High Valyrian Vocabulary

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High Valyrian Vocabulary List

A note about the IPA pronunciation guides here.

  • The pronunciation of /v/ and /j/ can vary significantly (between [v] and [w], and between [j], [ɟ], [ʒ], and [dʒ] respectively). They are simply transcribed here as [v] and [j] for the sake of convenience, this should not be taken as strictly accurate.
  • The letter kh can also be pronounced gh, k or h depending on the speaker.
  • The same happens with th which can vary between t, s or z depending on the speaker.
  • Finally the vowel y should be pronounced [y] but is often realized as [i].

For more detailed information, see High Valyrian Phonology.


A

  • ābra ['aːbra]
n. 1lun. woman; coll. ābrar womankind, all women; humanity, all people;[1] life[2] (cf. ābrar)
  • ābrar ['aːbrar]
n. 6col.1lun. life.[2] (Relexicalized collective from ābra)
  • ābrazȳrys [aːbra'zyːɾys]
n. 2sol. wife ( < ābra + -zȳrys.)
  • adere [a'deɾe]
adj. II slippery; sleek, smooth; fast, quick
  • aderī [a'deɾiː]
adv. soon, quickly (adere + .)
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • aderves [a'derves]
n. 4sol. quickness, sleekness, smoothness [3]
  • addemmagon [ad'demmagon]
v. C-fin. to pay, to satisfy, to make good, object is usually inanimate[4]
Lannister va moriot zȳha gēlȳnī addemmis. — A Lannister always pays his debts.
  • āegenka [aːɛ̯'geŋka]
adj. I iron ( < āegion iron + -enka)
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]
Āegenkon Dēmalion vale tēmas. — The Iron Throne pokes the man.
  • āegion ['aːɛ̯gi͡on]
n. 3ter. iron [6]
  • Aeliks ['aɛ̯liks]
prop. n. 3sol. Aelix
  • āeksio ['aːɛ̯ksi͡o]
n. 3lun. master, lord. (cf. āeksion).
Āeksio yne ilīritas. — The Lord has smiled upon me.
  • āeksion ['aːɛ̯ksi͡on]
n. 3ter. gold (cf. āeksio).
Āeksio ondos — Hand of gold[7]
  • aerēbagon [aɛ̯'ɾeːbagon]
perfect: aerēptan
v. C-fin.. to travel (contains -ēbagon.)
Drīvose dārys aerēbas. — Actually, the king is traveling.
  • Aerys ['aɛ̯ɾys]
prop. n. 2sol. Aerys.
  • ajomemēbagon [ajome'meːbagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to rage on
Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza, — The war rages on
  • amāzigon [a'maːzigon]
perfect: amāstan
v. Insv. V-fin. to come of things ( < a- + māzigon.)
Bosys bantis amāzis, se morghor zijomy amāzis. — The long night is coming, and the dead come with it.[8]
  • āmāzigon [aː'maːzigon]
perfect: āmāstan
v. V-fin. to return ( < ā- + māzigon.)
  • āmāzinon [aː'maːzinon]
n. 3ter return ( < ā- + māzigon + -non)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[9]
  • amazverdagon [amaz'veɾdagon]
perfect: amazvēttan
v. Insv. C-fin. to create ( < a- + mazverdagon.)
Hen perzȳ vȳs amazverdagon asittaks. — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world.[10]
  • ampa ['ampa] indec.
num. ten.
  • amplie ['ampli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III tenth.
  • angogon[11] ['aŋgogon]
perfect: angotan
v. V-fin. to bite.
Sparos rōbir angotas? — Who bit the fig?
  • anne ['anne]
n. 4lun. horse[12]
  • ānogar ['aːnogar]
n. 1aq. blood.
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
zaldrīzo ānogar — Blood of the dragon[13]
  • ao ['aɔ̯]
pers.pron. you (sing.).
  • aōha [a'ɔːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I your (sg.)
  • aōhon [a'ɔːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. yours (sg.)
Aōhon iksan se ñuhon iksā — I am yours and you are mine[14]
  • aōhoso [a'ɔːhoso]
adv. in your way, as you wish (ins. of aōha.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • aōla [a'ɔːla]
refl. 1lun. yourself
  • arakhi [a'ɾaxi], arakh [a'ɾax]
n. 6for. arakh, a curved sword used by the Dothraki. ( < Doth. arakh.)
  • arghugon ['aɾɣugon]
perfect: arghutan
v. V-fin. to hunt
  • arghurys ['aɾɣuɾys]
n. 2sol. hunter ( < arghugon + -tys with rhotacism of the t)[15]
  • ārilla [aː'ɾilla]
n. 1aq°. beer (includes -illa.)
Skoriot ñuhor ārilla issa? — Where is my beer?
  • arlie ['aɾli͡e]
adj. III new '
Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. — By the Old Gods and the New.
  • arlī ['aɾliː]
adv. back, again(?) (lit. anew, < arlie + . Cf. ar-.)
Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. — If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.
  • arliñagon [aɾli'ɲagon]
v. C-fin. to change intrans.[16] ( < arlie + -ñagon.)
  • arlinio ['aɾlini͡o]
n. 3lun. one who changes, becomes different[16] ( < arliñagon + -io.)
  • arlinnon [aɾ'linnon]
n. 3ter. change[16] ( < arliñagon + -non.)
  • asikagon [asi'kagon]
perfect: sittan
v. Insv. C-fin. to give rebirth to, to bear again ( < a- + sikagon.)
Hen perzȳ vȳs amazverdagon asittaks. — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world.[10]
  • Astapor ['astapor]
n. 3aq. Astapor.
  • atroksia [a'troksi͡a]
n. 1lun. owl[17]
Konys hontes atroksia issa. — That bird is an owl.
  • ātsio ['aːtsi͡o]
n. 3lun tooth
  • averilla [ave'ɾilla]
n. 1aq°.[18] wine,[19] ( < avero grape + -illa.)[20]
com. averilloma used as adjective meaning drunk, tipsy.
Averilloma voktys daoriot istas. — The drunk priest went nowhere.
  • avero [a'veɾo]
n. 3lun. grape[21]
Avera ñuhȳ relgot eman. — I have the grapes in my mouth.
  • azandy [a'zandy]
n. 2lun. short sword
  • azantyr [a'zantyr]
n. 6col.2sol. army. (Relexicalized collective from azantys)
  • azantys [a'zantys]
n. 2sol. knight, soldier, warrior, swordsman, swords-woman ( < azandy + -tys.)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

B

  • baelagon ['baɛ̯lagon]
perfect: beldan
v. C-fin.. to help →loc.
Taoba ñuhȳ botē baelza. — The boy is helping my work.
with inf.
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[8]
  • baes [baɛ̯s]
n. 3sol summit.
  • bāne ['baːne] -ior
adj. II warm
  • bāngagon ['baːngagon]
v. C-fin. To bake
Skorio syt kesī krēga bāngā? — Why are you baking these beets?
  • bantāzma [ban'taːzma]
n. 1lun. long night ( < bantis + -āzma)
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[9]
  • bantis ['bantis]
n. 5sol. night
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors[22]
Bosys bantis amāzis, se morghor zijomy amāzis. — The long night is coming, and the dead come with it.[8]
  • bardugon ['baɾdugon]
perfect: bardutan
v. V-fin. to write.
  • *baririon [ba'ɾiɾi͡on]
n. 3ter? demonstrative pronoun (apparently a substantivized pariciple, possibly of *baragon cf. ozbaragon to brand.)
  • bartos ['baɾtos]
n. 3sol. head
Sparo bartos konys issa? — Whose head is that?
  • [beː]
postp.→gen. on, on top of, upon; on (the subject of), about
  • bēgor [beːgor]
n. 3aq. trout
Dāro kēla sȳriar bēgor ipradis. — The king's cats are eating a good trout.
  • belmon ['belmon]
n. 3ter. chain.
Urnet luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! — Strike the chains off every slave you see!
coll. belmor bondage
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[9]
  • belmuragon [belmu'ɾagon]
v. C-fin. to chain up, to enslave ( < belmon + -uragon.)
Ñuhi zaldrīzī belmurzi! — They are chaining up my dragons!
  • belmurtys [bel'muɾtys]
n. 2sol.[18] slave master, slaver ( < belmuragon + -tys.)[23]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna — Tell the slavers I will receive them here
  • beqes ['beqes]
n. 4sol. sow, female pig
  • bēuvāedagon [beːu'vaːɛ̯dagon]
v. Loc. appl. to sing about (or upon) [24] ( < bē- + u- + vāedagon )
  • bēvilagon [beːviˈlagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to be necessary; bēvilza it is necessary +gen for... +inf. to... ( literally to lie upon, < bē- + u- + ilagon.)
Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. — If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.
  • bianor [ˈbi͡anor] biādr-
n. 3aq. ewe, female sheep[25]
Gevie riña biādrot zoklākos. — The beautiful girl is enticing a sheep.
  • biare [ˈbi͡aɾe]
adj. II fortunate, lucky, happy
Biarior Arlior Jēdari! — Happy New Year!
  • biarves [ˈbi͡aɾves]
n. 4sol. happiness, jubilation, luck, fortune[26] ( < biare + -ves.)
biarvī manaeragon to celebrate.
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • bībagon [ˈbiːbagon]
v. C-fin. to suck
  • bēvumbagon [beːˈvumbagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to float (lit. to remain above, < bē- + u- + umbagon.)
  • bisa ['bisa] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I this proximal, animate
Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. — These men are our guests.
  • bisir ['bisir]
dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entitites
  • bisy ['bisy]
dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, animate, for concrete, countable entities
  • blēnon ['bleːnon]
n. 3ter. mountain
  • bode ['bode]
n. 5lun. tail
  • bona ['bona] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I that distal, animate
  • bonir ['bonir]
dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entities
  • bony ['bony]
dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, animate, for concrete, countable entities
  • bōsa ['boːsa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I long either temporally or spatially, tall
Ñuha muña bōsi azanti jorrāelza. — My mother loves a tall knight.
  • botagon [bo'tagon]
v. C-fin. to suffer →inst., the thing suffered
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
to endure
Valar botis — All men must endure[27]
to permit
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[9]
to work
Sparos kesīr botas? — Who is working here?
  • botes ['botes]
n. 4sol. work (cf. botagon)
Taoba ñuhȳ botē baelza. — The boy is helping my work.
  • brāedāzma [braːɛ̯ˈdaːzma]
n. 1lun. bronze ( < brāedion + -āzma.)
  • brāedion [ˈbraːɛ̯di͡on]
n. 3ter. copper
  • Brāvos ['braːvos]
n. 3sol. Braavos
Brāvo valot kesi tepās. — Give this to a man of Braavos.
  • brōzagon [ˈbroːzagon]
perfect: brōstan
v. C-fin. to name →acc. recipient, →inst. name. ( < brōzi.)
Melisandrose brōziks. — I am called Melisandre.[8]
Figuratively
Avy ñuhom azantomy brōzan. — I name you my knight.
In the reflexive to call oneself, to be named
Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? — What are your names?
  • brōzi [ˈbroːzi]
n. 5lun. name ( < brōzi.)
  • bughegon [buˈɣegon]
v. V-fin. to swim
  • buzdari [buz'daɾi], buzdar [buz'dar]
n. 6for. slave ( < AV buzdar < Ghiscari.)
Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. — A dragon is not a slave.
  • byka ['byka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I small
Kesa gelte byka issa. — This helmet is small.
  • byllie ['bylli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III sixth
  • bȳre ['byːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II six.
  • bȳrēpsa [byː'ɾeːpsa] indec.
num. sixty.
  • bȳrīblie [byː'ɾiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III sixtieth

D

  • dāeremagon [daːɛ̯ɾe'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to free ( < dāez + -emagon.)
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • dāerī ['daːɛ̯ɾiː]
adv. freely ( < dāez + .)
Averilloma voktys dāri dāerī ȳdratas. — The drunk priest spoke freely to the king.
  • dāerves ['daːɛ̯ɾves]
n. 4sol. freedom. ( < dāez + -ves.)
Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. — Your freedom is not mine to give.
  • dāez [daːɛ̯z] dāerior
adj. II free.
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • dakogon [da'kogon]
v. V-fin. to run[28]
  • daomio ['daɔ̯mi͡o]
n 3lun. rain. coll. daomior.
Kastāmiro Damior — The Rains of Castamere
  • daor [daɔ̯r], [da'or]
adv. not, intj. no.
  • daoriot ['daɔ̯ɾi͡ot]
indef.pron. adv. nowhere; '
Averilloma voktys daoriot istas. — The drunk priest went nowhere.
daoriot jemas' it doesn't matter, lit. it leads nowhere.
  • daorun ['daɔ̯ɾun]
indef.pron. 6pauc.3ter nothing
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis, iā daoruni jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me, or they may have told you nothing.
  • daorys ['daɔ̯ɾys]
indef.pron. 2sol. no one
daorys ziry ōdrikilza. — no one will harm him.
  • dāria ['daːɾi͡a]
n. 1lun. queen.[29]
Mīrīno Dāria — Queen of Meereen [30]
  • dārilaros [daːɾi'laɾos]
n. 3sol. heir to the throne, crown prince, crown princess ( < the dār- root seen in the dārys family of words, plus the substantivized future participle ending -ilaros, as if from a verb *dāragon. However, no such verb exists in the classical language, and it is uncertain if there ever was one.):
Kivio Dārilaros The Prince That Was Promised
Meri kīvio dārilaros ōz maghagon kostas. — Only the prince who was promised can bring the dawn.[8]
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[31]
  • Dārio ['daːɾi͡o]
n. 3aq. Daario (cf. dārys.)
Daor, bisy arlie Dārio issa. — No, this is the new Daario.
  • dārion ['daːɾi͡on]
n. 3ter. kingdom.
Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero. — the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros.
  • dārōñe [daː'ɾoːɲe]
adj. II royal[32] ( < dārys + -ōñe.)
  • dārys ['daːɾys]
n. 2sol. king.
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light
  • davābagon [da'vaːbagon]
v. C-fin. to rain. [33] (an -ābagon formation off a root *dav-, perh. primordially related to daomio, rain.)
  • dēmagon ['deːmagon]
perfect: dēmatan
v. V-fin. to sit
Kēli Davidȳ dēmas. — The cat sits on David.[34]
  • dēmalion ['deːmali͡on]
n. 3ter. throne ( < dēma- + -lion.)
Tymptir Dēmalȳti — A Game of Thrones[35]
Āegenkon Dēmalion vale tēmas. — The Iron Throne pokes the man.
  • deks [deks]
n. 3sol. foot
Aōhys zentys gevī dekossa ēza. — Your guest has beautiful feet.
  • dekuragon [deku'ɾagon]
v. C-fin. to step.[36] ( < deks + -uragon.)
  • dekurūbagon [deku'ɾuːbagon]
v. C-fin. to walk. ( < dekur- + -ēbagon.)
  • derēbagon [de'ɾeːbagon]
perfect: derēptan
v. C-fin. to gather. ( < *der- + -ēbagon. There is probably a verb *deragon which means something like to take. Cf. AV mazedhas derari he was taken.)
Vala Aero syt rōbra derēbza. — The man collects figs for Aerys.
  • dobotēdāves [doboteː'daːves]
n. 4sol. ignorance[37] (speculatively from < do- + botagon + -ēda + -ves lit. the quality of not having been made to endure or suffer something.)
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism[38]
  • dohaeragon [do'haɛ̯ɾagon]
perfect: dohaertan
v. C-fin. to serve. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlis
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.[39]
Dohaeriakson raqan. — I like to be served.[40]
  • dohaeriros [do'haɛ̯ɾiɾos]
n. 3sol. slave (substantivized aorist participle of dohaeragon.)
Dārys rybis sepār dohaeriros rybis — He hears the king as he hears the slave
  • dohaertros [do'haɛ̯ɾtros]
n. 3sol. one who was previously a slave (Past habitual active participle of dohaeragon.)
Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri. — Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.
  • dīnagon ['diːnagon]
perfect: dīntan
v. to put something that naturally goes on, about or in something else in that thing e.g. a cap on a bottle, a sword in a scabbard, a helmet on a head, but not a sword on a table.[41]
in pass., →com. to marry[4]
Ao ynoma dīnilūks? — Will you marry me?
ozdakonot dīnagon put to flight, chase away.
Sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr ozdakonot ziry dīntis. — Those who love the darkness chased her away.[9]
  • dōna ['doːna]
adj. I. sweet[42]
  • dōre ['doːɾe] -ior
adj. II no
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
Yn dōre vala iksan. — But I am no man.[43]
  • dōrī ['doːɾī]
indef.pron. adv. never
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • dorolvie [do'ɾolvi͡e] -ior
adj. III not much, few ( < dor- + olvie)
  • dōrenka [doː'ɾeŋka]
adj. I made of stone ( < dōron + -enka.)
  • dōrenky [doː'ɾeŋky]
adj. I stoney one; Stone Man i.e. a person in the late stages of the Grey Plague. (Subst. of dōrenka.)
He hears the Stone Men in their misery… — mundari dorenki rybis…
  • dōron ['doːɾon]
n. 3ter. stone
  • dōros ['doːɾos]
n. 3sol. wall ( < dōron.)
  • dorzalty [doɾ'zalty]
n. 2lun. The Unburnt (Substantivized form of *dorzalta unburnt < do- + zalta.)
Daenerys Targarien, Jelmāzmo, Dorzalty, Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero, Muña Zaldrīzoti. — Daenerys Targaryen, the Stormborn, the Unburnt, the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros, the Mother of Dragons.
  • Dothraki ['doθraki]
n. 6for. Dothraki
Daenerys ampa pyrī Dothrakoti ēza. — Daenerys has ten thousand Dothraki.
  • dovaogēdy [dovaɔ̯'geːdy]
n. 2lun. an Unsullied. Col. Dovaogēdyr the Unsullied as a group. (Substantivized form of *dovaogēda unsullied < do- + vaogēda, perf.part. of vaogemagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • drakarys [dra'kaɾys]
n. 2sol. dragon-fire.
  • drāñe ['draːɲe]
adj. II wide
  • drēje ['dreːje]
adj. II true, correct.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
  • drējī ['dreːjī]
adv. truly; very ( < drēje + .)
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
Drējī kirine arlī iksan. — I am really happy again.
  • drīves ['driːves]
n. 4sol. truth (poss. drēje + -ves.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[44]
drīvose actually, in fact, in truth, drīvose daor actually not, actually no
Drīvose azantys ābra issa. — Actually the knight is a woman.
  • drogon ['drogon]
n. 3ter. Drogon
  • drōmon ['droːmon]
n. 3ter. egg
Drōmon nektō? — Are you slicing an egg?
  • dubāzma [du'baːzma]
n. 1lun. cousin by father's sister or mother's brother, cross cousin[45].
Daor, bony ñuha dubāzma issa. — No, that one is my couisn.
  • dubys ['dubys]
n. 2sol. sibling; cousin by father's brother or mother's sister, parallel cousin[45].
Aōhys dubys gevie issa! — Your sibling is beautiful!
  • dȳñes ['dyːɲes]
4sol. animal
Dȳñer raqiror issa. — All animals are friends.[46]

