High Valyrian Vocabulary

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High Valyrian Vocabulary List

A note about the IPA pronunciation guides here. The letter kh can also be pronounced gh, k or h depending on the speaker. The same happens with th which can vary between t, s or z depending on the speaker. Finally the vowel y should be pronounced [y] but is most often pronounced [i].


A

  • ābra ['aːbra]
n. 1lun. woman; coll. ābrar womankind, all women; humanity, all people;[1] life[2] (cf. ābrar)
  • ābrar ['aːbrar]
n. 6col.1lun. life.[2] (Relexicalized collective from ābra)
  • ābrazȳrys [aːbra'zyːɾys]
n. 2sol. wife ( < ābra + -zȳrys.)
  • adere [a'deɾe]
adj. II slippery; sleek, smooth; fast, quick
  • aderī [a'deɾiː]
adv. soon (adere + .)
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • aderves [a'derves]
n. 4sol. quickness, sleekness, smoothness [3]
  • addemmagon [ad'demmagon]
v. C-fin. to pay, to satisfy, to make good, object is usually inanimate[4]
Lannister va moriot zyha gēlȳnī addemmis. — A Lannister always pays his debts.
  • āegenka [aːɛ̯'geŋka]
adj. I iron ( < āegion iron + -enka)
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]
  • āegion ['aːɛ̯gi͡on]
n. 3ter. iron [6]
  • Aeliks ['aɛ̯liks]
prop. n. 3sol. Aelix
  • āeksio ['aːɛ̯ksi͡o]
n. 3lun. master, lord. (cf. āeksion).
Āeksio yne ilīritas. — The Lord has smiled upon me.
  • āeksion ['aːɛ̯ksi͡on]
n. 3ter. gold (cf. āeksio).
Āeksio ondos — Hand of gold[7]
  • Aerys ['aɛ̯ɾys]
prop. n. 2sol. Aerys.
  • ajomemēbagon [ajome'meːbagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to rage on
Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza, — The war rages on
  • amāzinon [a'maːzinon]
n. 3ter return [8] (prob. < a- + māzigon + -non)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykapsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?
  • ampa ['ampa] indec.
num. ten.
  • amplie ['ampli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III tenth.
  • angogon[9] ['aŋgogon]
perfect: angotan
v. V-fin. to bite.
Sparos rōbir angotas. — Who bit the fig?
  • anne ['anne]
n. horse[10]
  • ānogar ['aːnogar]
n. 1aq. blood.
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
  • ao ['aɔ̯]
pers.pron. you (sing.).
  • aōha [a'ɔːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I your (sg.)
  • aōhon [a'ɔːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. yours (sg.)
  • aōhoso [a'ɔːhoso]
adv. in your way, as you wish (ins. of aōha.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • aōla [a'ɔːla]
refl. 1lun. yourself
  • arakhi [a'ɾaxi], arakh [a'ɾax]
n. 6for. arakh, a curved sword used by the Dothraki. ( < Doth. arakh.)
  • arghugon ['aɾɣugon]
v. V-fin. to hunt
  • arghurys ['aɾɣuɾys]
n. 2sol. hunter ( < arghugon + -tys with rhotacism of the t)[11]
  • arlie ['aɾli͡e]
adj. III new
Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. — By the Old Gods and the New.
  • arlī ['aɾliː]
adv. back, again(?) (lit. anew, < arlie + .)
Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. — If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.
  • arliñagon [aɾli'ɲagon]
v. C-fin. to change intrans.[12] ( < arlie + -ñagon.)
  • arlinio ['aɾlini͡o]
n. 3lun. one who changes, becomes different[12] ( < arliñagon + -io.)
  • arlinnon [aɾ'linnon]
n. 3ter. change[12] ( < arliñagon + -non.)
  • Astapor ['astapor]
n. 3aq. Astapor.
  • atroksia [a'troksi͡a]
n. 1lun. owl[13]
  • ātsio ['aːtsi͡o]
n. 3lun tooth
  • averilla [ave'ɾilla]
n. 1aq°.[14] wine[15] ( < avero grape + -illa.)[16]
  • avero [a'veɾo]
n. 3lun. grape[17]
  • azandy [a'zandy]
n. 2lun. short sword
  • azantyr [a'zantyr]
n. 6col.2sol. army. (Relexicalized collective from azantys)
  • azantys [a'zantys]
n. 2sol. soldier, knight. (lit. swordsman, < azandy + -tys)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

