȳryni Mȳryno Mȳrynto Mȳrynno Mȳrysso Mȳrymmo Mȳrysso Mȳror Mȳrori Mȳroro Mȳrorto Mȳrorro Mȳrorzo Mȳrormo Mȳrorzo

Fourth Declension

Fourth declension nouns have the stem-vowel e. There are at least three types of fourth declension nouns:

  • Those that end in -e (e.g. gelte "helmet"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -es (e.g. zaldrīzes "dragon"), mostly solar.
  • Those that end in -en (only known example at this time is Targārien "Targaryen"), mostly terrestrial.


No aquatic-type fourth declension nouns attested so far.


The fourth declension does not appear to merge any cases, other than the usual genitive, dative, and locative plural.


Lunar-type: gelte

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. gelte gelti geltin gelter
Acc. geltī geltī geltini gelteri
Gen. gelto geltoti geltino geltero
Dat. geltot geltoti geltinte gelterte
Loc. geltē geltoti geltinne gelterre
Ins. geltose geltossi geltisse gelterze
Com. geltome geltommi geltimme gelterme
Voc. geltys geltis geltisse gelterze

Solar-type: zaldrīzes

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. zaldrīzes zaldrīzesse zaldrīzin zaldrīzer
Acc. zaldrīzī zaldrīzī zaldrīzini zaldrīzeri
Gen. zaldrīzo zaldrīzoti zaldrīzino zaldrīzero
Dat. zaldrīzot zaldrīzoti zaldrīzinte zaldrīzerte
Loc. zaldrīzē zaldrīzoti zaldrīzinne zaldrīzerre
Ins. zaldrīzose zaldrīzossi zaldrīzisse zaldrīzerze
Com. zaldrīzome zaldrīzommi zaldrīzimme zaldrīzerme
Voc. zaldrīzys zaldrīzesses zaldrīzisse zaldrīzerze


Terrestrial-type: Targārien

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. Targārien Targārī Targārȳn Targārior
Acc. Targārī Targārī Targārȳni Targārȳndi
Gen. Targārio Targārȳti Targārȳno Targārȳndo
Dat. Targāriot Targārȳti Targārȳnte Targārȳnde
Loc. Targāriēn Targārȳti Targārȳnne Targārȳrre
Ins. Targārȳse Targārȳssi Targārȳsse Targārȳrze
Com. Targārȳme Targārȳmmi Targārȳmme Targārȳrme
Voc. Targāries Targārīs Targārȳsse Targārȳrze


Synopsis

4Lun. Singular Plural
gelte
"helmet"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
gelte geltī gelto geltot geltē geltose geltome geltys gelti geltī geltoti geltoti geltoti geltossi geltommi geltīs
Paucal Collective
geltin geltini geltino geltinte geltinne geltisse geltimme geltisse gelter gelteri geltero gelterte gelterre gelterze gelterme gelterze
4Sol. Singular Plural
zaldrīzes
"dragon"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
zaldrīzes zaldrīzī zaldrīzo zaldrīzot zaldrīzē zaldrīzose zaldrīzome zaldrīzys zaldrīzesse zaldrīzī zaldrīzoti zaldrīzoti zaldrīzoti zaldrīzossi zaldrīzommi zaldrīzesses
Paucal Collective
zaldrīzin zaldrīzini zaldrīzino zaldrīzinte zaldrīzinne zaldrīzisse zaldrīzimme zaldrīzisse zaldrīzer zaldrīzeri zaldrīzero zaldrīzerte zaldrīzerre zaldrīzerze zaldrīzerme zaldrīzerze
4Ter. Singular Plural
Targārien
"Targaryen"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
Targārien Targārī Targārio Targāriot Targāriēn Targārȳse Targārȳme Targāries Targārī Targārī Targārȳti Targārȳti Targārȳti Targārȳssi Targārȳmmi Targārīs
Paucal Collective
Targārȳn Targārȳni Targārȳno Targārȳnte Targārȳnne Targārȳsse Targārȳmme Targārȳsse Targārior Targārȳndi Targārȳndo Targārȳnde Targārȳrre Targārȳrze Targārȳrme Targārȳrze

Fifth Declension

Fifth declension nouns have the stem-vowel i. There are at least two types of fifth declension nouns:

  • Those that end in -i (e.g. brōzi "name"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -is (e.g. tubis "day"), mostly solar
  • Those that end in -ir (e.g. rōbir "fig"), mostly aquatic.


There does not appear to be a terrestrial (*-in) type.