E

  • ēbrion ['eːbri͡on]
n. 3ter. night sky[32]
  • ēdrugon ['eːdrugon]
perfect: ēdrutan
v. V-fin. to sleep
Valar Ēdrussis — All Men Must Sleep
  • eglie ['egli͡e] -ior
adj. III high
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • egros ['egros]
n. 3sol. edge; blade; sword (cf. egry.)
  • egry ['egry]
n. 2lun. knife, razor (cf. egros.)
Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. — The man splits the fig with a knife.
  • eleks ['eleks]
n. 3sol. ear
Muña taobe elekot ondurtas. — The mother grabbed the boy by his ear.
  • elēnar [e'leːnar]
n. 1aq? tide[47] (cf. elēni perh. the semantic connection is rhythm?)
  • elēni [e'leːni]
n. 5lun. voice;[48] music[49] (cf. elēnar.)
Āeksio Oño elēni jeve rybis. — The Lord of Light hears your voice.
  • ēlie ['eːli͡e] -ior
adj. III first; primary
  • ēlī ['eːliː]
adv. first
Sparos ēlī morghūlilza? — Who will die first?[50]
  • elilla [e'lilla]
n. 1aq°. honey (includes -illa.)
Havon elillē emi. — We have bread and honey.
  • emagon [e'magon]
perfect: ēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to have. 3s. pres. act. ind. ēza, 3pl. ēzi, imperfect emilen, emiles, etc.)
  • embar ['embar]
n. 1aq. sea. Col. embrar "the sea(s)", in a more figurative sense[51]
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • embāzma [em'baːzma]
n. 1lun. great sea perh. in some sort of metaphorical sense? Parmenko Embāzmā The Great Grass Sea of the Dothraki ( < embar + -āzma.)
Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi — Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea
  • embōñe [em'boːƞe] -or
adj. II aquatic ( < embar + -ōñe.); embōñe kēli sea otter.[52]
  • endia ['endi͡a]
n. 1lun. west (cf. endie, western)[53]
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[54]
  • endie ['endi͡e] -ior
adj. III western (adj. formation off of endia.)
  • ēngenka [eːŋ'genka]
adj. I tasty, good (ēngos + -enka)
Ēngenkor elille emā? — Do you have good honey?
  • ēngītsos ['eːŋgiːtsos]
n. 3sol. little tongue[55] ( < ēngos + -ītsos.)
  • ēngos ['eːŋgos]
n. 3sol. tongue; language. Muño ēngos "mother tongue." Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue.
Valyrio muño ēngos ñuhys issa. — Valyrian is my mother tongue.
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
com. ēngoso used as an adjective meaning talkative, chatty.
Bony ēngoso taoba issa! — That one is a chatty boy!
  • enkagon ['eŋkagon]
v. C-fin. to owe +inst: the thing owed; +acc: the person to whom it is owed.
Dāervose jevosy yne enkot daor. — You do not owe me your freedom.
  • epagon [e'pagon]
perfect: eptan
v. C-fin. to ask somebody→dat. a question→acc.
Ynot mirros epās! — Ask me something![56]
of somebody→dat. a favor→acc.
Skoros ynot epilū? — What would you ask of me?
Obl. appl. iepagon (less correctly jepagon) "to ask for" something→acc., of someone→dat.
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • epses ['epses]
4sol. female goat, nanny goat
  • ērinagon [eːri'nagon]
v. C-fin. to win[4]
Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. — When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
  • ērinnon ['eːrinnon]
n. 3ter. victory[57] ( < ērinagon + -non.)
  • ezīmagon [e'ziːmagon]
v. C-fin. to split. with va +dat into...
Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. — The man splits the fig with a knife.
Insv. hezīmagon.

G

  • gadbagi ['gadbagi], gadbag ['gadbag]
n. 6for.lun. slave name ( < AV gadbag < Ghiscari.)
Gadbag aōhe qrīdrughās. — Throw away your slave name.
  • gallie ['galli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III hundredth.
  • galry ['galry]]
n. 2lun. hammer
  • gaomagon ['gaɔ̯magon]
perfect: gōntan
v. C-fin. to do; →dat. & inf. allow.
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • gaomilaksir [gaɔ̯mi'laksir]
n. 5aq mission (substantivized fut.pass.part. of gaomagon, lit. that which is to be done.)
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • gaomon ['gaɔ̯mon]
n. 3ter deed
Se dāeri vali pōntalo syt gaomoti iderēbzi. — And free men make their own choices.
  • gār [gaːr] indec.
num. hundred.
  • gēlenka [geː'leŋko] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I silver-colored; silver-like,[58] ( < gēlion + -enka.)
  • gēlion ['geːli͡on]
n. 3ter. silver.
  • gēlior ['geːli͡or]
n. 6col.3ter. money (relex. col. of gēlion silver.)
Gēlȳndi aōt tepagon jaelas. — He wants to give you money.[9]
  • gelte ['gelte]
n. 4lun[18] helmet.
Geltī aōhe nādīnās. — Remove your helmet.
  • gēlȳn ['geːlyːn]
n. 6pauc.3ter. debt[4] (relex. pauc. of gēlion silver.)
Lannister va moriot zȳha gēlȳnī addemmis. — A Lannister always pays his debts.
  • genes ['genes]
n. 4sol. mouse, rat
  • geptot ['geptot]
adv. left
Mittyssy geptot ilzi se voktyssy paktot. — There are fools to the left, and priests to te right.
  • geralbar [ge'ɾalbar]
n. 1aq road ( < geron (etc.) + -albar.)
  • geron ['geɾon]
n. 3ter. walk.
Qilōnario Geron. — Walk of Punishment.
  • geros ilas ['geɾos 'ilas]
exp. good bye.[59]
  • gerpa ['geɾpa]
n. 1lun. fruit, piece of fruit; more generally the edible part of a plant.
  • gevī ['geviː]
adv. beautifully ( < gevia + .)
Gevī ȳdrā, azantys! — You speak beautifully, knight!
  • gevie ['gevi͡e]
adj. III. beautiful[60]
  • gevives [ge'vives]
n. 4sol. beauty[61] ( < gevie + -ves.)
  • Ghīs [ɣiːs]
n. 3sol. Ghis
Valyri Ghīs idakotis. — The Valyrians attacked Ghis.
  • Ghīska ['ɣiːska]
adj. I Ghiscari
Mīrīn, Astapor, Junkāe Ghīska oktia issi. — Meereen, Astapor, and Yunkai are Ghiscari cities.
Ghīski āeksia Daenero zaldrīzī sindigon sylutis. — The Ghiscari masters tried to buy Daenerys' dragons.
  • gīda ['giːda]
adj. I. equal, even[37]; steady, by extension calm[62].
…iēdrosa gīdāpa. — …calm as still water.
  • giēñagon ['gi͡eːɲagon]
v. C-fin.' to heal (intransitive), to be healed (perh. giez + -ēñagon.)
Insv. zgiēñagon to heal of wounds etc. as opposed to people.
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • giēñilaros [gi͡eːɲi'laɾos]
n. 3sol. One Who is Not Yet Healed, a term used in Astapor for Unsullied in training (substantivized future participle of giēñagon. AV ginilaro.)
  • giez [gi͡ez] gier-
adj. II whole
  • gīmigon ['giːmigon]
v. V-fin. to know, to know how
Kesir gīmī. — You know this
Daoruni gīmī, Ionos Sōnaro. — You know nothing, Jon Snow.
Gīmissiks. — It is known.[63]
  • gīs ['giːs] gīh-
n. 3sol.[64] soul.
Zȳhys ōñoso jehikagon Āeksiot epi, se gīs hen sȳndrorro jemagon. — We ask the Lord to shine his light, and lead a soul out of darkness.
  • glaesagon ['glaɛ̯sagon]
v. C-fin. to live; used with adv. to describe state of well-being: Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?, Syrī glaesan I'm good.[63]:
  • glaeson ['glaɛ̯son]
n. 3ter. life. Col. glaesor life (slightly more abstract)[2]
Keso glaesot iderēptot daor. — You did not choose this life.
  • [goː]
postp.→gen. under, beneath, below; before
adv. under, beneath, below; before
Skoriot daorys gō istas nēdenkirī jagon. — To boldly go where no one has gone before.[65]
  • gōvilagon [goːvi'lagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to lie below →acc. ( < gō- + u- + ilagon.)
...rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — ... with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • gōvilemagon [goːvile'magon]
v to put under ( < gō- + u- + ilagon + -emagon.)
Daenerys zȳhi byki zaldrīzī qurdot gōvilēza. — Daenerys is putting her little dragon under the table.
  • grēges ['greːges]
n. 4sol. louse.
  • grevenka [greˈveŋka] -ys -on -or
adj. I round ( < grevy + -enka.)
  • grevion [ˈgrevi͡on]
n. 3ter. waist, circumference (cf. grevy.)
  • grevy [ˈgrevy]
n. 2lun. wheel[66]
  • gryves ['gryves]
n. 4sol. bear.
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • guēse ['gu͡eːse]
n. 4lun. tree
  • guēsin ['gu͡eːsin]
n. 6pauc.4lun. forest (pauc. of guēse.)
  • gūrēñagon [guː'ɾeːɲagon]
perfect: gūrēntan
v. C-fin. to learn (perh.gūrogon + -ēñagon.)
Valar gūrēñis — All men must learn[67]
  • gūrogon ['guːɾogon]
perfect: gūrotan
v. V-fin. to take[4]; in the reflexive to earn, merit, deserve
Ñuhor līr gūrēnna. — I will take what is mine.[4]
  • gūrotrir ['guːɾotrir]
n. 6col.5aq. that which one has earned, that which one deserves, one's due, just deserts (col. subst. perf. part. of gūrogon.)
Se jevo qrinuntoti pōjor gūrotriri maghan. — And I bring your enemies what they deserve.
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]

H

  • hae [haɛ̯]
prep.→loc. as, like.
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • hāedar ['haːɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. younger sister; younger female cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[45].
Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. — All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.
Ñuhor haedri renīs se nykēla avy ossēninna! — Touch my sister and I'll kill you myself![68]
  • hakogon ['hakogon]
v. V-fin. to pull
  • hāre ['haːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II three
  • hārēpsa [haː'ɾeːpsa] indec.
num. thirty
  • hārīblie [haː'ɾiːbli͡e]
num. adj. III thirtieth
  • harrenka [har'renka]
adj. I appropriate, suitable, appropriately sized, suitably sized, the right size
Ñuhys zaldrīzes harrenkys issa. — My dragon is the right size.
  • havon ['havon]
n. 3ter bread.[69]
Havon sīr ipradakson kostas. — The bread can now be eaten.[40]
  • havor [ˈhavoɾ]
n. 6col.3ter. food (relex. col. of havon bread.)
  • hēdrȳ ['heːdryː]
postp.→gen. from amongst (prob. hen + , with nasal deletion.)
Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ. — You will select a leader, from amongst your own ranks.
  • hēdys ['heːdys]
n. 2sol. butcher (hegagon + -tys.)
Issa, aōho hēdo taobe sēntan! — Yes, I killed your butcher's boy!
  • hegagon [he'gagon]
v. C-fin. to slaughter.
  • hegnīr ['hegniːr]
adv. like that, in that way (seemingly from hae konīr.)
Issa, drīvose hegnīr ēdrus. — Yes, she is actually sleeping like that.
conj. →subj. so that
Gēlȳndi aōt tepagon jaelas, hegnīr aōhys rūs ipradagon kostos. — He only wants to give you money, so your baby can eat.[9]
  • heksīr ['heksi:r]
adv. like this, in this way (seemingly from hae kesīr.)
Issa, heksīr ipradan. — Yes, I am eating like this.
  • hembar ['hembar]
adv. next ( < pār, presumably with hen).
Hembar Yunkaihot istan. — Next I went to Yunkai.
  • hen [hen]
prep.→loc. from, of; →dat. out of; because of, on account of, thanks to
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
  • hēnka ['heːŋka]
adj. I same
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • hēnkirī ['heːŋkiɾiː]
adv. together ( < hēnka + .)
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
'adv. in kind
Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. — All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.
  • henujagon [henu'jagon]
perfect: hembistan
v. Loc. appl. irreg. to exit, to leave. ( < hen- + u- + jagon.)
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • hepnon ['hepnon]
n. 3ter. climb. (< unattested *hep- to climb + -non.)
Hepnon. — The Climb.
  • hepvos ['hepvos]
n. 3sol. ladder.[70] (< unattested *hep- to climb + *-vos, presumably some sort of instrument-forming suffix.)
Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. — Chaos is a ladder.
  • hezīmagon [he'ziːmagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to split, used with instrumental subjects ( < a- + ezīmagon.)
(Valo ondoso) rōbir egry hezīmza. — The knife (of the man) splits the fig.
(Egromy) rōbir hezīmaks. — The fig is split (with a knife).
  • hēzīr ['heːziːr]
adv. henceforth, from now on ( < hen + sīr with nasal deletion.)
Hēzīr, brōza jevi jemēle iderēbilātās. — From this day forward, you will choose your own names.
  • hīghagon [ˈhiːɣagon]
v. to scream[71]
... se avy ōdrikosy lī hīghari morghūlilzi. — ... and those who would harm you will die screaming.
  • hīlagon [ˈhiːlagon]
v. C-fin. to hit
  • hontes ['hontes]
n. 4sol. bird.
Issa, ñuhys raqiros hontes issa. — Yes, my friend is a bird.
  • hobres ['hobres]
n. 4sol. male goat, billy goat.
kastys hobresse — “blue goats”.
  • hoskagon ['hoskagon]
v. to make proud (perh. hōzigon + -kagon.)
... iderēbās. Avy hoskas lue brōzi. — Choose... A name that gives you pride.
  • hōzigon ['hoːzigon]
v. V-fin. to swell
  • hubon ['hubon]
3ter. rope
  • hunes ['hunes]
n. 4sol. rabbit
  • hūra ['huːɾa]
n. 1lun. moon
Ñuho glaeso hūrus. — Moon of my life.[63]
  • hūrenka [huː'ɾeŋka] -ys -on -or
adj. I lunar ( < hūra + -enka.)
hūrenkon qogror. — “lunar class”.[72]