B

  • baes [baɛ̯s]
n. 3sol summit.
  • bāne ['baːne] -ior
adj. II warm
  • bantis ['bantis]
n. 5sol. night
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors[18]
  • bardugon ['baɾdugon]
v. V-fin. to write.
perfect: bardutan
  • bartos ['baɾtos]
n. 3sol. head
  • [beː]
postp.→gen. on, on top of, upon; on (the subject of), about
  • belmon ['belmon]
n. 3ter. chain.
Urnet luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! — Strike the chains off every slave you see!
  • belmurtys [bel'muɾtys]
n. 2sol.[14] slave master, slaver (prob. belmon + -uragon + -tys.)[19]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna — Tell the slavers I will receive them here
  • beqes ['beqes]
n. 4sol. sow, female pig
  • bēuvāedagon [beːu'vaːɛ̯dagon]
v. Loc. appl. to sing about (or upon) [20] ( < bē- + u- + vāedagon )
  • bēvilagon [beːviˈlagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to be necessary; bēvilza it is necessary +gen for... +inf. to... ( literally to lie upon, < bē- + u- + ilagon.)
Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. — If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.
  • bianor [ˈbi͡anor] biādr-
n. 3aq. ewe, female sheep[21]
  • biare [ˈbi͡aɾe]
adj. II happy
Biarior Arlior Jēdari! — Happy New Year!
  • biarves [ˈbi͡aɾves]
n. 4sol. happiness, jubilation, luck, fortune[22] biarvī manaeragon to celebrate.
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • bībagon [ˈbiːbagon]
v. C-fin. to suck
  • bēvumbagon [beːˈvumbagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to float (lit. to remain above, < bē- + u- + umbagon.)
  • bisa ['bisa] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I this proximal, animate
Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. — These men are our guests.
  • bisir ['bisir]
dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entitites
  • bisy ['bisy]
dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, animate, for concrete, countable entities
  • blēnon ['bleːnon]
n. 3ter. mountain
  • bode ['bode]
n. 5lun. tail
  • bona ['bona] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I that distal, animate
  • bonir ['bonir]
dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entities
  • bony ['bony]
dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, animate, for concrete, countable entities
  • bōsa ['boːsa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I long either temporally or spatially, tall
  • botagon [bo'tagon]
v. C-fin. to suffer →inst., the thing suffered
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
to endure
Valar botis — All men must endure[23]
  • brāedāzma [braːɛ̯ˈdaːzma]
n. 1lun. bronze ( < brāedion + -āzma.)
  • brāedion [ˈbraːɛ̯di͡on]
n. 3ter. copper
  • brōzagon [ˈbroːzagon]
perfect: brōstan
v. C-fin. to name ( < brōzi.)
In the reflexive to call oneself, to be named
Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? — What are your names?
  • brōzi [ˈbroːzi]
n. 5lun. name ( < brōzi.)
  • bughegon [buˈɣegon]
v. V-fin. to swim
  • buzdari [buz'daɾi], buzdar [buz'dar]
n. 6for. slave ( < AV buzdar < Ghiscari.)
Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. — A dragon is not a slave.
  • byka ['byka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I small
  • byllie ['bylli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III sixth
  • bȳre ['byːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II six.
  • bȳrēpsa [byː'ɾeːpsa] indec.
num. sixty.
  • bȳrīblie [byː'ɾiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III sixtieth