It is known that the fifth declension merges the nominative and accusative singular; the nominative and accusative plural; and the usual genitive, dative, and locative plural. It cannot yet be confirmed that these are the only mergers, but it does appear likely.


Lunar-type: brōzi

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. brōzi brōza brōzin brōzir
Acc. brōzi brōza brōzini brōziri
Gen. brōzio brōzȳti brōzino brōziro
Dat. brōziot brōzȳti brōzinti brōzirti
Loc. brōzī brōzȳti brōzinni brōzirri
Ins. brōzȳsi brōzȳssi brōzissi brōzirzi
Com. brōzȳmi brōzȳmmi brōzimmi brōzirmi
Voc. brōzys brōzas brōzissi brōzirzi


Solar-type: tubis

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. tubis tubissa tubin tubir
Acc. tubis tubissa tubini tubiri
Gen. tubio tubȳti tubino tubiro
Dat. tubiot tubȳti tubinti tubirti
Loc. tubī tubȳti tubinni tubirri
Ins. tubȳsi tubȳssi tubissi tubirzi
Com. tubȳmi tubȳmmi tubimmi tubirmi
Voc. tubys tubissas tubissi tubirzi


Aquatic-type: rōbir

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. rōbir rōbra rōbrin rōbrir
Acc. rōbir rōbra rōbrini rōbriri
Gen. rōbrio rōbrȳti rōbrino rōbriro
Dat. rōbriot rōbrȳti rōbrinti rōbrirti
Loc. rōbīr rōbrȳti rōbrinni rōbrirri
Ins. rōbrȳsi rōbrȳssi rōbrissi rōbrirzi
Com. rōbrȳmi rōbrȳmmi rōbrimmi rōbrirmi
Voc. rōbys rōbas rōbrissi rōbrirzi


Vestriarzir subtype

Regular, except that the zr cluster becomes j. This is a regular sound change.[1]


Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. vestriarzir vestriarja vestriarjin vestriarjir
Acc. vestriarzir vestriarja vestriarjini vestriarjiri
Gen. vestriarjio vestriarjȳti vestriarjino vestriarjiro
Dat. vestriarjiot vestriarjȳti vestriarjinti vestriarjirti
Loc. vestriarzīr vestriarjȳti vestriarjinni vestriarjirri
Ins. vestriarjȳsi vestriarjȳssi vestriarjissi vestriarjirzi
Com. vestriarjȳmi vestriarjȳmmi vestriarjimmi vestriarjirmi
Voc. vestriarzys vestriarzas vestriarjissi vestriarjirzi


Synopsis

5Lun. Singular Plural
brōzi
"name"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
brōzi brōzi brōzio brōziot brōzī brōzȳsi brōzȳmi brōzys brōza brōza brōzȳti brōzȳti brōzȳti brōzȳssi brōzȳmmi brōzas
Paucal Collective
brōzin brōzini brōzino brōzinti brōzinni brōzissi brōzimmi brōzissi brōzir brōziri brōziro brōzirti brōzirri brōzirzi brōzirmi brōzirzi
5Sol. Singular Plural
tubis
"day"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
tubis tubis tubio tubiot tubī tubȳsi tubȳmi tubys tubissa tubissa tubȳti tubȳti tubȳti tubȳssi tubȳmmi tubissas
Paucal Collective
tubin tubini tubino tubinti tubinni tubissi tubimmi tubissi tubir tubiri tubiro tubirti tubirri tubirzi tubirmi tubirzi
5Aq. Singular Plural
rōbir
"fig"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
rōbir rōbir rōbrio rōbriot rōbīr rōbrȳsi rōbrȳmi rōbys rōbra rōbra rōbȳti rōbrȳti rōbrȳti rōbrȳssi rōbrȳmmi rōbas
Paucal Collective
rōbrin rōbrini rōbrino rōbrinti rōbrinni rōbrissi rōbrimmi rōbrissi rōbrir rōbriri rōbriro rōbrirti rōbrirri rōbrirzi rōbrirmi rōbrirzi
5Aq. (z) Singular Plural
vestriarzir
"story"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
vestriarzir vestriarzir vestriarjio vestriarjiot vestriarzīr vestriarjȳsi vestriarjȳmi vestriarzys vestriarja vestriarja vestriarzȳti vestriarjȳti vestriarjȳti vestriarjȳssi vestriarjȳmmi vestriarzas
Paucal Collective
vestriarjin vestriarjini vestriarjino vestriarjinti vestriarjinni vestriarjissi vestriarjimmi vestriarjissi vestriarjir vestriarjiri vestriarjiro vestriarjirti vestriarjirri vestriarjirzi vestriarjirmi vestriarjirzi

Sixth Declension

The sixth declension is used for miscellaneous nouns. It can be divided into three categories:

Foreign Words

Foreign words, especially those that have not been fully accepted into the language (e.g. buzdari), are mostly lumped into this paradigm.[2] Words of this type have an optional -i in the nominative singular. It is not yet known how genders are assigned to them.