I

  • ['i͡aː]
conj. or
  • iāragon ['i͡aːɾagon]
v. C-fin. to flow
  • iāpa ['i͡aːpa]
n. 1lun. mother's older brother, maternal uncle older than mother[45].
Dārys ñuhe iāpe iotāptes. — The king respects my uncle.
  • iāpanna [i͡aː'panna]
n. 1lun. mother's older brother's child, cousin by maternal uncle older than mother[45].
Viserys Daenero lēkia iāpannā issa. — Viserys is Daenerys's older brother and cousin.
  • īby ['iːby]
2lun. bone
  • idakogon [ida'kogon]
perfect: idakotan
v. V-fin. to attack may only be used with a direct object ( < i- + dakogon.)
Bone vale idakōs! — Attack that man!
  • idaña [i'daɲa]
n. 1lun. twin (cf. idañe.)
Voktys idañī izūgas. — The priest is afraid of the twins.
  • idañe [i'daɲe] -or
adj. II fellow (cf. idaña.)
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • iderēbagon [ide'ɾeːbagon]
perfect: iderēptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to chose, select. +dat: the thing selected, +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive) ( < i- + derēbagon.)
Vala rōbrȳti Aeri iderēbza. — The man selects figs for Aerys.
Aeri iderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for.
Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. — Pick a god and pray.[73]
  • iderennon [ide'ɾennon]
n. 3ter choice ( < iderēb- + -non.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • *iderenne, -s, -n ?
n. 4? trial[4]
Vīlībāzmosa iderennī emilun. — I would like a trial by combat.
  • iēdar ['i͡eːdar]
n. 1aq. water
Ñuha lēkia jūlor iēdrī mōzus. — My brother is drinking milk and water.
col. iēdrar poetic for sea
  • iemny ['i͡emny]
n. 2lun. stomach
Dāro iemny rōva issa. — The king's stomach is large.
  • iemnȳ ['i͡emnyː]
postp.→gen. within more emphatic than using the bare locative. (loc. of iemny stomach.)
Jēdar yno toliot. Tegon yno gō. Perzys yno iemnȳ. — Sky above me. Earth below me. Fire within me.[74]
  • ilagon [i'lagon]
v. C-fin. to lie, to be in a certain place.[75] Original meaning to lay straight preserved in expression geros ilas good bye, literally something like may the path lie straight. (cf. ilie straight.)
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[76]
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? — Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[9]
in the sense of there is, there are:
Zaldrīzes rihot ilza! — There is a dragon in the valley!
  • ilie [ˈili͡e]
adj. III straight (cf. ilagon to lie (straight)).
  • īlilion ['i:lili͡on]
n. 3ter crossroads (Perh. < ilagon + -lion, cf. īlinuragon)
Arlȳr īliliot ēdrun. — I am sleeping at the new crossroads.
  • īlinuragon [iːlinu'ɾagon]
perfect: īlinurtan
v. C-fin.? to crucify (Contains -uragon.)
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • ilīrigon [i'liːɾigon]
perfect: ilīritan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to smile upon →acc. ( < līrigon to smile)
Āeksio yne ilīritas. — The Lord has smiled upon me.
  • Illyrio [ilˈlyɾi͡o]
n. 3aq. Illyrio
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.
  • īlon ['iːlon]
pers.pron. we.
  • īlōnda [iː'loːnda]
refl. 1lun. ourselves
  • īlva ['iːlva] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I our
  • īlvon ['iːlvon]
poss.pron. 3ter. ours
  • ilzigon ['ilzigon]
perfect: ilzitan
v. V-fin. to throw
  • imāzigon [i'maːzigon]
perfect: imāstan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to attend an event. ( < i- + māzigon lit. to come for.)
Valar imāzissis. — All men must attend.[77]
  • imorghūljagon [imoɾ'ghuːʎagon]
perfect: imorghūltan
v. C-fin. to die for ( < i- + morghuljagon.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[78]
  • indigon ['indigon]
v. V-fin. to push
  • inkon ['iŋkon]
n. 3ter. back
Kēli ñuho inkot ilza. — There is a cat on my back.
  • inkot ['iŋkot] behind (the locative or dative case of inkon.)
Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri — Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.
Iōnos! Kostilus! Inkot jagon daor. — Jon! Please! Dont go back.
  • Iōnos ['i͡oːnos]
n. 3sol. Jonos, Jon a common name
Daoruni gīmī, Iōnos Sōnaro. — You know nothing, Jon Snow.
  • iotāptegon [i͡otaːptegon]
perfect: iotāptetan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to respect; to consider, to take into account; to consider the feelings of; to make plans taking into account the existence or importance of... ( < i- + otāp- +-tegon.)
  • iōragon ['i͡oːɾagon]
v. C-fin. to be standing, to stand.
perfect: iōrtan
  • iōrves ['i͡oːɾves]
n. 4sol. cold, coldness[79] ( < iosre + -ves.)
Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. — The cold never bothered me.
  • iosre ['i͡osre], ioje ['i͡oje],[80] -ior
adj. II cold
  • ipradagon [ipra'dagon]
perfect: iprattan[81]
v. C-fin. to eat (In origin the applicative of *pradagon, a verb of uncertain meaning, but in any case not reated to eating. It supplanted kisagon as the word for to eat. )[82]
Valar Ipradis... Valar Ipradiks — All Men Must Eat... All Men Must Be Eaten.[83]
  • irūdy [i'ɾuːdy]
n. 2lun. gift ( < irughagon.)
Va ñellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oño irudy. — Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.
Lo zȳhyz zaldrīzesse Āeksiō Ōñō irudy Daenerot issi, sepār Daenerys Āeksiō irudy riñarta zȳhot issa. — Just as her dragons are a gift from the Lord of Light to Daenerys, so then is Daenerys a gift from the Lord to her children.[10]
  • irughagon [iru'ɣagon]
perfect: irūdan
v. C-fin. to give mandatory with third person recipients, for first and second person tepagon is preferred.
  • issaros ['issaɾos]
n. 3sol person (prob. subst. pres.part. of sagon, lit. being.)
  • ivestragon [i'vestragon]
perfect: ivestretan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to tell, to say to ( < i- + vestragon.)
  • ivīlībagon [iviː'liːbagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < i- + vīlībagon to fight.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[78]
  • izūgagon [i'zuːgagon]
perfect: izūgdan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fear
Ñuhī zaldrīzī izūgilā. — You will fear my dragons.
  • izula [i'zula] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I four
  • izulēpsa [izu'leːpsa] indec.
num. forty
  • izulīblie [izu'liːbi͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fortieth
  • izunnie [i'zunni͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fourth

J

  • jaedos ['jaɛ̯dos]
n. 3sol. summer[84]
  • Jaedria ['jaɛ̯dri͡a]
prop. n. 1aq°. the Summer Isles usage unclear: it is not known wether this name is to be put in the the singular, plural, or even collective ( < jaedos + -ria.)
  • jaehio [jaɛ̯hi͡o]
n. 3lun goddess ( < jaeh- + -io.)
  • jaelagon ['jaɛ̯lagon]
perfect: jēldan
v. C-fin. to want, to wish
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • jaes [jaɛ̯s] jaeh-
n. 3sol god, deity (male or female)[85]
Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. — By the Old Gods and the New.
Jaehossas sȳris sātās — Gods be good![77]
  • jagon ['jagon]
perfect: istan
v. irreg. to go.
Sesīr īlot jagon! — Now let us go![86]
  • jāha ['jaːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I its, his, her
  • jāhon ['jaːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. its, his, hers
  • jāla ['jaːla]
refl. 1lun. itself, himself, herself
  • jaos [jaɔ̯s] jaoh-
n. 3sol. dog
Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi — The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[63]
  • Jaqen ['jaqen]
n. 6pauc. Jaqen (cf. jaqiarzir.)
Jaqen hen Lorathī iksos daor. — Jaqen is not from Lorath.
  • jaqiarza [ja'qi͡aɾza]
adj. I glorious (Aorist passive participle of unknown verb *jaqagon, perhaps from z- + raqagon.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[78]
  • jaqiarzir [ja'qi͡aɾzir]
n. 5aq. glory (Type 2 substantive of jaqiarza.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[78]
  • jazdan [jazdan]
n. 6for. harpy ( < AV jazdan < Ghiscari )[87]
  • jēda ['jeːdar]
n. 1lun. season, time.
  • jēdar ['jeːdar]
n. 1aq. sky (cf. jēda time and jēdar year. Possibly originally a collective, like lentor.)
col. jēdrar sky
  • jēdar ['jeːdar]
n. 6col.1aq. year (col. of jēda time.)
Biarior Arlior Jēdari! — Happy New Year!
  • jehikagon [jehiˈkagon]
perfect: jehittan
v. C-fin. to shine. With acc. to shine on, illuminate (perh. jaeh- + -ikagon?)
Āeksios, aōhos ōñoso īlōn jehikās. — Lord, cast your light upon us[22]
  • jehikarȳ [jehiˈkaɾyː]
postp.→gen. in the presence of ( < jehikarys.))
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[44]
  • jehikarys [jehiˈkaɾys]
n. 2sol. radiance, glow; presence ( < jehikagon.)
  • jēlēbagon [jeːˈleːbagon]
v. C-fin. to blow (from a root *jēl-, seen in jelmio etc., + -ēbagon.)
  • jelmāzma [jelˈmaːzma]
n. 1lun. storm. Gen. Jelmāzmo Stormborn. ( < jelmio + -āzma.)
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • jelmio ['jelmi͡o]
n. 3lun. wind. Coll. jelmior ['jelmi͡or] wind collectively,[88] weather.[84] (cf. jēlēbagon)
Udra jelmior issi. — Words are wind.
  • jelmōñe [jel'moːɳe] -or
adj. III. northern ( < jelmor + -ōñe.)[89]
  • jelmor ['jelmor]
n. 3aq. north (related to jelmio.)[89]
Jelmor rūnis. — The North remembers[90]
  • jemagon [jeˈmagon]
perfect: jentan
v. to lead someone →acc., from something →acc(?), to something →dat?loc?; daoriot jemas it doesn't matter, lit. it leads nowhere. (possibly in origin i- + emagon, but this is uncertain, and in any case the verb conjugates regularly)
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • jemēla [je'meːla]
refl. 1lun. ourselves
  • jeme ['jeme]
pers.pron. you (plur.).
  • jepagon see epagon.
  • jenenka [je'neŋka]
adj. I made of glass (contains -enka.)[91]
  • jenigon [je'nigon]
v. V-fin.? to bother[79]
Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. — The cold never bothered me.
  • jention ['jenti͡on]
n. 3ter. leadership. ( < jemagon.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • jentys ['jentys]
n. 2sol. leader, ruler, commander. ( < jemagon.)
Jentys Dovaogēdyro syt iksā. — You are the leader of the Unsullied.
  • jēnqa ['jeːɴqa] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I eight
  • jēnqelie ['jeːɴqeli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III eighth
  • jēnqēpsa [jeːɴ'qeːpsa] indec.
num. eighty
  • jēnqīblie [jeːɴ'qiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III eightieth
  • jeson ['jeson]
n. 3ter. dust
  • jeva ['jeva] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I your (pl.)
  • jevon ['jevon]
poss.pron. 3ter. yours (pl.)
  • jikagon [ji'kagon]
perfect: jittan
v. to send (prob. jagon + -kagon.)
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
Āeksio Oño jemot Muñe Zaldrīzoti jittas. — The Lord of Light sent the Mother of Dragons to you.[9]
  • jiōragon ['ji͡oːɾagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin.? to receive (at least in the sense of receiving a guest) ( < i- + iōragon to stand)[92]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
with va →dat. to welcome to...
Va Mīrīnot jemī jiōran. — Welcome to Meereen.
in the imperfect passive to be welcome.
Kesīr drējī jiorilaks. — You are very welcome here.[8]
  • jiōrnon ['ji͡oːɾnon]
n. 3ter. a welcome in acc. pl. excl. welcome! ( < jiōragon + -non.)
  • jogeltigon [jo'geltigon]
v. C-fin. to silence (prob. contains jo-.)
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
  • johegagon [johe'gagon]
v. C-fin. to continue to slaughter ( < jo- + *hegagon to slaughter.)
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • jollōragon [jol'loːragon]
perfect: jollōrtan
v. C-fin. to study +dat.?[93] ( < jor- + lōragon to drill, to bore).[93]
Issarori jollōris lua riña. — A girl who studies people.[94]
  • jomīsagon [jo'miːsagon]
perfect: jomīstan
v. C-fin.. to wear armor on →acc. the person or body part, →inst. the equipment ( < jo- + mīsagon.)
Bonys azantys geltose jomīsos daor. — That knight is not wearing a helmet.
  • jomōzugon [jo'moːzugon]
v. V-fin. to continue to get drunk ( < jo- + mōzugon to drink.)
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • jorepagon [joɾe'pagon]
v. C-fin. to pray (< jor- + epagon.)
Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. — Pick a god and pray.[73]
→gen. to pray to, to beg
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[64]
  • jorepnon [joɾe'pnon]
n. 3ter. prayer ( < jorepagon + -non.)
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • jorhakoɡon [jor̥a'koɡon][95]
v. V-fin. to wring ondossa jorhakogon to wring one's hands ( < jor- + hakogon to pull)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[9]
  • jorrāelagon [jor'raːɛ̯lagon]
perfect: jorrāeltan
v. C-fin. to hold dear, to love; to need [96]( < jo- + rāelagon.)
Muñus jorrāeliarzus: Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — Dearest Mother: So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • jūlor ['juːlor]
n. 3aq. milk
Aōhor jūlor mōzun. — I am drinking your milk.
  • jumbagon [ˈjumbagon]
perfect: jumptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to wait for ( < i + umbagon.)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[9]
  • Junkae, Yunkai ['juŋkaɛ̯] gen. Junkaeho
n. ter° Yunkai ( < Ghiscari)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • jurnegon ['juɾnegon]
perfect: jūndan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to look at, regard[97] ( < i- + urnegon.)

K

  • kaerīnio [kaɛ̯'ɾiːni͡o]
n. 3lun. savior (prob. *kaerīñagon + -io.)
Jemot kaerīnio jittas! — He has sent you a savior!
  • kaerīnnon [kaɛ̯'ɾiːnnon]
n. 3ter. salvation (prob. *kaerīñagon + -non.)
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt? — Will you fight for your own salvation?[9]
  • kasta ['kasta] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I blue, green
  • kēli ['keːli]
n. 5lun. cat, pauc. kēlin herd of cats[63]; qelbōñe kēli river otter; embōñe kēli sea otter.
Kēlir morghūlis — All cats must die.[98]
  • keligon [ke'ligon]
perfect: kelitan
v. V-fin. to stop, to come to a stop. Generally used intransitively, except in the perfect passive participle: keliton ended.
Dovaogēdys .... Kelītīs. — Unsullied .... Halt.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
  • kēlio ['keːli͡o]
n. 3lun. lion[28] ( < kēli + -io.)
Azantys kēlio rȳbas. — The knight hears the lion.
  • kēlītsos [keː'liːtsos]
n. 3sol. little cat[99] ( < kēli + -ītsos.)
  • kempa ['kempa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I heavy
  • kepa ['kepa]
n. 1lun. father; father's brother, paternal uncle[45].
riño kepa — the girl's father[63]
Kepo Tubis Biare — Happy Father's Day[100]
  • kesa ['kesa] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I this proximal, inanimate
Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. — You should not have these powers.
  • kesir ['kesir]
dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entitites, "this place."
Kesir gīmī. — You know this
Kesir sepār īlza — This too shall pass[101]
kesrio syt because, for; on account of this.
  • kesīr ['kesiːr]
dem.pron. adv. here (loc. of kesir.)
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here.
  • kesy ['kesy]
dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entities
  • keskydoso [kesky'doso]
adv. in the same way, likewise. ( < demonstrative kes- + -kydoso.)
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • kessa ['kessa]
intj. yes[4] (3s fut.act.ind. of sagon.[102])
  • khal [xal],[103] khali ['xali]
n. 6for Khal, title used for the leader of a Dothraki horde ( < Doth. khal.)
  • khalēsi [xaˈleːsi][104]
n. 6for Khaleesi, Dothraki queen, wife of a khal ( < Doth. khaleesi.)
Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi — Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea
  • kiōs [ki͡oːs]
n. 3sol.[18] spring[84]
v. to ride
Sesīr kipi. — And now we ride.[106]
  • kisagon [ki'sagon]
v. obsolete word for to eat. Word persists in Classical High Valyrian, but with a different meaning, not yet known.
  • kisalbar [ki'salbar]
n. 1aq. feast, (contains -albar (cf. geralbar), presumably related to kisagon, an obsolete verb meaning "to eat".)
Lāroti syt kisalbar — A Feast for Crows[107]
  • kisikagon [kisi'kagon]
perfect: kisittan
v. C-fin. to feed →acc. the recipient, →inst. the food. ( < kisagon + -ikagon.)
Zoklī havoso kisittoty daor. — We did not feed the wolves bread.
  • kivio [ˈkivi͡o]
n. 3lun. promise
Jemot kivio ñuhe tepan — I give you my word.
Kivio Dārilaros The Prince That Was Promised
Meri kīvio dārilaros ōz maghagon kostas. — Only the prince who was promised can bring the dawn.[8]
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[31]
  • klios [kli͡os] klioh-
n. 3sol fish
Kesy ñuhys klios issa. — This one is my squid.
  • kona ['kona] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I that distal, inanimate
  • konir ['konir]
dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entities, that place.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
Konir sagon kostos daor. — That's not possible.
  • konor ['konor]
3aq. steam, vapor.[108]
  • konīr ['koniːr]
dem.pron. adv. there (loc. of konir.)
  • kony ['kony]
dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entities
  • korze ['koɾze]
n. 4lun. longsword (cf. korzion, korzita.)
Korzoti Jelmāzma — A Storm of Swords[109]
  • korzion ['korzi͡on]
n. 3ter. steel, especially, but not exclusively Valyrian steel (cf. korze.)
  • korzita ['korzita]
n. adj. I firm, taut, stretched (Perh. from a verb *korzigon.)
Korzitī prūbrī jorrāelan. — I like the firm apples.
  • kostagon ['kostagon]
v. C-fin. to be able, can, may.
Konir sagon kostos daor — That's not possible.
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
Vestragon koston daor. — I cannot say.
  • kostilus ['kostilus]
adv. perhaps; exp. please. (3s. fut.act.subj. of kostagon, lit. be it possible.)
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me.
  • kostion ['kosti͡on]
n. 3ter. power, might ( < kostagon + -ion.)
Sēteroti kostion vale ossȳngas. — The power of the magic spells frightens the man.
  • kostōba [ko'stoːba]
adj. I powerful, strong, mighty ( < kostagon)
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
Kostōba Nēdenkā. — Strong and Brave.[110]
  • kostōbirī [ko'stoːbirī]
adv. powerfully, mightily, strongly ( < kostōba + -irī.)
Zokla kēlio kostōbirī angotas. — The wolf bit mightily into the lion.
  • kirimves [ki'ɾimves]
n. 4sol. joy[111] ( < kirine + -ves.)
Naenio jēdoti kirimvose glaesātās! — May you live happily for many years!
  • kirimvose [ki'ɾimvose], kirimvos [ki'ɾimvos]
exp. thank you. (Inst. of kirimves.)
kirimvose daor no thank you, kirimvose, sȳz iksan thanks I'm good.
  • kirine [ki'ɾine] -ior
adj. II happy
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
  • krēgo ['kreːgo]
n. 3lun. beet
Skoro syt kesī krēga bāngā? — Why are you baking these beets?
  • kris [kris] krih-
n. 3sol. leg
Averilloma vala azanti krihot ondurtas. — The drunk man grabbed the knight by the leg.
  • krubo ['krubo]
n. 3lun. dwarf
  • kustikagon [kusti'kagon]
perfect: kustittan
to strengthen, enable, encourage ( < kostagon + -ikagon.)
Ābre kustittas lua vala raqiros issa. — The man who encouraged the woman is a friend.
  • kydȳbagon [ky'dyːbagon]
perfect: kydȳptan
v. C-fin. to measure (prob. contains -bagon.)
Kydȳptakson sȳz kesos. — It would be good to have been measured.[40]
  • kyndrir ['kyndrir]
n. 6col. intestines
  • kȳvanon ['kyːvanon]
n. 3ter. plan, strategy[61] ( < *kȳvagon to plan + -non.)
  • Kȳvakio ['ky:vaki͡o]
n. Cyvasse, a Volantene board game, lit. strategist ( < *kȳvagon to plan + -kio.)[112]