D

  • dāeremagon [daːɛ̯ɾe'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to free ( < dāez + -emagon.)
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • dāerves ['daːɛ̯ɾves]
n. 4sol. freedom. ( < dāez + -ves.)
Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. — Your freedom is not mine to give.
  • dāez [daːɛ̯z] dāerior
adj. II free.
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • dakogon [da'kogon]
v. V-fin. to run[24]
  • daomio ['daɔ̯mi͡o]
n 3lun. rain. coll. daomior.
Kastāmiro Damior — The Rains of Castamere
  • daor [daɔ̯r], [da'or]
adv. not, intj. no.
  • daoriot ['daɔ̯ɾi͡ot]
indef.pron. adv. nowhere; daoriot jemas it doesn't matter, lit. it leads nowhere.
  • daorun ['daɔ̯ɾun]
indef.pron. 6pauc.3ter nothing
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis, iā daoruni jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me, or they may have told you nothing.
  • daorys ['daɔ̯ɾys]
indef.pron. 2sol. no one
daorys ziry ōdrikilza. — no one will harm him.
  • dāria ['daːɾi͡a]
n. 1lun. queen.[25]
Mīrīno Dāria — Queen of Meereen [26]
  • dārilaros [daːɾi'laɾos]
n. 3sol. heir to the throne, crown prince, crown princess ( < the dār- root seen in the dārys family of words, plus the substantivized future participle ending -ilaros, as if from a verb *dāragon. However, no such verb exists in the classical language, and it is uncertain if there ever was one.)
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.
  • dārion ['daːɾi͡on]
n. 3ter. kingdom.
Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero. — the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros.
  • dārōñe [daː'ɾoːɲe]
adj. II royal[27] ( < dārys + -ōñe.)
  • dārys ['daːɾys]
n. 2sol. king.
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light
  • davābagon [da'vaːbagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to rain. [28] (an -ābagon formation off a root *dav-, perh. primordially related to daomio, rain.)
  • dēmagon ['deːmagon]
v. V-fin. to sit
Kēli Davidȳ dēmas. — The cat sits on David.[29]
  • dēmalion ['deːmali͡on]
n. 3ter. throne ( < dēma- + -lion.)
Tymptir Dēmalȳti — A Game of Thrones[30]
  • deks [deks]
n. 3sol. foot
  • dekuragon [deku'ɾagon]
v. C-fin. to step.[31] ( < deks + -uragon.)
  • dekurūbagon [deku'ɾuːbagon]
v. C-fin. to walk. ( < dekur- + -ēbagon.)
  • derēbagon [de'ɾeːbagon]
perfect: derēptan
v. C-fin. to gather. ( < *der- + -ēbagon. There is probably a verb *deragon which means something like to take. Cf. AV mazedhas derari he was taken.)
Vala Aero syt rōbra derēbza. — The man collects figs for Aerys.
  • dobotēdāves [doboteː'daːves]
n. 4sol. ignorance[32] (speculatively from < do- + botagon + -ēda + -ves lit. the quality of not having been made to endure or suffer something.)
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism[33]
  • dohaeragon [do'haɛ̯ɾagon]
perfect: dohaertan
v. C-fin. to serve. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlis
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.[34]
Dohaeriakson raqan. — I like to be served.[35]
  • dohaeriros [do'haɛ̯ɾiɾos]
n. 3sol. slave (substantivized aorist participle of dohaeragon.)
Dārys rybis sepār dohaeriros rybis — He hears the king as he hears the slave
  • dohaertros [do'haɛ̯ɾtros]
n. 3sol. one who was previously a slave (Past habitual active participle of dohaeragon.)
Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri. — Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.
  • dīnagon ['diːnagon]
v. to put something that naturally goes on, about or in something else in that thing e.g. a cap on a bottle, a sword in a scabbard, a helmet on a head, but not a sword on a table.[36]
in pass., →com. to marry[4]
Ao ynoma dīnilūks? — Will you marry me?
  • dōna ['doːna]
adj. I. sweet[37]
  • dōre ['doːɾe] -ior
adj. II no
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
  • dōrī ['doːɾī]
indef.pron. adv. never
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • dorolvie [do'ɾolvi͡e] -ior
adj. III not much, few ( < dor- + olvie)
  • dōrenka [doː'ɾeŋka]
adj. I made of stone ( < dōron + -enka.)
  • dōrenky [doː'ɾeŋky]
adj. I stoney one; Stone Man i.e. a person in the late stages of the Grey Plague. (Subst. of dōrenka.)
He hears the Stone Men in their misery… — mundari dorenki rybis…
  • dōron ['doːɾon]
n. 3ter. stone
  • dōros ['doːɾos]
n. 3sol. wall ( < dōron.)
  • dorzalty [doɾ'zalty]
n. 2lun. The Unburnt (Substantivized form of *dorzalta unburnt < do- + zalta.)
Daenerys Targarien, Jelmāzmo, Dorzalty, Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero, Muña Zaldrīzoti. — Daenerys Targaryen, the Stormborn, the Unburnt, the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros, the Mother of Dragons.
  • dovaogēdy [dovaɔ̯'geːdy]
n. 2lun. an Unsullied. Col. Dovaogēdyr the Unsullied as a group. (Substantivized form of *dovaogēda unsullied < do- + vaogēda, perf.part. of vaogemagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • drakarys [dra'kaɾys]
n. 2sol. dragon-fire.
  • drāñe ['draːɲe]
adj. II wide
  • drōmon ['droːmon]
n. 3ter. egg
  • dubys ['dubys]
n. 2sol. sibling
  • drēje ['dreːje]
adj. II true, correct.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
  • drējī ['dreːjī]
adv. truly
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • dȳñes ['dyːɲes]
4sol. animal
Dȳñer raqiror issa. — All animals are friends.[38]