The accusative singular, nominative plural, and optionally the nominative singular of this paradigm all end in -i. It has the usual genitive, dative, locative plural merger. Other than that, all forms are distinct.

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. buzdar(i) buzdari buzdarin buzdarir
Acc. buzdari buzdarī buzdarini buzdariri
Gen. buzdaro buzdaroti buzdarino buzdariro
Dat. buzdarot buzdaroti buzdarinti buzdarirti
Loc. buzdarī buzdaroti buzdarinni buzdarirri
Ins. buzdarisi buzdarissi buzdarissi buzdarirzi
Com. buzdarimi buzdarimmi buzdarimmi buzdarirmi
Voc. buzdaris buzdarissis buzdarissi buzdarirzi

In the nominative singular the final -i is optional. It is mandatory in the accusative singular[3] and plural forms.

If a borrowed word already ends in a vowel, it can still be borrowed into this declension by keeping the final vowel in the nominative singular, in place of the optional -i, but dropping it in favor of the case-endings elsewhere, e.g. nom.s. mhysa, acc.s. mhysi, voc.s. mhysis etc.[2] There is also the possibility of adding -h- to the stem, analogously to the third declension rūs subtype: Yunkai, dat. Yunkaihot.

Reanalyzed Collectives

Sometimes a collective acquires so specific a meaning that it begins to be thought of as a separate word (e.g. azantyr "army," originally the collective of azantys "soldier.") At this point, a way to pluralize them becomes necessary, which puts them into the sixth declension. Reanalyzed collectives retain the gender of the original word, and therefore can be any gender.

Reanalyzed collectives merge the instrumental and vocative singular; and the genitive, dative, and locative plural.

Here is all we know about the declension reanalyzed collectives:

  • The singular keeps its usual collective declension (e.g. azantyrmy "along with an army," udrirzi "in a language.")
  • The nominative plural ends in -i or -y, depending on vowel harmony (but the exact conditions are unclear.)[4]
  • The plural declension is not identical to that of foreign words or reanalyzed paucals.
  • The plural merges no cases, except for the usual gen./dat./loc.pl.
  • If a reanalyzed collective were ever to be itself placed in the collective or paucal, the first declension paradigms (-ar, -un) would probably be used. However, it is uncertain that this ever happens.[5]


Reanalyzed Paucals

Sometimes a paucal acquires so specific a meaning that it begins to be thought of as a separate word (e.g. tīkun "wing," originally the paucal of tīkos "feather"). At this point, a way to pluralize them becomes necessary, which puts them into the sixth declension. Reanalyzed paucals retain the gender of the original word, and therefore can be any gender.

Reanalyzed paucals merge the instrumental and vocative singular; and the genitive, dative, and locative plural.

Here is all we know about the declension reanalyzed paucals:

  • The singular keeps its usual paucal declension (e.g. tīkusso "by wing.").
  • The nominative plural probably follows the same rule as reanalyzed collectives, e.g. tīkuni "wings." The accusative plural appears to be , as seen in gēlȳnī "debts."
  • The plural declension is not identical to that of foreign words or reanalyzed collectives.
  • The plural merges no cases, except for the usual gen./dat./loc.pl.
  • If a reanalyzed plural were ever to be itself placed in the paucal or collective, the first declension paradigms (-un, -ar) would probably be used. However, it is uncertain that this ever happens.[5]


Notes

  1. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118971485709/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-stories-can#comment-2025739614
  2. 2.0 2.1 It is at least possible for a foreign word to be put into a different paradigm it resembles:
    I suppose it really depends on how the speaker is feeling. You could certainly drop it straight into the lunar declension I paradigm (same as vala). You could also just strip the final -a in everything but the nominative singular and put it into the paradigm for borrowings. It’s a foreign word, so you never know.
    DJP, commenting on the possibility of using the word Mhysa in High Valyrian.
    It is uncertain how common this is.
  3. At least in theory, but cf. Gadbag aōhe qrīdrughās "Throw away your slave name."
  4. At different times DJP has implied both azantyri and azantyry as the plural of azantyr. It is unclear how this should be interpreted.
  5. 5.0 5.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1347
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