L

  • laes [laɛ̯s] laeh-
n. 3sol. eye.
Laehossa yne ōdris. — My eyes hurt.
  • laehurlion [laɛ̯'huɾli͡on]
n. 3ter face [113] (perh. laes + -uragon + -lion.)
  • laehurloqitta [laɛ̯huɾlo'qitta]
adj. I faceless [113] ( < laehurlion face + -oqitta.)
Laehurloqitti Vali The Faceless Men.
  • lanta ['lanta] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I two
...kesrio syt lanta iksan. — ...for now I am two.
  • laodigon ['laɔ̯digon]
v. V-fin. to steal[109]
  • lāra ['laːɾa]
n. 1lun. crow[114]
  • leghagon [le'ɣagon]
perfect: lēdan
v. C-fin. to fill. →acc. the thing being filled, →gen. the substance with which it is filled, →inst. the instrument by which it is filled.
  • lēda ['leːda] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I filled, full →gen. with..., of... (perf. part. of leghagon.)
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors[22]
  • lēkia ['leːki͡a]
n. 1lun. older brother[115]; older male cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[45].
Viserys Daenero lēkia issa. — Viserys is Daenerys's brother.
  • lenton ['lenton]
n. 3ter. house as in a physical building in which one lives.
  • lentor ['lentor]
n. 3aq. house in the sense of family, noble line, dynasty. (originally a relexified collective of lenton, which was then reanalyzed into a 3aq. noun.)
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • lentor ['lentor]
n. 6col.3ter. village (col. of lenton.)
  • lentun ['lentun]
n. 6pauc.3ter. community (relexified paucal of lenton.)
  • letagon [le'tagon]
v. C-fin. to tie, to bind[41]
  • lilagon [li'lagon]
v. C-fin. to dance
Valar lilis. — All men must dance.[116]
  • limagon [li'magon]
perfect: limatan[117]
v. V-fin. to cry
Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. — All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.[118]
  • lioragon [li͡o'ɾagon]
perfect: liortan
v. C-fin. to sell
Dohaeriros istin, sindita liortā, qilonta ozbartā. — I was a slave once, bought and sold, scourged and branded.[8]
  • liorilaksa [li͡oɾi'laksa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I for sale (fut.pass.part. of lioragon.)
  • līr [liːr]
rel.pron. that which (is) for abstract or uncountable entitites (subst. of lua.)
Valo lurio vaoresan. — I prefer that which is a man‘s.
  • līrinon ['liːɾinon]
3ter? smile ( < līrigon to smile + -non.)
Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! — Walk with a smile in your heart!
  • līrigon ['liːɾigon]
v. V-fin. to smile ( < līrigon to smile)
perfect: ilīritan
  • litse ['litse]
adj. II fair, beautiful.
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • lo [lo]
conj. if (perh. related to lua?)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
lo sīr now that
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? — Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[9]
  • loadiapos [loa'di͡apos]
n. 3sol. mask (contains -iapos. Cf. laodigon, qrillaodagon.)
Laodiaposo jomīsagon avy sytilīptas. — You should have worn the mask.
  • lodaor [lodaɔ̯r]
conj. otherwise. (lo + daor.)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • lōgor ['loːgor]
n. 6col. ship (cf. loktys.)
  • loktys ['loktys]
n. 2sol. sailor. (cf. lōgor.)
  • lopor ['lopor]
n. 3aq.3? salt
  • lōragon ['loːɾagon]
v. C-fin. to drill, to bore Takes a dative object.[93]
  • lōrty ['loːɾty]
n. 2lun. tunnel, hole ( < lōragon.)
Azantys lōrtot udekurza. — The knight is approaching the tunnel.
  • Lorathi, Lorath [loɾaθi]
n. 6for. Lorath
Jaqen hen Lorathī iksos daor. — Jaqen is not from Lorath.
  • lōtirī ['loːtiɾiː]
adv. steadfastly ( < *lōta + -irī.)
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[10]
  • lōtinty [loː'tinty]
n. 2lun pie
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.[4]
  • lōz [loːz]
adj. II wet
  • lua [lu͡a]
rel.pron. adj.[119] who, which, that; agrees with head noun's gender, case & number(?) in main clause.
  • lurugon [lu'ɾugon]
v. V-fin. to fold
  • lurvon ['luɾvon]
n. 3ter. ankle (perh. < lurugon.)
  • [lyː]
rel.pron. one which (is) for concrete, countable entities (subst. of lua.)
Valo luo vaoresan. — I prefer one which is a man‘s.
  • lyka ['lyka]
adj. I quiet, silent[62] ( < lyks.)
Sȳndroso lykāpa… — Quiet as a shadow…
  • lykāpsirī [ly'kaːpsiɾiː]
adv. idly ( < *lykāpsa + -irī, presumably ultimately derived from lyka.)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[9]
  • lykemagon [lyke'magon]
perfect: lykēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to silence (< lyka + emagon)
Aōle lykemās. — Be quiet.
  • lyks ['lyks]
n.3sol. peace [120] (cf. lyka.)
lyks mazverdagon to bring peace
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[8]
  • Lȳs [lyːs] lyv-
n. 3sol. Lys
Lyvo vali ābrī gevī laehossa ēzi. — The men and women have beautiful eyes.
Zān hen Lyvot ābre ūndan. — Yesterday I saw a woman from Lys.

M

  • maegi ['maɛ̯gi]
n. 5lun. wise-woman, witch (original language uncertain, but declension class suggests a Valyrian origin.[121] Root meaning may be wise.)[122]
  • maghagon [ma'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. to bring
Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. Iderennon maghan. — I do not bring you commands. I bring you a choice.
  • manaeragon [ma'naɛ̯ɾagon]
v. C-fin. to raise, →acc: to celebrate[123], biarvī manaeragon to celebrate (good fortune)[123].
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • mandia ['mandi͡a]
n. 1lun. older sister[124]; older female cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[45].
  • majaqagon [maja'qagon]
perfect: majattan
v. C-fin. to admire ( < maz- + raqagon.)
  • massa ['massa]
n. 1lun bat. [125]
  • massigon ['massigon]
v. V-fin. to happen (perh. maz- + sigon, aorist of sagon.)
"Skorion massitas?" "Qringōntan." — "What happened?" "I failed."
  • mazemagon [maze'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.). to take. ( lit. come to have, < maz- + emagon)
  • mazilībagon [mazi'lībagon]
v. C-fin. to set (of the sun)[126] (lit. something like come to lie (< maz- + ilībagon, also seen in sytilībagon to belong, < ilagon to lie (down) + -ībagon.)
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[54]
  • māzigon ['maːzigon]
perfect: māstan
v. V-fin. to come.
  • mazōregon [maz'oːɾegon]
v. V-fin. to accept ( lit. come to hold < maz- + ōregon.)[92]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesĪr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
  • mazverdagon [maz'veɾdagon]
perfect: mazvēttan
v. C-fin. to create (lit. come to arrange, < maz- + verdagon.)
Valar mazvēttas luos belmossi zirȳle tolvȳs gaomoso iderennosō letis — All men bind themselves with chains that they have created, through every deed and decision.[127]
Īlōn pryjassis līr īlōn mazverdis. — What destroys us, creates us.[128]
lyks mazverdagon to bring peace
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[8]
  • mele ['mele]-ior
adj. II red
Mele Voktys Red Priest i.e. a cleric of the Lord of Light.
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[8]
  • Melisandre [meli'sandre]
n. 4lun. Melisandre (possibly of Asshai'i origin, but cf. mele.)
  • melvo ['melvo]
n. 3lun. pear
Ñuha muña melvo nektos. — My mother is slicing a pear.
  • memēbagon [me'meːbagon]
v. C-fin. to march. (-ēbagon formation off of unknown verb *memagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • mentyn ['mentyn]
n. 6pauc.2sol. battalion (relexicalized paucal of mentys.)
  • mentys ['mentys]
n. 2sol soldier,
Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! — Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!
col. mentyr
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • mentyr ['mentyr]
n. 6col.2sol. army
  • mēny ['meːny]
n. 2lun. body
Ābra mīsvoso zȳhe mēni jomīsas. — The woman is wearing armor on her body.
  • Merakses[129] [me'ɾakses]
n. 4sol. Meraxes, one of the dragons used in Aegon's invasion of Westeros.
  • merbugon ['merbugon]
perfect: merbutan
v. V-fin. to be hungry
Merbun. — I'm hungry.[63]
  • mēre ['meːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II one
  • mērī ['meːɾiː]
adv. only, alone ( < mēre + .)
Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. Jemēle mērī sytilības. — Your freedom is not mine to give. It belongs to you and you alone.
  • mēriot ['meːɾi͡ot]
adv. once, one time ( < mēre.)
Mērī mēriot ziry vūjitan! — I only kissed her once!
  • mhysa ['mysa]
n. 1lun., or n. 6for.[130] the Ghiscari word for mother, widely used in Slaver's Bay. One of Daenerys Targarien's titles. ( < AV mysa < Ghiscari mhysa.)
  • mība ['miːba] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I short
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
  • mījāelion [miːjaːɛ̯li͡on]
n. 3ter. pawnshop ( < mī- + jāelagon + -ion''')
  • mijegon [mi'jegon]
perfect: mijetan
v. V-fin. to lack, be without, be apart from. →inst.
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
  • Mīrīn ['miːɾiːn]
n. 6pauc.5 or 6for. Meereen
Mīrīno Dāria — Queen of Meereen
  • mirre ['mirre] -ior
adj. II any This word has many uses, corresponding almost exactly to those of the English equivalent any; some.
In the sense of all:
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
in the sense of whatever:
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
as opposed to none:
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
with a negative:
Jomōzussis lua vala mirros ēngoso ȳdrassigon kostilos daor. — A man who keeps getting drunk will not be able to speak any language[131]
In the sense of some:
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • mirrī ['mirriː]
adv. a bit, somwhat ( < mirre + .)
  • mirriot ['mirri͡ot]
indef.pron. somewhere/anywhere ( < mirre.)
Kesīr mirriot dēmā? — Are you sitting anywhere here?
  • mirros ['mirros]
indef.pron. 3sol something,[132] anything? (substantive of mirre.)
Ynot mirros epās! — Ask me something![56]
pauc. mirrun indef.pron. some, some people.
Mirrun mōrqitto bantiot sikiks. — Some are born to endless night.[133]
coll. mirror indef.pron. whatever
Ynot mirrori tepās. — Give me whatever.
  • mirtys ['miɾtys]
indef.pron. 2sol. Someone, anyone (< mirre + -tys)
Tolvys mirtys issa. — Everybody is someone.
  • mīsagon ['miːsagon]
perfect: mīstan
v. C-fin.. to defend, to protect. →acc. of the thing protected [134]
  • mīsio ['miːsi͡o]
n. 3lun. protector[135] ( < mīsagon + -io.)
Riñītsoti mīsio. — Protector of little girls.
  • mīsvos ['miːsvos]
n. 3sol. armor ( < mīsagon + -vos.)
Ñuhos mīsvoso jomīsā? — Are you wearing my armor?
  • mittys ['mittys]
n. 2sol. fool
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
  • molry ['molry]
n. 2lun. horn
  • morghe ['moɾɣe]
adj. II dead
Ionos Sōnaro morghe iksos daor. — Jon Snow isn't dead.[136]
col. subst. morghor the dead
Bosys bantis amāzis, se morghor zijomy amāzis. — The long night is coming, and the dead come with it.[8]
  • morghon ['moɾɣon]
n. 3ter. death
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • morghūlilare [moɾɣuːli'lare] -ior
adj. II mortal[137] (future participle of morghūljagon.)
  • morghūljagon [moɾ'ɣuːʎagon]
perfect: morghūltan
v. C-fin. to die ( < morghe + -ūljagon.)
of fire to burn out
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[64]
Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting.
  • mōris ['moːɾis]
n. 5sol. end, conclusion; loc. or adv. mōrī at the end, finally; va moriot always[4] lit. to the end.
  • mōrqitta [moːɾ'qitta]
adj. I endless[138] ( < mōris end + -oqitta.)
Mirrun mōrqitto bantiot sikiks. — Some are born to endless night.[133]
  • mōzugon ['moːzugon]
v. V-fin. to drink
Aōhor jūlor mōzun. — I am drinking your milk.
  • muña ['muɲa]
n. 1lun. mother; mother's sister, maternal aunt[45].
Muño ēngos mother tongue.
Muña Zaldrīzoti. — The Mother of Dragons.
Coll. muñar "parents."
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
  • mundagon ['mundagon]
v. to be miserable
He hears the Stone Men in their misery… — mundari dorenki rybis…
  • munnon ['munnon]
n. 3ter. sorrow (perh. mundagon + -non?)
  • Mȳr [myːr]
prop. n. 3aq. Myr
  • myrdys [myrdys]
n. 2sol. or 2lun. deer[62]
Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. — Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.

N

  • nābēmagon [naː'beːmagon]
v. to unfasten, to unleash; to fire a siege engine ( < nā- + *bēmagon, presumably meaning to fasten, restrain.)
  • ñābranna [ɲaː'branna]
n. 1lun. father's younger sister's child, cousin by paternal aunt younger than father[45].
Iōnos ñuha ñābranna issa. — Jon is my cousin.
  • nādīnagon [naː'diːnagon]
v. to remove ( < nā- + dīnagon)
Geltī aōhe nādīnās. — Remove your helmet.
  • naejītsos ['naɛ̯jiːtsos]
n. 3sol. forehead ( < naejon + -ītsos.)
  • naejon ['naɛ̯jon]
n. 3ter. front, torso
Zȳhon naejon kostōbon issa; zȳhon inkon daor. — His front is powerful, his back is not.
  • naejot ['naɛ̯jot]
postp.→gen. in front of; adv. forward. (the locative or dative case of naejon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • naejos ['naɛ̯jos]
n. 3sol. breast (cf. naejon.)
  • naena ['naɛ̯na] -ys, -on, -or
num. n. 1lun. a countless number, too high to count (cf. naenie).
  • naenie ['naɛ̯ni͡e] -ior
adj. III many (cf. naena).
  • nagegon [na'gegon]
perfect: nagetan
v. V-fin. to sweat
Taoba nagetos daor. — The boy did not sweat.
  • nāgīdāves [naːgiː'daːves]
n. 4sol. Inequality[37]
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[38]
  • nākostōbāves [na:kosto:'ba:ves]
n. 4sol. weakness[139] (< nā- + kostōba + -ves.)
Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. — Love is weakness.
  • nāmorghūlilare [naːmoɾɣuːli'lare] -ior
adj. II immortal[137] ( < nā- + morghūljagon.)
  • nāmorghūlilaros [naːmoɾɣuːli'laros]
n. 3sol. immortal[137] (nominalized form of nāmorghūlilare.)
  • ñāmar ['ɲaːmar] nābro
n. 1aq. father's younger sister, paternal aunt younger than father[45].
Rhaella aōhor ñāmar issa? — Is Rhaella your aunt?
  • nāpāsiros [naː'paːsiros]
n. 3sol. unbeliever ( < nā- + pāsiros subst. aor. part. of pāsagon.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • nāpāstys [naː'paːstys]
n. 2sol. unbeliever ( < nā- + pāsagon + -tys)
Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?[9]
  • ñāqa ['ɲaːqa]
adj. I eastern.[140] [141] ( < ñāqes.)
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[54]
  • ñāqes ['ɲaːqes]
n. 4sol. dawn[142]
  • nāqopsir ['naːqopsir]
n. 5aq. that which is easy, the basics (substantive of *nāqopsa easy < nā- + qopsa.)
  • nāvar ['naːvar]
n. 1aq. lake
  • nēdenka [neː'deŋka]
adj. I brave ( < nēdys + -enka.)
Kostōba Nēdenkā. — Strong and Brave.[110]
  • nēdenkirī [neː'deŋkiɾiː]
adv. bravely ( < nēdenka + .)
  • nēdys ['neːdys]
n. 2sol brave person (substantivized form of *nēda brave.)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • nehugon [ne'hugon]
v. V-fin. to leak → inst. of the substance leaked, e.g. ānogrosa nehugon to bleed
Insv. anehugon to leak with impersonal subjects.
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
  • nekēpty [ne'keːpty]
n. 2lun. idol (likely a substantivied perfect participle from unattested *nekēbagon, possibly meaning to carve, compare nektogon to cut, and the English expression graven image.)
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • nektogon ['nektogon]
perfect: nektotan
v. V-fin. to cut, to slice.
Ābra gerpī nektotas. — The woman cut the fruit.
  • *ñelly, -s
n. 2? skin, flesh as a specific entity?
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • ñellyr ['ɲellyr]
n. 6col.2?. skin, flesh as a general substance?
va ñellyrty perzys fire made flesh
Va ñellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oño irudy. — Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.
  • ñepegon ['ɲepegon]
v. V-fin. to sew
  • nevegon ['nevegon]
perfect: nevetana
v. V-fin. to carry
Azantys taobe zenturliot nevetas. — The knight carried the boy to the inn.
  • ñōghe ['ɲoːɣe]
n. 4lun arm
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • ñōghoqitta [ɲoːɣo'qitta]
adj. I armless ( < ñōghe + -oqitta.)
ñoghoqitta rīza — armless lizard[55]
  • ñōghybon ['ɲoːɣybon]
n. 3ter. elbow ( < ñōghe + ybon.)
Ñuhon ñōghybon renigon daor, mittys! — Don't touch my elbow, fool!
  • ñombes ['ɲombes]
n. 4sol[18] elephant[143]
  • nopāzma [no'paːzma]
n. 1lun hell[4]
Sīkudi nopāzmi! — Seven hells!
  • Norvos ['noɾvos]
n. 3sol. Norvos
  • ñuha ['ɲuha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I my
  • ñuhon ['ɲuhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. 3ter. mine
  • ñuhoso [ɲu'hoso]
adv. in my way, as I wish (ins. of ñuha.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • nūmāzma [nuː'maːzma]
n. 1lun. meaning, essence, the truth of it (probably nūmo + -āzma.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. — You quit, you mean.
  • nūmio ['nuːmi͡o]
n. 3lun. pearl[144] (cf. nūmo)
  • nūmo ['nuːmo]
n. 3lun. seed (cf. nūmio)
  • ñuqir ['ɲuqir]
n. 5aq.[18] ashes
  • nuspes ['nuspes]
4sol. cow, female head of cattle
  • nyke ['nyke]
pers.pron. I.
  • nykēla [ny'keːla]
refl. 1lun. myself