E

  • ēbrion ['eːbri͡on]
n. 3ter. night sky[27]
  • ēdrugon ['eːdrugon]
perfect: ēdrutan
v. V-fin. "to sleep." Perf.Pert. ēdruta "having slept."
Valar Ēdrussis — All Men Must Sleep
  • eglie ['egli͡e] -ior
adj. III high
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • egros ['egros]
n. 3sol. edge; blade; sword (cf. egry.)
  • egry ['egry]
n. 2lun. knife (cf. egros.)
Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. — The man splits the fig with a knife.
  • eleks ['eleks]
n. 3sol. ear
  • elēnar [e'leːnar]
n. 1aq? tide[39] (cf. elēni perh. the semantic connection is rhythm?)
  • elēni [e'leːni]
n. 5lun. voice;[40] music[41] (cf. elēnar.)
Āeksio Oño elēni jeve rybis. — The Lord of Light hears your voice.
  • ēlie ['eːli͡e] -ior
adj. III first; primary
  • ēlī ['eːliː]
adv. first
Sparos ēlī morghūlilza? — Who will die first?[42]
  • emagon [e'magon]
perfect: ēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to have. 3s. pres. act. ind. ēza, 3pl. ēzi, imperfect emilen, emiles, etc.)
  • embar ['embar]
n. 1aq. sea. Col. embrar "the sea(s)", in a more figurative sense[43]
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • embāzma [em'baːzma]
n. 1lun. great sea perh. in some sort of metaphorical sense? Parmenko Embāzmā The Great Grass Sea of the Dothraki ( < embar + -āzma.)
Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi — Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea
  • embōñe [em'boːƞe] -or
adj. II aquatic ( < embar + -ōñe.); embōñe kēli sea otter.[44]
  • endia ['endi͡a]
n. 1lun. west (cf. endie, western)[45]
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[46]
  • endie ['endi͡e] -ior
adj. III western (adj. formation off of endia.)
  • ēngītsos ['eːŋgiːtsos]
n. 3sol. little tongue[47] ( < ēngos + -ītsos.)
  • ēngos ['eːŋgos]
n. 3sol. tongue; language. Muño ēngos "mother tongue." Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue.
Valyrio muño ēngos ñuhys issa. — Valyrian is my mother tongue.
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
  • enkagon ['eŋkagon]
v. C-fin. to owe +inst: the thing owed; +acc: the person to whom it is owed.
Dāervose jevosy yne enkot daor. — You do not owe me your freedom.
  • epagon [e'pagon]
perfect: eptan
v. C-fin. to ask somebody→dat. a question→acc.
Ynot mirros epās! — Ask me something![48]
of somebody→dat. a favor→acc.
Skoros ynot epilū? — What would you ask of me?
Obl. appl. iepagon (less correctly jepagon) "to ask for" something→acc., of someone→dat.
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • epses ['epses]
4sol. female goat, nanny goat
  • ērinagon [eːri'nagon]
v. C-fin. to win[4]
Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. — When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
  • ērinnon ['eːrinnon]
n. 3ter. victory[49] ( < ērinagon + -non.)
  • ezīmagon [e'ziːmagon]
v. C-fin. to split. with va +dat into...
Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. — The man splits the fig with a knife.
Insv. hezīmagon.

G

  • gadbagi ['gadbagi], gadbag ['gadbag]
n. 6for.lun. slave name ( < AV gadbag < Ghiscari.)
Gadbag aōhe qrīdrughās. — Throw away your slave name.
  • gallie ['galli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III hundredth.
  • gaomagon ['gaɔ̯magon]
perfect: gōntan
v. C-fin. to do; →dat. & inf. allow.
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • gaomilaksir [gaɔ̯mi'laksir]
n. 5aq mission (substantivized fut.pass.part. of gaomagon, lit. that which is to be done.)
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • gaomon ['gaɔ̯mon]
n. 3ter deed
Se dāeri vali pōntalo syt gaomoti iderēbzi. — And free men make their own choices.
  • gār [gaːr] indec.
num. hundred.
  • gēlenka [geː'leŋko] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I silver-colored; silver-like,[50] ( < gēlion + -enka.)
  • gēlion ['geːli͡on]
n. 3ter. silver.
  • gēlior ['geːli͡or]
n. 6col.3ter. money (relex. col. of gēlion silver.)

Gēlȳndi aōt tepagon jaelas, — He wants to give you money.[8]

  • gelte ['gelte]
n. 4lun[14] helmet.
Geltī aōhe nādīnās. — Remove your helmet.
  • gēlȳn ['geːlyːn]
n. 6pauc.3ter. debt[4] (relex. pauc. of gēlion silver.)
Lannister va moriot zyha gēlȳnī addemmis. — A Lannister always pays his debts.
  • genes ['genes]
n. 4sol. mouse, rat
  • geptot ['geptot]
adv. left
  • geralbar [ge'ɾalbar]
n. 1aq road ( < geron (etc.) + -albar.)
  • geron ['geɾon]
n. 3ter. walk.
Qilōnario Geron. — Walk of Punishment.
  • geros ilas ['geɾos 'ilas]
exp. good bye.[51]
  • gerpa ['geɾpa]
n. 1lun. fruit; more generally the edible part of a plant.
  • gevie ['gevi͡e]
adj. III. beautiful[52]
  • gevives [ge'vives]
n. 4sol. beauty[53] ( < gevie + -ves.)
  • gīda ['giːda]
adj. I. equal, even[32]; steady, by extension calm[54].
…iēdrosa gīdāpa. — …calm as still water.
  • giēñagon ['gi͡eːɲagon]
v. C-fin.' to heal (intransitive), to be healed (perh. giez + -ēñagon.)
Insv. zgiēñagon to heal of wounds etc. as opposed to people.
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • giēñilaros [gi͡eːɲi'laɾos]
n. 3sol. One Who is Not Yet Healed, a term used in Astapor for Unsullied in training (substantivized future participle of giēñagon. AV ginilaro.)
  • giez [gi͡ez] gier-
adj. II whole
  • gīmigon ['giːmigon]
v. V-fin. to know
Kesir gīmī. — You know this
Daoruni gīmī, Ionos Sōnaro. — You know nothing, Jon Snow.
Gīmissiks. — It is known.[55]
  • glaesagon ['glaɛ̯sagon]
v. C-fin. to live; used with adv. to describe state of well-being: Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?, Syrī glaesan I'm good.[55]:
  • glaeson ['glaɛ̯son]
n. 3ter. life. Col. glaesor life (slightly more abstract)[2]
Keso glaesot iderēptot daor. — You did not choose this life.
  • [goː]
postp.→gen. under, beneath, below; before
adv. under, beneath, below; before
Skoriot daorys gō istas nēdenkirī jagon. — To boldly go where no one has gone before.[56]
  • gōvilagon [goːvi'lagon]
v to lie below →acc. ( < gō- + u- + ilagon.)
...rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — ... with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • grēges ['greːges]
n. 4sol. louse.
  • grevenka [greˈveŋka] -ys -on -or
adj. I round ( < grevy + -enka.)
  • grevy [ˈgrevy]
n. 2lun. wheel[57]
  • gryves ['gryves]
n. 4sol. bear.
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • guēse ['gu͡eːse]
n. 4lun. tree
  • guēsin ['gu͡eːsin]
n. 6pauc.4lun. forest (pauc. of guēse.)
  • gūrēñagon [guː'ɾeːɲagon]
perfect: gūrēntan
v. C-fin. to learn (perh.gūrogon + -ēñagon.)
  • gūrogon ['guːɾogon]
perfect: gūrotan
v. V-fin. to take[4]; in the reflexive to earn, merit, deserve
Ñuhor līr gūrēnna. — I will take what is mine.[4]
  • gūrotrir ['guːɾotrir]
n. 6col.5aq. that which one has earned, that which one deserves, one's due, just deserts (col. subst. perf. part. of gūrogon.)
Se jevo qrinuntoti pōjor gūrotriri maghan. — And I bring your enemies what they deserve.
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]