O

  • obar ['obar]
n. 1aq. curve
  • obūljagon [o'buːʎagon]
v. C-fin. to bend [145]
reflexive to bend the knee ( < *ob- seen in obar curve + -ūljagon.)
Se morghon jāle obulilza. — And death itself will bend the knee.
  • obūljarion [o'buːʎaɾi͡on]
n. 3ter. surrender (< obūljagon)
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
  • ōdragon ['oːdragon]
v. C-fin. to hurt especially of body parts, with the person in the acc.
Laehossa yne ōdris. — My eyes hurt.
  • ōdres ['oːdres]
n. 4sol. pain; damage.[146]
  • ōdrikagon [oː'drikagon]
v. C-fin.? "to harm." ( < ōdres + -ikagon.)
daorys ziry ōdrikilza. — no one will harm him.
  • ōdrio ['oːdri͡o]
n. 3lun. wound (from the same root as ōdres, but "different ... because it’s a specific pain, not a general sensation."[147])
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • ōghar ['oːɣar]
n. 1aq.[18] hair
  • ohīlagon [oˈhiːlagon]
v. C-fin. to stab (poss. oz- + hīlagon.)
  • ohīlvos [o'hiːlvos]
n. 3sol. dagger, knife ( < ohīlagon + -vos.)
Azantys ohīlvoso taobe idakos! — The knight is attacking the boy with a dagger!
  • oiro [o'iro]
n. 3lun. fat
  • ojehikagon [ojehiˈkagon]
perfect: ojehittan
v. C-fin. to bless. ( < oz- + jehikagon.)
  • ojughagon [oju'ɣagon]
perfect: ojūdan[148]
v. C-fin. to lose[97] ( < oz- + rughagon.)
  • oktion ['okti͡on]
n. 3ter city
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • olvī ['olviː]
adv. a lot, profusely
Issa, olvī ziry jorrāelan. — Yes, I love him very much.
  • olvie ['olvi͡e] olvior
adj. III much, many
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • olvȳn ['olvyːn]
indef.pron. 6pauc.2sol much, many
Olvȳni zaldrīzī eman. — I have many dragons.
  • ondor ['ondor]
n. 6col.3sol. powers (relex. col. of ondos.)
Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. — You should not have these powers.
  • ondos ['ondos]
n. 3sol. hand. For ondor and ondoso see the respective entries.
Jentys bykyz ondossa ēza. — The ruler has small hands.
  • ondoso ['ondoso]
postp.→gen. by, at the hand of, used with passive verbs to mark the agent. (Inst. of ondos.)
Valo ondoso Aerys iderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for by the man.
  • onduragon [ondu'ɾagon]
v. C-fin. to grasp, to take up ( < ondos + -uragon)
Iā jemēla zȳhys perzī ondurilāt? — Or will you take up her flames yourselves?[9]
  • onjapos [on'japos]
n. 3sol. carrot
Anne onjapossa ipradas. — The horse is eating carrots.
  • ōños ['oːɲos]
n. 3sol. light
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • ōrbar ['oːɾbar]
n. 1aq.[18] smoke
  • ōregon ['oːɾegon]
v. V-fin. to hold
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • ospȳnagon [os'spyːnagon]
v. C-fin. to squeeze (probably oz- + unknown verb *pȳnagon.)
  • ossēnagon [os'seːnagon]
v. C-fin. to kill, to slay. ( < oz- + sēnagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! — Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!
  • ossȳngagon[149] [os'syːŋgagon]
v. to terrify, terrorize (Etymology unknown but does not contain oz-[150], and is not primordially related to zūgagon[151].)
  • ossȳngnon [os'syːŋgnon][22]
n. 3ter. terror ( < ossȳngagon + -non.)
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors
  • otāpagon [o'taːpagon]
v. to think
Skoros otāpā? — What do you think?
  • ōtor ['oːtor]
n. 3aq. ram, male sheep.[25]
  • ovoño [o'voɲo]
n. 3lun. jasmine flower.[152]
  • ozbaragon [o'zbaɾagon]
perfect: ozbartan
v. C-fin.? to brand (contains oz-.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • ōz [oːz] on-
n. 3sol. dawn (perhaps distantly related to ōños?)[153]
Meri kīvio dārilaros ōz maghagon kostas. — Only the prince who was promised can bring the dawn.[8]
  • ozdakonon [ozda'konon]
n. 3ter. running away ( < oz- + dakogon + -non, by way of *ozdakogon presumably to run away, to flee .)
ozdakonot dīnagon put to flight, chase away.
Sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr ozdakonot ziry dīntis. — Those who love the darkness chased her away.[9]
  • ozgūroty [o'zguːɾoty]
n. 1lun. prisoner (substantivized participle of *ozgūrogon to capture < oz- + gurogon.)
Kisalbrot ozgūrotys jagon. — Let the prisoners go to the banquet.
  • ozzālagon [oz'zaːlagon]
v. C-fin. to burn away ( < oz- + zālagon.)
Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?ref name="DJP601"/>

P

  • paerī ['paɛ̯ɾiː]
adv. slowly ( < paez + .)
Kēlia vale paerī iprattis. — The lions ate the man slowly.
  • paez [paɛ̯z]
adj. II slow.[154]
  • paghagon [pa'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. breathe
  • paktot ['paktot]
adv. to the right; to the side, beside
Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa — Your enemy is beside you.
  • pālemio ['paːlemi͡o]
n. 3lun. wrist
Riña zȳhi raqiros pālemiot ondurtas. — The girl grabbed her friend by the wrist.
  • pamagon [pa'magon]
perfect: pamptan
v. C-fin. to rub
  • pār [paːr]
pron. then, at that time
Ēlī prūbrī iprattan, pār averille mōzutan. — First I ate the apples, then I drank the wine.
  • parklon ['paɾklon]
n. 3ter. meat
Kēlio parklon ipradas. — The lion is eating meat.
  • parmon ['paɾmon]
n. 3ter. grass
  • pālegon ['paːlegon]
v. V-fin. to turn, to twist, to rotate
  • pāletilla [paːle'tilla]
n. 1aq°.[18] crown[155] ( < pālegon + -illa.)
  • pāsagon ['paːsagon]
perfect: pāstan
v. C-fin. to trust esp. in perf., believe esp. in imperf.[156]
Kepa zȳhe tale pāsiles. — The father believed his daughter.
  • pāsābare [paː'saːbaɾe]
adj. II faithful (participal of *pāsābagon < pāsagon + -ābagon.)
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[10]
  • pelar ['pelar]
n. 1aq wave[157]
  • pelōñe [pe'loːɲe]
adj. II coming from the waves (< pelar + -ōñe)[157]
  • pēko ['peːko]
n. 3lun[18] olive
  • peldio ['peldi͡o]
n. 3lun. snake, viper (possibly from a verb root *pel- meaning something like to wiggle, undulate, wave? Cf. pelar.)
Peldiō sȳndor. — The viper's shadow.[158]
  • pendagon ['pendagon]
v. V-fin. to wonder.
  • Pentos ['pentos]
n. 3sol. Pentos
  • perzys ['peɾzys]
n. 2sol. fire, flame;[159] zīrtys perzys[160] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian.
Perzys Ānogār. — Fire and Blood.
col. perzyr fire as a substance.
  • pikībagon [pi'kiːbagon]
perfect: pikīptan
v. C-fin. to read. ( < *pikagon + -ībagon.)
Riña raqiroso pikīptas. — The girl read with a friend.
  • pirta ['piɾta]
adj. III false (etymology unknown. Possibly derived from an obsolete verb *piragon to lie, but no such verb exists in the Classical language.)
  • pirtiapos ['piɾtiapos]
n. 3sol. joke (contains -iapos; cf. pirta, pirtir.) [161]
  • pirtir ['piɾtir]
n. 5aq. falsehood, lie (subs. of pirta.)
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me.
  • pilogon [pi'logon]
perfect: pilotan
v. V-fin. to hold with the hands (not the arms).
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās — Slay every man who holds a whip!
  • pogry ['pogry]
n. 2lun. nail
  • pōnta ['poːnta]
pers.pron. they.
  • pōntāla [poːn'taːla]
pers.pron. themselves
  • pōja ['poːja] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I their
  • pōjon ['poːjon]
pron. theirs
  • pragrion ['pragri͡on]
n. 3ter bark
  • prūbres ['pruːbres]
n. 4sol apple [162]
Korzitī prūbrī jorrāelan. — I like the firm apples.
  • prūmia ['pruːmi͡a]
n. 1lun. heart.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
Ñuho prūmiā iksā. — You are in my heart.[163]
  • pryjagon [pry'jagon]
perfect: pryjatan
v. V-fin. to destroy;[164] strike off. Perf.pass.part. pryjata "destroyed."
Urnet luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! — Strike the chains off every slave you see!
  • pryjatys [pry'jatys]
n. 2sol. destroyer, breaker ( < pryjagon + -tys.)
Belmo Pryjatys — Breaker of Chains
  • puatta [ˈpu͡atta] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I rotten (possibly a perfect participle)
  • pungilla [puŋ'gilla]
n. 1aq°. nostril ( < pungos + -illa.)
  • pungos ['puŋgos]
n. 3sol. nose
Skoriot aōhys pungos ilza, ñuhus talus? — Where is your nose, my daughter?
  • puñila [pu'ɲila]
adj. I worn, weather beaten; of language proficiency rusty
  • purtagon ['purtagon]
v. C-fin. to scratch
  • pyghagon [py'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. to jump; to beat (of the heart)
perfect: pȳdan
...rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — ... with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • pykagon [py'kagon]
v. C-fin. to spit
  • pyrys ['pyɾys]
num. 2sol. thousand[165]
col.ins. pyryrzy by the thousands
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

Q

  • qablos ['qablos]
n. 3sol.[18] liver
  • qaedar ['qaɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. whale
Qaedar klios issa? Daor! — Is a whale a fish? No!
  • qana [ˈqana] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I sharp
  • Qarthi ['qaɾθi], Qarth
n. 6for. Qarth
Konor sēter hen Qarthī issa. — That spell is from Qarth.
  • qanemagon [qane'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to sharpen. ( < qane + -emagon.)
perfect: qanēdan
  • qelbar ['qelbar]
n. 1aq. river.
  • Qelbria ['qelbri͡a]
prop. n. 1aq°. the Riverlands ( < qelbar + -ria.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
  • qelbōñe [qel'boːɲe]
adj. II that lives/comes from the river (< qelbar + -ōñe.)[166] qelbōñe kēli river otter.
  • qeldlie ['qeldli͡e] -ior
adj. III yellow, golden-colored, brown, orange
Ondos Qeldlie — Goldenhand[167]
  • qēlītsos ['qeːliːtsos]
n. 3sol. candle ( < qēlos + -ītsos, lit. app. little star.)
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[64]
  • qēlos ['qeːlos]
n. 3sol. star (original meaning may be torch: cf. qēlītsos.)
Vēzos qēlossās ñuho. — My sun and stars.[63]
  • qībōños [qi:'bo:ños]
n. 3sol. cloak (possibly the substantivized form of an unattested adjective qībōñe, cf. -ōñe)
Qībōños eman. — I have a cloak.
  • qilōnagon [qi'loːnagon]
perfect: qilontan
v. C-fin.? to scourge[168] (cf. qilōny whip.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
Dohaeriros istin, sindita liortā, qilonta ozbartā. — I was a slave once, bought and sold, scourged and branded.[8]
  • qilōnarion [qi'loːnaɾi͡on]
n. 3ter punishment (substantivized participle from qilōnagon to scourge.)
Qilōnario Geron. — Walk of Punishment.
  • qilōny [qi'loːny]
n. 2lun. whip
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. — Slay every man who holds a whip.
  • qimos ['qimos]
n. 3sol. chin
  • qintir ['qintir]
n. 5aq. turtle
Ñuhor qintir jorrāelzi. — They love my turtle.
  • qlādugon ['qlaːdugon]
v. V-fin. to drag
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[9]
  • qogron ['qogron]
n. 3ter. line (prob. in the military sense; see qogror below.)
  • qogror ['qogror]
n. 6col.3ter. ranks; class, type, gender (relexicalized collective of qogron).
Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ — You will select your own leader, from amongst your own ranks.
vēzenkon qogror. — “solar class”.[72]
  • Qohor ['qohor] gen. Qorho
n. 3aq. Qohor
Vargo hen Qorhot issa. — Vargo is from Qohor.
  • qopsa ['qopsa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I hard, difficult
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • qrīdronnor [qriː'dronnor]
n. 6col.3ter. Chaos.[70] (< qrin- + rholagon + -non, lit. (pejorative) mixture.)[169]
Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. — Chaos is a ladder.
  • qrīdrughagon [qriːdru'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. to give up, to abandon, to throw away. ( < qrin- + rughagon, with the same n-deletion rule[170] seen in bianorbiādra.)
  • qrilaodagon [qril'laɔ̯dagon]
perfect: qrilaetan
v. C-fin.? to rape (contains qrin-, cf laodagon.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • qrimbrōzagon [ˈqrimbroːzagon]
perfect: qrimbrōstan
v. C-fin. to curse (lit. to name badly, < qrin- + brōzagon.)
  • qrimbughegon [qrimbuˈɣegon]
v. V-fin. to drown[148] ( < qrin- + bughegon.)
  • qringaomagon [qriŋ'gaɔ̯magon]
v. C-fin. to fail, to err, to sin. ( < qrin- + gaomagon.)
perfect: qringōntan
"Skorion massitas?" "Qringōntan." — "What happened?" "I failed."
Valar Qringaomis. — All men must fail.[171]
  • qringaomio [qriŋ'gaɔ̯mi͡o]
n. 3lun. evildoer ( < qringaomagon + -io.)[172]
  • qringaomnon [qriŋ'gaɔ̯mnon]
n. 3ter. sin ( < qringaomagon + -non.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
hen pōjo qringaomnoti for their sins
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • qrinuntenka [qrinun'teŋka]
adj. I antagonistic[173]
  • qrinuntenkāves [qrinunteŋ'kaːves]
n. 4sol. antagonism.[37]
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[38]
  • qrinuntys [qri'nuntys]
n. 2sol. enemy
Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa — Your enemy is beside you.
  • qryldes ['qryldes]
4sol. male pig
  • quba [ˈquba] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I bad
qubirī [qu'biɾiː]
adv. badly, poorly ( < quba + -irī.)
Dārys azantī qubirī jemas. — The king is leading the soldiers poorly.
  • qumblie ['qumbli͡e]
adj. III thick
Qumblie geltī emā. — You have a thick helmet.
  • qupēgrie [qup'eːgri͡e]
adj. III terrible ( < possibly the same root as in quba + -ēgrie.)
Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. — His Valyrian is terrible[9]
  • quptenka [qup'teŋka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I pagan; Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue; ( < quptys.)
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
  • quptys ['quptys]
n. 2sol. heathen
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • qurdon [ˈquɾdon]
n. 3ter. table
  • qūvy [ˈquːvy]
n. 2lun. tear
  • qȳbor ['qyːbor]
n. 3aq. mother's younger brother, maternal uncle younger than mother[45].
Ñurho qȳbro anni kostōbi issi. — My uncle's horses are powerful.
  • qȳbranna [qyː'branna]
n. 1lun. mother's younger brother's child, cousin by maternal uncle younger than mother[45].
Ñuha qȳbranna sȳz annī ēza. — My cousin has a good horse.