H

  • hae [haɛ̯]
prep.→loc. as, like.
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • hāedar ['haːɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. younger sister.
Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. — All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.
  • hakogon ['hakogon]
v. V-fin. to pull
  • hāre ['haːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II three
  • hārēpsa ['haːɾeːpsa] indec.
num. thirty
  • hārīblie [haː'ɾiːbli͡e]
num. adj. III thirtieth
  • havon ['havon]
n. 3ter bread.[58]
Havon sīr ipradakson kostas. — The bread can now be eaten.[35]
  • havor [ˈhavoɾ]
n. 6col.3ter. food (relex. col. of havon bread.)
  • hēdrȳ ['heːdryː]
postp.→gen. from amongst (prob. hen + , with nasal deletion.)
Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ. — You will select a leader, from amongst your own ranks.
  • hegagon [he'gagon]
v. C-fin. to slaughter.
  • hembar ['hembar]
adv. next ( < pār, presumably with hen).
Hembar Yunkaihot istan. — Next I went to Yunkai.
  • hen [hen]
prep.→loc. from, of; →dat. out of.
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
  • hēnka ['heːŋka]
adj. I same
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • hēnkirī ['heːŋkiɾiː]
adv. together ( < hēnka + .)
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
'adv. in kind
Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. — All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.
  • henujagon [henu'jagon]
perfect: hembistan
v. Loc. appl. irreg. to exit, to leave. ( < hen- + u- + jagon.)
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • hepnon ['hepnon]
n. 3ter. climb. (< unattested *hep- to climb + -non.)
Hepnon. — The Climb.
  • hepvos ['hepvos]
n. 3sol. ladder.[59] (< unattested *hep- to climb + *-vos, presumably some sort of instrument-forming suffix.)
Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. — Chaos is a ladder.
  • hezīmagon [he'ziːmagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to split, used with instrumental subjects ( < a- + ezīmagon.)
(Valo ondoso) rōbir egry hezīmza. — The knife (of the man) splits the fig.
(Egromy) rōbir hezīmaks. — The fig is split (with a knife).
  • hēzīr ['heːziːr]
adv. henceforth, from now on ( < hen + sīr with nasal deletion.)
Hēzīr, brōza jevi jemēle iderēbilātās. — From this day forward, you will choose your own names.
  • hīghagon [ˈhiːɣagon]
v. to scream[60]
... se avy ōdrikosy lī hīghari morghūlilzi. — ... and those who would harm you will die screaming.
  • hīlagon [ˈhiːlagon]
v. C-fin. to hit
  • hontes ['hontes]
n. 4sol. bird.
  • hobres ['hobres]
n. 4sol. male goat, billy goat.
kastys hobresse — “blue goats”.
  • hoskagon ['hoskagon]
v. to make proud (perh. hōzigon + -kagon.)
... iderēbās. Avy hoskas lue brōzi. — Choose... A name that gives you pride.
  • hōzigon ['hoːzigon]
v. V-fin. to swell
  • hubon ['hubon]
3ter. rope
  • hunes ['hunes]
n. 4sol. rabbit
  • hūra ['huːɾa]
1lun. moon
Ñuho glaeso hūrus. — Moon of my life.[55]
  • hūrenka [huː'ɾeŋka] -ys -on -or
adj. I lunar ( < hūra + -enka.)
hūrenkon qogror. — “solar class”.[61]