R

  • raedes ['raɛ̯des]
4sol. scorpion
  • rāenābagon [raːɛ̯'naːbagon]
v. C-fin. to wash ( < rāena- + -ēbagon.)
  • rāenagon ['raːɛ̯nagon]
perfect: rāentan
v. C-fin. to wipe, to brush
Dohaerirot ñuhe annī rāenagon sētan. — I made the servant brush my horse.
  • rāenion ['raːɛ̯ni͡on]
3ter shore (probably connected to rāenagon and rāenābagon, with the idea of the land that the sea washes.)
  • [ryː]
post.→gen. between, through, across, throughout.
Jevo glaesoti rȳ buzdari istiat. — You have been slaves all your life.
  • rāelagon ['raːɛ̯lagon]
v. C-fin. to hold
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza. — He holds us safe.
  • rakegon [ra'kegon]
v. V-fin. →inf. to take part in, to participate in, to have a hand in
Astapor dāeremagon raketan. — I took part in freeing Astapor.
  • rāpa ['raːpa]
adj. I soft
  • rāpūljagon [raː'puːʎagon]
perfect: rāpūltan
v. C-fin. to soften. (rāpa + -ūljagon.)
  • raqagon [ra'qagon]
perfect: rattan[174]
v. C-fin.? to like, to love "lighter" than jorrāelagon,[175] to enjoy
Dohaeriakson raqan. — I like to be served.[40]
Avy jorrāelan. Avy raqan. — I love you. I love you.
Nuiōrkī sōnari raqō daor? — Are you enjoying winter in New York?[176]
  • raqiros [ra'qiros]
n. 3sol. friend (relex. aor. part. of raqagon).
Zūgagon daor, ñuhys raqiros. — Don’t be afraid, my friend.
  • raqiarzy [ra'qi͡aɾzy]
n. 2lun beloved[177] (nominalized aorist passive participle of raqagon.)
  • raqnon ['raqnon]
n. 3ter. love[139]
Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. — Love is weakness.
  • rēbagon [reː'bagon]
v. to walk, to pass. [178]
Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! — Walk with a smile in your heart!
Ynot rēbagon. — Let me pass.
  • relgos ['relgos]
n. 3sol. mouth
Avera ñuhȳ relgot eman. — I have the grapes in my mouth.
  • remio ['remi͡o]
n. 3lun. gate
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • renigon [re'nigon]
v. V-fin. to touch with the hand.
  • Rhaegal ['r̥aɛ̯gal]
n. 6for.lun[179] Rhaegal
  • rhaenagon ['r̥aenagon]
perfect: rhēdan
v. C-fin. to meet; to find
Riña Dovaogēdo muñe rhaenas. — The girl finds the Unsullied's mother.
to begin.
Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. — I begin my day with tea.[180]
  • rhēdegon ['r̥eːdegon]
v. V-fin. to know a person, to be acquainted with (the eventative form of rhaenagon, to meet.)
Ābra kepe rhēdes lua vala raqiros issa. — The man whose father the woman knows is a friend.
  • rhinka ['r̥iŋka]
adj. I (of a material or texture) rough, coarse; by extension unpleasant[181]
  • rholagon [r̥o'lagon]
v. C-fin. to mix[169]
  • rhovagon [r̥o'vagon]
v. C-fin. to bark (perh. onomatopoeic)
Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi — The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[63]
  • *rhūqes
n. 4sol? pigeon
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.[4]
  • rigles ['rigles]
n. 4sol. honor (poss. related to rijagon)
inst. riglose with honor ued advverbially as an equivaelent to it is an honor
Riglose Belmot Pryjatys rhaenan. — It is an honor to meet the Breaker of Chains.[8]
  • rijagon [ri'jagon]
perfect: riddan
v. C-fin. to praise. (cf. rijes.)
Dārys azanti rijas. — The king praises the soldier.[182]
  • rijes ['rijes]
n. 4sol. praise. (cf. rijagon.)
rijes aōt praise to you, poss. an expression for congratulations![183]
Rijes aōt, Papayus! — Praise to you, Papaya![32]
  • rijībagon [ri'jiːbagon]
v. C-fin. to worship; to praise; to obey ( < rijagon + -ībagon.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • rijīblion [ri'jiːbli͡on]
n. 3ter. temple ( < rijībagon + -lion.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[44]
  • rijnor ['rijnor]
n. 6col.3ter. praise ( col. of *rijnon < rijagon + -non.)
Rijnondi praise (to you) poss. an expression for congratulations[184]
Rijnondi, Donis! — Praise (to you), Don!
  • riña ['riɲa]
n. 1lun. girl, maiden; child
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn riñe dōre ōdrikātās. — slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.
coll. riñar children.
Lo zȳhyz zaldrīzesse Āeksiō Ōñō irudy Daenerot issi, sepār Daenerys Āeksiō irudy riñarta zȳhot issa. — Just as her dragons are a gift from the Lord of Light to Daenerys, so then is Daenerys a gift from the Lord to her children.[10]
  • riñītsos [ri'ɲiːtsos]
n. 3sol. little child; little girl[185] (riña + -ītsos.)
  • rios ['ri͡os] gen. riho
n. 3sol canyon, valley
Zaldrīzes rihot ilza! — There is a dragon in the valley!
  • ripo ['ripo]
n. 3lun. the pit or stone of a fruit.
  • rīza ['riːza]
n. 1lun. reptile, lizard
ñoghoqitta rīza — armless lizard[55]
  • rizmon ['rizmon]
n. 3ter. sand
  • rōbir ['roːbir]
n. 5aq.[18] fig.
Sparos rōbir angotas. — Who bit the fig?
  • ropagon [ro'pagon]
perfect: ropatas[186]
v. V-fin. to fall
Averilloma mittys ropatas. — The drunken fool fell.
  • rōva ['roːva] , comp. rōvykta
adj. I big
Davido zaldrīzes aōhos zaldrīzose rōvyktys issa. — David’s dragon is bigger than your dragon.
  • rōvēgrie [roː'veːgri͡e]
adj. III huge, enormous; great, excellent ( < rōva + -ēgrie.)
Kony rōvēgrior blēnon issa! — That is an enormous mountain!
rōvēgrior intj. "excellent"[63]
  • rōvēgrī [roː'veːgriː]
adv. greatly, enormously ( < rōvēgrie + .)
Rōvēgrī qringōntan. — I’ve erred enormously[187]
  • ruaka [ˈru͡aka]
adj. I dull
  • ruaragon [ru͡a'ɾagon]
v. C-fin. hide (oneself); hen→dat[188] from...
Kēli hen aōt ruarza. — The cat is hiding from you.[189]
  • rudigon [ru'digon]
v. V-fin. dig
  • rughagon [ru'ɣagon]
perfect: rūdan
v. C-fin. to drop; in the reflexive to quit.
Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. — You quit, you mean.
  • rūklon ['ruːklon]
n. 3ter. flower[190]
Rūkluni ynot teptas lua vala bisy issa. — This is the man who gave me some flowers.
6for[192] R'hllor, the Lord of Light (possibly from Asshai'i.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
  • rūnagon ['ruːnagon]
v. C-fin. to remember
Jelmor rūnis. — The North remembers[90]
Jelmor rūnas. — The North remembers[90]
  • rūniapos ['ruːni͡apos]
n. 3sol. letter, note ( < rūnagon + -iapos.)
n. 3sol. baby, child.
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza, kesrio syt lanta iksan, rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — He holds us safe, for now I am two, with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • rȳbagon ['ryːbagon]
perfect: ryptan
v. C-fin. to hear.
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • ryptegon ['ryptegon]
v. V-fin. to listen (eventative of rȳbagon.)
  • rytsa ['rytsa]
adj. I healthy
  • rytsas ['rytsas]
exp. hello. ( < rytsa)

S

  • saelie ['saɛ̯li͡e] -ior
num. adj. III third
  • sagon ['sagon]
perfect: istan
v. irreg. to be. 3s forms issa[194] and kessa[4] may be used to mean yes.
  • sahagon [sa'hagon]
perfect: sētan
v. irreg. to use; to cause, to force →dat.+inf.
Dohaerirot ñuhe annī rāenagon sētan. — I made the servant brush my horse.
  • sambar ['sambar]
n. 1aq. cloud
  • sambrar ['sambrar]
n. 6col.1aq. fog (col. of sambar cloud.)
  • se [se]
conj. and
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • sēnagon ['seːnagon]
v. C-fin. to kill. [195]
Perzys zaldrīzi sēnagon kostos daor. — Fire cannot kill a dragon.
  • sepār ['sepaːr]
conj. and especially where consecutivity is implied, and then, next; therefore ( < se + pār.)
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
conj. just as
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
in conditionals then...
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[10]
  • sesīr ['sesiːr]
conj. even; and now; and so. ( < se "and" + sīr "now".)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
  • sētegon ['seːtegon]
v. V-fin. to make possibly, more specifically to forge (eventative of sahagon.)[196]
Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?[9]
  • sēter ['seːter]
n. 3aq. magic spell, enchantment (prob from sahagon, or perh. sētegon.)
  • sīglie ['siːgli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III seventh
  • sigligon ['sigligon]
perfect: siglitan
v. V-fin. to bear again ( < sikagon + -ligon.)
in the passive to be born again
Vȳs verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!
  • sikagon [si'kagon]
perfect: sittan
v. C-fin. to give birth to, to bear (prob. sagon, or its aorist sigon, + -ikagon.)
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
to light a candle
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[64]
  • sīkuda ['siːkuda] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I seven
  • sīkudēpsa ['siːkudeːpsa] indec.
num. seventy
  • sīmonagon [siːmo'nagon]
perfect: sīmontan
v. C-fin. to rise
  • sindigon ['sindigon]
perfect: sindita
v. V-fin. to buy[197]
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
Dohaeriros istin, sindita liortā, qilonta ozbartā. — I was a slave once, bought and sold, scourged and branded.[8]
  • sindilion ['sindilion]
n. 3ter. Market, marketplace ( < sindigon + -lion.)
Dārys dāriā sindiliot udekurzi. — The king and the queen are approaching the marketplace.
  • sīr [siːr]
adv. now
Yn dāeri vali sīr issi — But you are free men now.
lo sīr now that
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? — Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[9]
  • sīrgo [siːɾgo]
adv. prior, previously, before (now), beforehand (sīr + go.)
Sīrgō parklon iprattā? — Have you eaten meat before?
  • sīudīblie ['siːudiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III seventieth
  • skore ['skoɾe] -ior
int.pron. adj. II which for inanimates, what
  • skorī ['skoɾiː]
int.pron. when?
Skorī vala rōbir angotas? — When did the man bite the fig?
conj./rel.pron. when
Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. — When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
  • skorion ['skoɾi͡on]
int.pron. 3ter. what esp. for places, mass nouns, and abstracts
"Skorion massitas?" — "What happened?"
skorio syt why
  • skoriot ['skoɾi͡ot]
int.pron. where? (loc. of skorion.)
SKORIOT ÑUHYZ ZALDRĪZESSE ISSI?![75] — WHERE ARE MY DRAGONS?![198]
  • skoros ['skoɾos]
int.pron. 3sol. what esp. for concrete, countable items
Skoros otāpā? — What do you think?
Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? — What are your names?
Skoros gaomā? — What are you doing?[199]
skoro syt why
Skoro syt ipradā? — Why are you eating?
  • skorkydoso [skoɾky'doso]
int.pron. how ( < skore + -kydoso.)
Skorkydoso udlilat? — How will you respond?[9]
Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?[63]
  • skorverdon [skoɾ'verdon]
int.pron. 3ter. how many (+ genitive, usually plural) ( < skore + verdon.)
Skorverdon valoti ēdrusi? — How many men are sleeping?
  • skorȳso ['skoɾyːso]
int.pron. why; conj. because properly used in this sense only in response to a question. (instrumental of skoros.)
  • sōlutty [soː'lutty]
n. 2lun. scroll
Sōlutti gūrogon aōhe mandie sytilības. — Your older sister should get a scroll.
  • sombāzmion [som'baːzmi͡on]
n. 3ter. castle[200] ( < somby + -āzma + -ion.)
  • somby ['somby]
n. 2lun. shield
  • sōna ['soːna]
n. 1lun. snow. gen.col. Sōnaro Snow surname used by acknowledged bastards in The North of Westeros.
  • sōnar ['soːnar]
n. 6col.1lun. winter[201] (relex. col. of sōna.)
Sōnar Māzis — Winter Is Coming
  • sōpagon ['soːpagon]
v. C-fin. to laugh
  • sōvegon ['soːvegon]
v. V-fin. to fly
  • sōvemagon ['soːvemagon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to make fly ( < sōvegon + -emagon.)
Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. — Stories can make us fly.[202]
  • spare ['spaɾe] -ior
int.pron. adj. II which for animates
Spare vale ābra urnes? — Which man does the woman see?
  • sparion ['spaɾi͡on]
int.pron. 3ter. who esp. for mass nouns, and abstracts.
  • sparos ['spaɾos]
int.pron. who esp. for concrete, countable entities.
Sparos rōbir angotas. — Who bit the fig?
sparo syt For whom? On account of whom? For whose sake?
  • stepagon ['stepagon]
perfect: steptan
v. Insv. C-fin. to share.
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[64]
  • sūmar[203] ['suːmar] sūbr-
n. 1aq. tea
Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. — I begin my day with tea.[180]
  • suvion [ˈsuvio͡n]
n. 3ter ice
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[31]
  • sylugon [sy'lugon]
perfect: sylutan
v. V-fin. to try[204] (cf. sylvia.)
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
  • sylutegon [sylu'tegon]
v. V-fin. trans. to taste something[42] (eventative of sylugon).
Averille sylutetā? — Have you tasted the wine?
  • sylvia ['sylvi͡a]
n. 1lun. wisdom (cf. sylugon, the sense being experience.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[44]
  • sylvie ['sylvi͡e]
adj. III wise
  • sȳndrilla [syːn'drilla]
n. aq°. color (< sȳndor + -illa.)
Sparior sȳndrilla Rhaegal issa? — What color is Rhaegal?
  • sȳndor ['syːndor]
n. 3aq.[205] shadow [158]
Peldiō sȳndor. — The viper's shadow.
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[76]
sȳndror darkness
… se sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr… — … and those who love the darkness…[9]
Hen sȳndrorro, ōños. — From darkness, light.[206]
  • sȳrī [ˈsyːɾiː]
adv. well
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.
  • Syrio [ˈsyɾi͡o]
n. 3aq. Syrio (cf. sȳz.)
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.
  • syt [syt]
postp.→gen. for. Skoro syt why? (prob. historically the locative or dative of an unknown or lost noun, perhaps something like *sion, or maybe something related to sȳz, with the idea of for the good of....)
rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • sytiderēbagon [sytide'ɾeːbagon]
perfect: sytiderēptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to chose for, select for. +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive), +dat: the thing selected. ( < syt- + i- + derēbagon.)
Vala rōbrȳti Aeri sytiderēbza. — The man selects figs for Aerys."
Aeri sytiderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for.
  • sytilībagon [syti'liːbagon]
v. C-fin. to belong. (prob. < syt- + il- + -ībagon.)
  • sytiotāpio [syti͡o'taːpi͡o]
n. 3lun?' advisor ( < syt- + iotāpagon + -io.)
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[10]
  • sytivīlībagon [sytiviː'liːbagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < syt- + i- + vīlībagon "to fight".)
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • sȳz [syːz] sȳrior
adj. II good, well-made
Kydȳptakson sȳz kesos. — It would be good to have been measured.[40]
Yn kesys tubis hen mirro tubiot sȳrpys issa. — But today is as good a day as any.[207]
Jaehossas sȳris sātās — Gods be good![77]

T

  • Taena ['taɛ̯na]
n. 1lun. Taena
Taena hen Mȳrot issa. — Taena is from Myr.
  • tāemītsos ['taːɛ̯miːtsos]
n. 3sol. stick (diminutive of unattested root tāem- + -ītsos, presumably meaning something like branch.)
  • tala ['tala]
n. 1lun. daughter[208]
{{quote| | }
  • taoba ['taɔ̯ba]
n. 1lun. boy
  • Targārien [taɾ'gaːɾi͡en]
n. 4ter.[18] Targaryen a family name.
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • tatagon [ta'tagon]
v. C-fin. to finish.
perfect: tetan
  • tēgie ['teːgi͡e] -ior
adj. III curved
  • tēgigon ['teːgigon]
v. V-fin. intrans. to curve, be curved.
  • tēgir ['teːgir]
n. 5aq. curve
  • tegon ['tegon]
n. 3ter. ground. pauc. tegun land. coll.[209] tegor lands collectively.[210]
  • tegōñe [te'goːɳe] -or
adj. II terrestrial ( < tegon + -ōñe.)
  • tegun ['tegun]
n. 6col.3ter. land. coll. tegor lands collectively.[210] (relex. pauc. of tegon)
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[76]
  • tēmagon ['teːmagon]
v. to prick, to poke
Rōvon dēmalion rōvi jenti tēmas. — A great throne pokes a great leader.
  • temby ['temby]
n. 2lun. leaf.
  • tembyr ['tembyr]
n. 6col.2lun. book.[211] (col. of temby.)
  • tepagon ['tepagon]
perfect: teptan
v. C-fin. to give may only be used with first- and second- person recipients. For third person recipients, use irughagon instead.
Kesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. — Today I give you freedom.
  • teptys ['teptys]]
n. 2sol. teacher, instructor, mentor ( < tepagon + -tys.)
Issa, ñuhys teptys, zaldrīzesse Daeneromy ēdrusi. — Yes, my teacher, the dragons are sleeping with Daenerys.
  • Thoros ['θoɾos]
n. 3sol(?) Thoros, a name.
  • tīkor ['tiːkor]
n. 6col.3sol. flock of birds[212] (col. of tīkos.)
  • tīkos ['tiːkos]
n. 3sol. feather[212]
  • tīkun ['tiːkun] (pauc. of tīkos.)
n. 6pauc.3sol. wing[212]
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
  • timpa ['timpa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I white; light; light-colored; grey; pink
Bonys timpys hontes gevie issa! — That white bird is beautiful!
  • tindon ['tindon]
n. 3ter. root
  • tista ['tista] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I dry (poss. a perf. part.)
  • tistālior [ti'staːli͡or]
n. 6col?.3ter? bank (prob. coll. of *tistālion store room lit. drying place < tista + -lion.)
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]
  • tolī ['toliː]
adv. above; after; beyond[65]
Timpys hontes tolī ūndan. — I saw a white bird overhead.
excessively, too, too much
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
Ñuhor qȳbor kisalbār tolī iprattas. — My uncle ate too much at the banquet.
more[4]
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.
  • tolie ['toli͡e] -ior
adj. III other (perh. lit. higher, cf. tolī, toliot.)
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
  • toliot ['toli͡ot]
post.→gen. above, over; after[65]
  • tolmio ['tolmi͡o]
3lun. far side, far wall[213]
  • tolmiot ['tolmi͡ot]
adv. far
post.→gen. across (loc. of tolmio, "far side." This is why it can be combined with hen.)
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • tolvie ['tolvi͡e] -ior
adj. III every
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. — Slay every man who holds a whip.
  • tolviot ['tolvi͡ot]
indef.pron. everywhere ( < tolvie.)
Dovaogēdi tolviot ilzi! — There are Unsullied everywhere!
  • tolvys ['tolvys]
indef.pron. 2sol. everyone ( < tolvie.)
Tolvys morghūlis. — Everyone must die.
  • tolvȳn ['tolvyːn]
indef.pron. 6pauc.2sol everything
Zokla tolvȳni iprattas! — A wolf ate everything!
  • tolys ['tolys]
indef.pron. 2sol. someone else ( < tolie.)
Kostilus, sēter tolot tepās. — Please give the spell to someone else.
Kirimvose daor. Toli jorrāelan. — No thank. I love someone else.
  • tōma ['toːma] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I five
  • tōmo ['toːmo]
n. 3lun. elderberry plant ( < tōma, referring to the five-petaled blossoms.)
  • tōmelie ['toːmeli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fifth
  • tōmēpsa [toː'meːpsa] indec.
num. fifty
  • tōmīblie [toː'miːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fiftieth
  • tōmītsos [toː'miːtsos]
n. 3sol. elderberry ( < tōmo + -ītsos.)
  • trēsy ['treːsy]
n. 2lun. son.[214]
Tȳni Trēsi — Second Sons
  • trūma ['truːma]
adj. I deep
  • trūmirī ['truːmiɾiː]
adv. deeply ( < trūma + .)
  • tubis ['tubis]
n. 5sol. day; kesȳ tubī, tubī[4] adv. today
Kesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. — Today I give you freedom.
Tubī daor. — Not today.[4]
  • turgon [tuɾ'gon]
n. 3ter. worm.[215]
  • tymagon [ty'magon]
perfect: tymptan
v. C-fin. to play, to frolic
Riña tymptir raqiroso tymptas. — The girl played the game with a friend.
  • tymptir ['tymptir]
n. 5aq. game (substantivized perf. part. of tymagon.)
Tymptir Dēmalȳti — A Game of Thrones[35]
  • tȳne ['tyːne] -ior
num. adj. II second; secondary.
  • Tyros ['tyɾos]
n. 3sol. Tyrosh
Tyros! Ñuhos arlies lentos! — Tyrosh! My new home!
  • tyvagon [tyˈvagon]
perfect: tȳdan
v. C-fin. to crawl, to creep
  • tyvaros [tyˈvaɾos]
n.sol. serpent, snake (subst. part. of tyvagon.)

U

  • ubles ['ubles]
n. 4sol. eel
  • udekuragon [udeku'ɾagon]
v. C-fin. to near, to approach. ( < u- + dekuragon.)
Dārys dāriā sindiliot udekurzi. — The king and the queen are approaching the marketplace.
  • udir ['udir]
n. 5aq. word[216]
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
May also be used, just like English word, in the sense of news:
Se vasīr dorior udir Drogo bē? — And still no word of Drogon?[217]
pauc. com. udrimmi used as an adjective meaning witty, clever.
Bony udrimmi taoba issa! — That one is a clever boy!
  • udligon [u'dligon]
perfect: udlitan
v. V-fin. to respond, to answer (Poss. *ud- seen udir + -ligon.)
May be used intransitively:
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
or transitively:
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • udrāzma [u'draːzma]
n. 1lun. command ( < udr- + -āzma.)
Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. — I do not bring you commands.
  • udrir ['udrir]
n. 6col.5aq. language (relex. coll. of udir.)
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? — Do you speak Valyrian?[63]
  • uēs ['u͡eːs]
n. 3sol. squid
' — Sȳz uēs issa.
  • uēmagon ['u͡eːmagon]
v. C-fin. to vomit (could possibly be a Loc. appl. from u-, but if so the base verb is not yet attested. The long ē makes emagon highly unlikely.)
  • uēpa ['u͡eːpa]
adj. I old
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
  • ūja ['uːja]
pers.pron. it, (he, she) (terrestrial, aquatic).
  • ūlio ['uːli͡o]
n. 3lun. falcon
Spare ūlio gevie issa? — Which falcon is beautiful?.
  • umāzigon [u'maːzigon]
perfect: umāstan
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to come to, to arrive at
Ñuho kisalbrot umāzīt? — Are you coming to my banquet?
  • umbagon [ˈumbagon]
perfect: umptan[81]
v. C-fin. to stay, to wait, to remain[218]
  • ūñagon [uː'ɳagon]
perfect: ūntan
v. C-fin. to count
  • ūndegon ['uːndegon]
perfect: ūndetan
v. V-fin. to see, to catch sight of, to sight (eventative of urnegon.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
Ābre kustittas lue vale ūndetan. — I saw the man who encouraged the woman.
  • unektogon [u'nektogon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to cut out. ( < u- + nektogon.)
  • urnēbagon [uɾ'neːbagon]
v. C-fin. to watch. ( < urnegon + -ēbagon.)
Mastas. Valar urnēbis. — It has come. All men must watch.[219]
  • urnēbion [uɾ'neːbi͡on]
n. 3ter. watch.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
  • urnegon ['uɾnegon]
perfect: ūndan
v. V-fin. to see.
  • usōvegon [u'soːvegon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to apologize ( < {u- + sōvegon.)

V

  • va [va]
prep.→loc. towards, at, near; →dat. to, all the way up to.
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • vāedagon ['vaːɛ̯dagon]
perfect: vāettan[81]
v. C-fin. to sing
  • vāedar ['vaːɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. song
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[31]
  • vala ['vala]
n. 1lun. man. Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlis
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • valonqar [va'loɴqar]
n. 1aq. younger brother[220]; younger male cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[45].
  • Valyre [va'lyɾe]
adj. II. Valyrian.
Iōnos Valyre korzī ēza. — Jon has a Valyrian sword.
  • Valyria [va'lyɾi͡a]
n. 1lun. Valyria; the Valyrian language.
Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. — His Valyrian is terrible[9]
Valyrio, Valyrio udrir the Valyrian language.
Valyrio muño ēngos ñuhys issa. — Valyrian is my mother tongue.
  • Valyrīha [valy'ɾiːha]
adj. I. Valyrian. ( < Valyria + -sīha.)
  • Valyrīhy [valy'ɾiːhy]
n. 2lun. Valyrian, i.e. a Valyrian person, or a person from the Valyrian peninsula. (Substantivized form of Valyrīha.)
  • Valyry [va'lyɾy]
n. 2lun. Valyria, a Valyrian person.
  • valzȳrys [val'zyːɾys]
n. 2sol. husband ( < vala + -zȳrys.)
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • vamiot ['vami͡ot]
adv. near (possibly the locative of an unknown noun, containing va-)
Vamiot raqiros eman. — I have a friend nearby.
  • vandis ['vandis]
n. 5sol. bull, male head of cattle
  • vaogemagon [vaɔ̯ge'magon]
perfect: vaogēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to sully, to defile ( < *vaog- seen in vaogenka + -emagon.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • vaogenka [vaɔ̯'geŋka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I dirty ( < vaog-, as in dovaogedy, + -enka.)
  • vaokses ['vaɔ̯kses]
n. 4sol. spider. [221] (perh. related to vaogenka?)
  • vaoresagon ['vaɔ̯ɾesagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to prefer, to favor →gen/dat. ( < va- + u- + *resagon)
Valo luo vaoresan. — I prefer one which is a man‘s.
  • vaoreznon [vaɔ̯'ɾeznon]
n. 3ter. favor ( < vaoresagon + -non.)
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • Vargo [vaɾgo]
n. 3aq. Vargo
Vargo hen Qorhot issa. — Vargo is from Qohor.
  • vasīr ['vasiːr]
adv. still, as yet, so far ( < va + sīr.)
Se vasīr Drogon ūndetoks daor? — And as yet Drogon hasn’t been sighted?[217]
  • vasrie ['vasri͡e], vajie ['vaji͡e] -ior
adj. III thin
  • vēdros ['veːdros]
n. 3sol. anger
Vēdroso, vīlīpti. — In anger, we fought.
  • vējes ['veːjes]
n. 4sol. fate, doom, including The Doom of Valyria[222](perh. akin to vēzos.)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
in the inst. vējose! intj. "By fate!"[223]
  • vējōñe [veː'joːɳe] -or
adj. III. southern ( < vēzor + -ōñe.)[89]
  • velkrys ['velkrys]
2sol. stag, male deer.[28]
  • velma ['velma]
n. 1lun. father's older sister, paternal aunt older than father[45].
Dārys īlve velme majaqsa. — The king admires our aunt.
  • velmanna [vel'manna]
n. 1lun. father's older sister's child, cousin by paternal aunt older than father[45].
Riña ñuhī velmannī izūgas. — The girl fears my cousins.
  • verdagon ['veɾdagon]
perfect: vēttan
v. C-fin. to arrange; to make (a decision) (cf. verdon.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • verdligon ['veɾdligon]
perfect: verdlitan
v. V-fin. to remake, recreate ( < verdagon + -ligon.)
Vȳs verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!
  • verdon ['veɾdon]
n. 3ter. sum, figure, amount, number (cf. verdagon.)
Keson verdon harrenkon iksos daor. — This amount is not appropriate.
  • Vesteros ['vesteros]
n. 3sol. Westeros
Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero — the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros
  • vestragon ['vestragon]
perfect: vestretan
v. C-fin. to say
Skoros morghot vestri? — What do we say to death?[224]
with impersonal subject it seems →dat. to[225]
  • vestriarzir [ves'tri͡aɾzir]
n. 5aq[226] story (substantivized aorist passive participle of vestragon, lit. that which is (ever/habituatlly/generally) told.)
Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. — Stories can make us fly.[202]
  • vestretir ['vestretir]
n. 5aq. proclamation, statement[227] (substantivized perfect participle of vestragon, lit. that which has been said.)
  • vēttir ['veːttir]
n. 5aq. a law (referring to a specific one), regulation[228] (substantivized perfect participle of verdagon, lit. what has been arranged.)
col. vēttrir the law in general.
Vēttrir vēttrir issa. — The law is the law.[229]
  • vēzor ['veːzor] vēj-
n. 3aq. south ( < vēzos.)[89]
  • vēzos ['veːzos]
n. 3sol. sun
Vēzos qēlossās ñuho. — My sun and stars.[63]
  • vēzenka [veː'zeŋka]
adj. I solar ( < vēzos + -enka.)
vēzenkon qogror. — “solar class”.[72]
  • vīlībagon [viː'liːbagon]
perfect: vīlīptan
v. C-fin. to fight
Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. — All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.
  • vīlībāzma [viːliː'baːzma]
n. 1lun. war, battle ( < vīlībagon + -āzma.); instr. vīlībāzmosa by combat (concerning a trial)
Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza, yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — The war rages on, but soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • Viserion [vi'seri͡on]
n. 3ter. Viserion
  • Viserys [vi'seriys]
Viserys Daenero lēkia issa. — Viserys is Daenerys's brother.
  • vokemagon [voke'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to purify (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in voktys, + -emagon.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • voktys ['voktys]
n. 2sol. priest, priestess. (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in vokemagon, + -tys.)
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • Volantīha [volan'tiːha]
adj. I. Volantene. ( < Volantis + -sīha.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[44]
  • Volantis [vo'lantis]
n. 5sol. Volantis
Sȳrior averilla Volantī ilza. — There is good wine in Volantis.
  • vōljes ['voːʎes]
n. 4sol. raven
Vōljesse ēdrusi. — The ravens are sleeping.
  • vollie ['volli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III ninth.
  • vōre ['voːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II nine.
  • vōrēpsa [voː'ɾeːpsa] indec.
num. ninety.
  • vōrīblie [voː'ɾiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III ninetieth.
  • vūjigon ['vuːjigon]
perfect: vūjitan
v. V-fin. to kiss
Perzo Vūjita — Kissed by Fire
Vala abre vūjitas. Vale abra vūjitas. — The man kissed the woman. The woman kissed the man.[63]
  • vumbiarzy [vum'biarzy]
n. 2lun. room (possibly the substantivized passive aorist participle of u- + umbagon, lit. "that which one usually stays in")
Drīvose ñuhā vumbiarzȳ ēdrun. — Actually, I am sleeping in my room.
  • vȳs [vyːs]
n. 3sol? world
Vȳs verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!

Y

  • ybon ['ybon]
n. 3ter. knee
  • ȳdragon ['yːdragon]
perfect: ȳdratan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to speak, to speak to →acc. ( < i- + udir.)
Brandon vōlī ȳdragon kostas. — Bran can speak to ravens.
of languages, →inst.
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? — Do you speak Valyrian?[63]
  • ȳgha ['yːɣa]
adj. I safe
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza — He holds us safe
  • ykynagon [yky'nagon]
v. V-fin. to smell
Sȳrior havon ykynan. — I smell good bread.
  • yn [yn]
conj. but.
qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn riñe dōre ōdrikātās. — slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.
  • yne, ynot etc., see nyke.
  • ȳrda ['yːrda] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I narrow
  • yrgos ['yrgos]
n. 3sol. neck
Sparo gevie yrgos kony issa? — Whose beautiful neck is that?
  • ȳs [yːs] yv-
n. 3sol. art

Z

  • zālagon ['zaːlagon]
perfect: zaltan?
v. C-fin. to burn. va daorunta zālagon to burn away, to burn to nothing
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • zaldrīzerme [zaldriː'zerme]
adj. invar.' indestructible, invincible (idiomatic use of the commitative of zaldrīzer, lit. "with all the dragons")
Taoba zaldrīzerme jenti majaqsa. — The boy admires the indestructible leader.
  • zaldrīzes [zal'driːzes]
n. 4sol. dragon. ( < zālagon + rīza.)
Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. — A dragon is not a slave.
zaldrīzo ānogar — Blood of the dragon[230]
  • zān [zaːn]
adv. yesterday
Zān hen Lyvot ābre ūndan. — Yesterday I saw a woman from Lys.
  • zenturlion [zenturli͡on]
n. 3ter. hotel (possibly from zentys + -uragon + -lion, cf. laehurlion)
Dāria arlȳro zenturliot ēdrus. — The queen is sleeping at a new hotel.
  • zentys ['zentys]
n.2sol. guest
Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. — These men are our guests.
  • ziksoso [zi'ksoso]
adv. in his way, as he wishes (unknown; cf. ñyhoso & aōhoso for which corresponding form should be *zȳhoso.)
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • zīragon ['ziːɾagon]
perfect: zīrtan
v. C-fin. to freeze; zīrtys perzys[160] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian
  • ziry ['ziɾy]
pron. he, she, (it) (solar & lunar).
  • zirȳla [zi'ɾyːla]
refl. 1lun. himself, herself, itself
  • zōbrie ['zoːbri͡e], -ior
adj. III dark; black; dark-colored; grey; purple
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
  • zokla ['zokla]
n. 1lun. wolf
Zokla kēlio kostōbirī angotas. — The wolf bit mightily into the lion.
  • zoklākogon [zo'klaːkogon]
v. V-fin. to entice, entreat somebody→loc. (apparently < zokla with some sort of suffix, perhaps a variant of -ikagon.)
Iōnot zoklākō? — Are you enticing Jon?
  • zoklītsos [zo'kliːtsos]
n. 3sol. little wolf ( < zokla + -ītsos.)
  • zūgagon ['zuːgagon]
perfect: zūgdan
v. C-fin. to be afraid, to fear →dat.
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • zūger ['zuːger]
n. perh. 4sol. or 6col. fear[62]
Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. — Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.
  • zȳha ['zyːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I his, her, its.
  • zȳhon ['zyːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. his, hers, (its).
Zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — His is the song of ice and fire.[31]

Abbreviations

adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aq. or aquatic
conj. conjunction
dem. demonstrative
exp. expression
intj. interjection
lun. or lunar
n. noun
num. numeral
postp. postposition
pron. pronoun
prep. preposition
sol. or solar
ter. or terrestrial
v. verb
C-fin. consonant-final
V-fin. vowel-final
→acc. triggers accusative
→gen. triggers genitive
→dat. triggers dative
→inst. triggers instrumental
→loc. triggers locative
° unexpected gender

Further Information

For information on conjugation, declension, etc. see the pages below.