I

  • ['i͡aː]
conj. or
  • iāragon ['i͡aːɾagon]
v. C-fin. to flow
  • īby ['iːby]
2lun. bone
  • idaña [i'daɲa]
n. 1lun. twin (cf. idañe.)
  • idañe [i'daɲe] -or
adj. II fellow (cf. idaña.)
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • iderēbagon [ide'ɾeːbagon]
perfect: iderēptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to chose, select. +dat: the thing selected, +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive) ( < i- + derēbagon.)
Vala rōbrȳti Aeri iderēbza. — The man selects figs for Aerys.
Aeri iderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for.
Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. — Pick a god and pray.[62]
  • iderennon [ide'ɾennon]
n. 3ter choice ( < iderēb- + -non.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • *iderenne, -s, -n ?
n. 4? trial[4]
Vīlībāzmosa iderennī emilun. — I would like a trial by combat.
  • iēdar ['i͡eːdar]
n. 1aq. water
col. iēdrar
poetic for sea
  • iemny ['i͡emny]
n. 2lun. stomach
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors[18]
  • iemnȳ ['i͡emnyː]
postp.→gen. within more emphatic than using the bare locative. (loc. of iemny stomach.)
Jēdar yno toliot. Tegon yno gō. Perzys yno iemnȳ. — Sky above me. Earth below me. Fire within me.[63]
  • ilagon [i'lagon]
v. C-fin. to lie. original meaning to lay straight preserved in expression geros ilas good bye, literally something like may the path lie straight. (cf. ilie straight.)
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[64]
  • ilie [ˈili͡e]
adj. III straight (cf. ilagon to lie (straight)).
  • īlinuragon [iːlinu'ɾagon]
perfect: īlinurtan
v. C-fin.? to crucify (Contains -uragon.)
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • ilīrigon [i'liːɾigon]
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to smile upon →acc. ( < *līrigon to smile)
perfect: ilīritan
Āeksio yne ilīritas. — The Lord has smiled upon me.
  • īlon ['iːlon]
pers.pron. we.
  • īlōnda [iː'loːnda]
refl. 1lun. ourselves
  • īlva ['iːlva] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I our
  • īlvon ['iːlvon]
poss.pron. 3ter. ours
  • ilzigon ['ilzigon]
perfect: ilzitan
v. V-fin. to throw
  • imāzigon [i'maːzigon]
perfect: imāstan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to attend an event. ( < i- + māzigon lit. to come for.)
Valar imāzissis. — All men must attend.[65]
  • imorghūljagon [imoɾ'ghuːʎagon]
perfect: imorghūltan
v. C-fin. to die for ( < i- + morghuljagon.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[66]
  • indigon ['indigon]
v. V-fin. to push
  • inkon ['iŋkon]
n. 3ter. back
  • inkot ['iŋkot] behind (the locative or dative case of inkon.)
Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri — Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.
  • Ionos ['i͡onos]
n. 3sol. Jonos, Jon a common name
Daoruni gīmī, Ionos Sōnaro. — You know nothing, Jon Snow.
  • iōragon ['i͡oːɾagon]