For words listed according to subject matter, see

Notes

  1. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52258261806/thank-you-for-the-castithian-my-friend-and-i-just
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/338005118010130432, https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/347619785397370880
  3. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92768950255/hello-i-was-just-wondering-if-like-in-a-previous-post
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2014/5/8/high-valyrian-101-learn-and-pronounce-common-phrases
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-38103
  6. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92768950255/hello-i-was-just-wondering-if-like-in-a-previous-post
  7. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474704833518116864
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/163414677489/valyrian-dialogue-episode-702-of-game-of-thrones
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143383597638/valyrian-and-dothraki-dialogue-episode-601-of
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145864394290/valyrian-dialogue-episode-608-of-game-of-thrones, vowel quantities reconstructed.
  11. Form reconstructed from perfect angotas. May be incorrect.
  12. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92671165154/hi-mr-peterson-i-admire-what-you-did-for-game-of
  13. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118300113747/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-blood-of
  14. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145212291778/hi-my-name-is-jadie-i-was-wondering-if-you-could
  15. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88694557124/love-your-work-in-game-of-thrones-i-was-wondering-if#comment-1434792964
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119626846322/ive-been-looking-around-the-hv-wiki-pages-and-the
  17. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/gryves-se-rina-litse/#comment-2143
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 Gender confirmed
  19. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/451498834666221568
  20. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/451761993121161216
  21. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85570
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69709127260/hi-huge-fan-of-your-work-on-thrones-really-brougt-the
  23. Lexical form, gender, gloss: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/348732679384076288; etymology: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/348858959114948609
  24. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/438934775563157505
  25. 25.0 25.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7846
  26. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/78803739713/hi-david-a-friend-of-mine-wants-to-get-all-men-must
  27. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/ask#comment-1674963176
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7851
  29. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335166657926410240
  30. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/509053010991788032
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/07/vaes-dothrak-vimithreri/#comment-5004
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/
  33. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94646713173/how-do-you-say-to-rain-in-hv-is-it-daomio-ropagon
  34. Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. , revealed before release at https://twitter.com/GretchenAMcC/status/635850295130595328?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw
  35. 35.0 35.1 http://www.whosay.com/articles/1559-how-do-you-say-game-of-thrones-in-high-valyrian
  36. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/424640427719786497
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/130164397557/i-saw-your-high-valyrian-translation-of-reform
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/09/how-would-donald-trump-sound-dothraki
  39. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93606199925/whats-all-women-must-die-in-high-valyrian-wink
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91382440334/is-there-such-a-thing-as-a-passive-infinitive-in-high#permalink-notes
  41. 41.0 41.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-46878
  42. 42.0 42.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84258
  43. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/144113158257/hi-mr-peterson-thanks-for-translating-but-we
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/144812959909/valyrian-dialogue-episode-605-of-game-of-thrones
  45. 45.00 45.01 45.02 45.03 45.04 45.05 45.06 45.07 45.08 45.09 45.10 45.11 45.12 45.13 45.14 45.15 https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/809562861118754816
  46. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91682702722/valar-morghulis-i-need-some-help-in-translating-a
  47. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91661010691/hi-mr-peterson-i-have-a-friend-who-wants-to-know-how
  48. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119452523036/any-chance-youre-allowed-to-provide-a-transcript
  49. https://www.facebook.com/eleni.mandell.1/posts/10153866837815220
  50. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/452973907188793344
  51. The word for “sea” in High Valyrian is embar (or, more figurately, embrar) —DJP
  52. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94386491674/how-do-you-say-otter-in-high-valyrian
  53. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially
  55. 55.0 55.1 55.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121691127784/hey-i-recently-got-a-pet-snake-and-wanted-a-name
  56. 56.0 56.1 https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/508612.David_J_Peterson (Not clear if mirros should be translated "something," or "anything," but the former seems more appropriate for a Type 1 substantive.
  57. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85299
  58. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/53805143580/hi-david-im-a-huge-fan-of-your-work-d-i-have-a
  59. Meaning is approximately "may your path be straight."
  60. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85573
  61. 61.0 61.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/134348169425/hi-there-im-sprekenze-dick-from-the-question
  63. 63.00 63.01 63.02 63.03 63.04 63.05 63.06 63.07 63.08 63.09 63.10 63.11 63.12 63.13 63.14 Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 64.4 64.5 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143745488442/high-valyrian-dialogue-episode-602-of-game-of#comment-2658413687
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/elat-kathivezhofari/
  66. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/576521593104543744 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/113644671562/could-you-tell-us-wheel-so-that-we-can-do-im
  67. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/146907290806/how-would-i-say-all-men-must-learn-in-high
  68. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/889350967266648064
  69. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1265, http://www.vulture.com/2013/04/game-of-thrones-dothraki-language-inventor.html
  70. 70.0 70.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96486949844/i-was-just-recommended-your-blog-and-wow
  71. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91890097707/i-want-her-collar-to-have-inscribed-in-it-in-high
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 The names for the solar and lunar genders were long thought to be vēzenkor qogror and hūrenkor qogror, due to this comment, but DJP has since clarified that that was in error, and that qogror is indeed terrestrial, precisely as one would expect. As this error has persisted uncorrected for two years, it has already been propagated to any discussions of HV on the internet. If you are in a position to do so, please correct any references you may find to ˣvēzenkor qogror or ˣhūrenkor qogror to vēzenkon and hūrenkon respectively.
  73. 73.0 73.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/97662740892/hey-hey-hi-i-was-wondering-if-you-could-tell-me
  74. http://www.dothraki.com/2011/09/the-header-script/#comment-93965
  75. 75.0 75.1 Generally, when it comes to "being" in a certain place, ilagon must be used. In some contexts sagon may also be used, but the rule is not yet clear. We know that "Who is at the Inn at the Crossroads?" must be Sparos Īliliot Zenturliot ilza? ( ˣissa is not permitted here), but "Where are my dragons?" may be either Skoriot Skoriot ñuhyz zaldrīzesse issi? or Skoriot Skoriot ñuhyz zaldrīzesse ilzi?
  76. 76.0 76.1 76.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121116158163/can-you-translate-in-the-land-of-mordor-where
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 http://geekyconblr.tumblr.com/post/116039992144/this-might-be-the-coolest-special-guest
  78. 78.0 78.1 78.2 78.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121683073283/were-the-pit-fighters-saying-a-high-valyrian
  79. 79.0 79.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88003383998/hmm-would-it-be-too-much-to-ask-what-let-it-go-or
  80. DJP is somewhat uneasy with this form, though he concedes it is valid:
    "As for sr > j, yes, you could list those as in free variation, though for myself, I’d be hesitant to do ioje. I like iosre better. But that doesn’t mean ioje isn’t acceptable by any means."
    —Email 3-29-15
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107545400399/what-are-the-perfect-stems-of-umbagon-vaedagon
  82. DJP originally said this was not the applicative i-, or at least not so analyzed in Classical High Valyrian: https://www.facebook.com/Dedalvs/posts/10152824337550207?comment_id=40431635&offset=0&total_comments=7. However, in later conversation he revealed that it actually is an applicatve in origin.
  83. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/337310280780496896 et seq.
  84. 84.0 84.1 84.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/53797550110/does-hv-have-words-for-seasons-also-in-the-word
  85. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474603184929783809
  86. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/352348019221471233
  87. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/130206304747/hi-david-i-was-wondering-is-there-a-word-for
  88. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/84737612397/hi-ever-since-i-was-a-kid-i-wondered-if-it-was
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/139864549891/do-you-have-a-word-for-north-and-south-in-high
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/163539415911/ive-been-trying-to-find-how-to-write-the-north
  91. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/163644629008/hey-david-i-was-wondering-what-is-the-valyrian
  92. 92.0 92.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/gryves-se-rina-litse/#comment-2096
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107610313810/jolloragon-is-to-study-so-what-does-loragon
  94. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107328192595/hi-david-lori-from-vegas-id-love-to-tattoo
  95. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143383597638/valyrian-and-dothraki-dialogue-episode-601-of#comment-2644399467
  96. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-83146
  97. 97.0 97.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85092
  98. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/373713198580371456
  99. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120048022336/hi-in-hv-keli-is-word-for-cat-and-itsos-is
  100. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145312330018/how-would-you-say-happy-fathers-day-in-either
  101. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92757921503/hey-dave-big-fan-of-your-got-works-and-from-what
  102. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/465550610108923904
  103. http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1chmc4/eseneziri_im_david_peterson_the_creator_of_the/c9glye7
  104. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/the-treasure-of-the-wastes/#comment-7464
  105. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92671165154/hi-mr-peterson-i-admire-what-you-did-for-game-of
  106. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/126022622650/in-a-dance-with-dragons-the-tattered-prince-says
  107. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/146715030979/would-a-feast-for-crows-be-l%C4%81roti-syt
  108. http://aquestforquintessence.tumblr.com/post/121356065817
  109. 109.0 109.1 http://www.whosay.com/articles/1568-how-do-you-say-steel-steal-in-high-valyrian
  110. 110.0 110.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88325977566/hello-im-getting-a-tattoo-pretty-soon-with-the-text
  111. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/89727687332/you-have-such-a-fantastic-blog-perfect-dose-of
  112. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/147010602198/is-ky-vanon-plan-strategy-related-to-cyvasse
  113. 113.0 113.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121289233637/how-you-say-faceless-men-in-valyrian
  114. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121414275532/lara
  115. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2161
  116. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/588610106226384896
  117. https://twitter.com/GretchenAMcC/status/635845315715796993
  118. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52129761918/saw-this-in-a-reddit-comment-section-and-htought-it
  119. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7298
  120. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/146620227802/hi-quick-question-how-do-you-say-peace-in-high
  121. DJP discusses origin at http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120754560057/ajellyinthemix-replied-to-your-post-you
  122. "...You call me maegi as if it were a curse, but all it means is wise...."

    Martin, George R.R. (1996). A Game of Thrones. Bantam Dell. p. 667. ISBN 978-0-553-38679-0. 
  123. 123.0 123.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/78803739713/hi-david-a-friend-of-mine-wants-to-get-all-men-must
  124. twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/489225828203384833
  125. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94582504901/how-do-you-say-bat-in-hv
  126. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  127. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-46875
  128. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/114140801248/hey-i-am-getting-a-tattoo-soon-and-ai-would-like
  129. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93815665904/i-took-a-look-at-the-high-valyrian-orthography-and
  130. "I suppose it really depends on how the speaker is feeling. You could certainly drop it straight into the lunar declension I paradigm (same as vala). You could also just strip the final -a in everything but the nominative singular and put it into the paradigm for borrowings. It’s a foreign word, so you never know." —DJP
  131. This sentence is unusual in that it was composed by Iustinus rather than DJP. However, DJP did correct this sentence, and confirm that the use of mirros in this sense was valid. As it is our only example (so far) of that usage, it seemed valid to cite it here.
  132. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/126038417371/hiya-could-you-translate-something-into-valyrian
  133. 133.0 133.1 https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/158828229020/hi-david-would-some-are-born-to-endless-night
  134. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92747480573/hi-could-you-translate-my-name-to-high-valyrian-it-is#_=_
  135. http://tmblr.co/ZCfvzu1Ti9KAA
  136. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/122447211945/how-do-you-say-jon-snow-isnt-dead-in-valyrian
  137. 137.0 137.1 137.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/51979081366/i-must-say-i-love-your-work-is-there-a-translation
  138. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/158828229020/hi-david-would-some-are-born-to-endless-night
  139. 139.0 139.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/109247050112/how-to-say-love-is-weakness-in-high-valyrian
  140. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  141. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/103850253334/how-do-you-say-east-in-hv-it-begins-with-naqo
  142. http://www.dothraki.com/2016/02/silent-crows/#comment-122984
  143. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/400882778138349568
  144. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/54359640759/seeing-your-name-ask-just-a-few-ago-makes-me-curious
  145. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/491113189849853953
  146. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/349242524906438656
  147. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/82008642642/hey-im-a-huge-fan-of-the-work-you-do-on-game-of
  148. 148.0 148.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85745
  149. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69709127260/hi-huge-fan-of-your-work-on-thrones-really-brougt-the#disqus_thread
  150. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/#comment-85806
  151. Christian Thalmann: Hmmm, could sȳngagon "to scare" be primordially related to zūgagon "to fear", like ȳdragon "to speak" and udir "word" might be?
    David J. Peterson: I suppose it could, but in this case it is not: it's primordially related to something else.
  152. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94656655691/hi-i-absolutely-love-the-languages-you-created-for
  153. DJP does not think he created this similarity intentionally, but you never know.
  154. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/607413757350809600
  155. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85525
  156. http://www.unstuckbooks.org/1/post/2014/01/the-language-experiment-an-interview-with-david-j-peterson.html
  157. 157.0 157.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52747943689/hi-im-a-big-fan-of-your-work-on-game-of-thrones-and
  158. 158.0 158.1 http://tmblr.co/ZCfvzu1QuCNSU
  159. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1178, http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7846
  160. 160.0 160.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/85073783014/whats-the-high-valyrian-word-for-dragonglass-obsidian
  161. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145864394290/valyrian-dialogue-episode-608-of-game-of-thrones
  162. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94376285120/how-do-you-say-apple-in-hv-is-it-lunar-like-gerpa#_=_
  163. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/343078908415066112
  164. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2035
  165. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/425106456510074880
  166. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94386491674/how-do-you-say-otter-in-high-valyrian
  167. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474698086950793217
  168. Form presumed based on qilonty and qilonārion.
  169. 169.0 169.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96907499002/you-just-said-qridronnor-is-the-hv-word-for-chaos
  170. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94740862654/you-said-bianor-biadra-was-subject-to-the
  171. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2079
  172. http://ic.pics.livejournal.com/jdm314/492753/3125/3125_300.png
  173. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/100781485428/hello-mr-peterson-first-of-all-congratulations
  174. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93634645640/whats-the-past-tense-of-raqagon-raqtan-rattan
  175. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7667
  176. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/137111885757/ahhhhhhh-i-havent-been-on-tumblr-in-a-few-days | New Yorkī was changed to Nuiōrkī to stay true to the High valyrian spelling and alphabet.
  177. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/60283121214/hey-there-im-a-big-fan-of-your-works-i-was-wondering
  178. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/06/valahd/#comment-100401
  179. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/07/valyrian-adjectives/#comment-2171
  180. 180.0 180.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/103841342123/hi-i-wanted-to-translate-i-begin-my-day-with
  181. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/134341895420/lexember-2015
  182. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/359200104382607360
  183. But this is not "set in stone": http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/#comment-85851
  184. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119387023579/sorry-about-that-how-do-you-say-congratulations
  185. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/60283121214/hey-there-im-a-big-fan-of-your-works-i-was-wondering
  186. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7331
  187. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/65717684734/hey-there-david-i-was-wondering-how-would-one-say#disqus_thread
  188. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/603437916082335744
  189. http://www.whosay.com/status/davidjpeterson/1107697, https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/603293497588916224
  190. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/386360871313629184
  191. It is possible that this should actually be Rullōr [rul'loːr]: "I just kept an irregular stress pattern, since it’s a borrowing. That said, it’s not as if the rules are hard and fast for how a borrowed word should be rendered. It very well could come out as Rullōr. That wouldn’t explain its nominative stress pattern (word-final), but it would explain the rest of the paradigm." —DJP
  192. It may be assumed this name follows the "foreign" declension, given that it is clearly a borrowing, and has irregular stress. But the only oblique case we've encountered is gen. Rullóro, which could indicate any declension class at all.
  193. For the citation form rūs, see http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/mhysa/#comment-1926
  194. Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. 
  195. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/85369375334/grey-worm-says-kill-the-masters-in-valyrian-in-a (presumably the short e is a typo), http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118731657289/how-would-you-say-fire-cannot-kill-a-dragon-in
  196. Interpretation proposed by https://twitter.com/JuanPaez97/status/727006745315278848
  197. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/#comment-1764
  198. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/357282200112218115
  199. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91693984920/rytsas-how-do-you-say-what-are-you-doing-in
  200. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/112862909962/thatsvalyrious-thank-you-mario-but-our-heir-to#comment-1891392739
  201. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/48918159946/hi-i-know-youre-busy-but-can-i-ask-you-something
  202. 202.0 202.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118971485709/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-stories-can
  203. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/110910885973/how-do-you-say-tea-in-hv-is-it-subar-or
  204. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/110291243121/what-does-sylugon-mean-sylutegon-hv
  205. Formerly thought to be 6col., per http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/97579530014/how-do-you-say-the-vipers-shadow-in-hv-and#comment-1841093921. Now known to be 3aq.: http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121116158163/can-you-translate-in-the-land-of-mordor-where#comment-2070602424
  206. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143745488442/high-valyrian-dialogue-episode-602-of-game-of
  207. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118392872372/text-asshekh-ray-jad-its-use-your-mother
  208. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335160470984069120, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/
  209. But this has been cast into doubt by http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94365589689/how-do-i-say-i-am-trent-of-the-land-in-high
  210. 210.0 210.1
    Tegun is actually "land" (paucal, terrestrial). Tegor would work if you need to say "lands" collective (e.g. "These are my various lands").
    —DJP, email, 2-9-2014.
  211. http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1chmc4/eseneziri_im_david_peterson_the_creator_of_the/c9glye7, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/08/valyrian-numerals
  212. 212.0 212.1 212.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2126
  213. http://www.dothraki.com/2016/01/asshekhqoyi-vezhvenagain/#comment-117032
  214. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335164222797398016, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/
  215. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335156670466490368
  216. Lexical form: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/349242524906438656
  217. 217.0 217.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-35391
  218. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/421794510801096704
  219. https://twitter.com/dedalvs/status/318527719803600896
  220. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-z%C8%B3hon-keliton-issa/#comment-1255
  221. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/106751117720/how-do-you-say-spider-and-spiderweb-in-hv
  222. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96562098256/do-you-have-a-word-as-mentioned-in-the-books-in-high
  223. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84261
  224. http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2014/5/8/high-valyrian-101-learn-and-pronounce-common-phrases
  225. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84262
  226. On the declension, see http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118971485709/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-stories-can#disqus_thread
  227. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69007223679/how-would-you-say-primary-and-secondary-in-valyrian
  228. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120130992540/you-wrote-vettrir-is-the-word-for-the-law-its
  229. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/117187344410/hey-david-could-you-explain-how-vettri-vettri
  230. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118300113747/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-blood-of


Vocabulary
DothrakiHigh ValyrianAstapori ValyrianMeereenese Valyrian
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