v. C-fin. to be standing, to stand.
perfect: iōrtan
  • iōrves ['i͡oːɾves]
n. 4sol. cold, coldness[67] ( < iosre + -ves.)
Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. — The cold never bothered me.
  • iosre ['i͡osre], ioje ['i͡oje],[68] -ior
adj. II cold
  • ipradagon [ipra'dagon]
perfect: iprattan[69]
v. C-fin. to eat (In origin the applicative of *pradagon, a verb of uncertain meaning, but in any case not reated to eating. It supplanted kisagon as the word for to eat. )[70]
Valar Ipradis... Valar Ipradiks — All Men Must Eat... All Men Must Be Eaten.[71]
  • irudy [i'ɾudy]
n. 2lun. gift
Va ñellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oño irudy. — Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.
  • issaros ['issaɾos]
n. 3sol person (prob. subst. pres.part. of sagon, lit. being.)
  • ivestragon [i'vestragon]
perfect: ivestretan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to tell, to say to ( < i- + vestragon.)
  • ivīlībagon [iviː'liːbagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < i- + vīlībagon to fight.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[66]
  • izula [i'zula] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I four
  • izulēpsa [i'zuleːpsa] indec.
num. forty
  • izulīblie [izu'liːbi͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fortieth
  • izunnie [i'zunni͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fourth

J

  • jaedos ['jaɛ̯dos]
n. 3sol. summer[72]
  • jaelagon ['jaɛ̯lagon]
v. C-fin. to want, to wish
perfect: jeldan
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • jaes [jaɛ̯s] jaeh-
n. 3sol god, goddess[73]
Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. — By the Old Gods and the New.
Jaehossas sȳris sātās — Gods be good![65]
  • jagon ['jagon]
perfect: istan
v. irreg. to go.
Sesīr īlot jagon! — Now let us go![74]
  • jāha ['jaːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I its, his, her
  • jāhon ['jaːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. its, his, hers
  • jāla ['jaːla]
refl. 1lun. itself, himself, herself
  • jaos [jaɔ̯s] jaoh-
n. 3sol. dog
Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi — The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[55]
  • jaqiarza [ja'qi͡aɾza]
adj. I glorious (Aorist passive participle of unknown verb *jaqagon, perhaps from z- + raqagon.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[66]
  • jaqiarzir [ja'qi͡aɾzir]
n. 5aq. glory (Type 2 substantive of jaqiarza.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[66]
  • jazdan [jazdan]
n. 6for. harpy ( < AV jazdan < Ghiscari )[75]
  • jēda ['jeːdar]
n. 1lun. season, time.
  • jēdar ['jeːdar]
n. 1aq. sky (cf. jēda time and jēdar year. Possibly originally a collective, like lentor.)
col. jēdrar sky
  • jēdar ['jeːdar]
n. 6col.1aq. year (col. of jēda time.)
Biarior Arlior Jēdari! — Happy New Year!
  • jehikagon [jehiˈkagon]
perfect: jehittan
v. C-fin. to shine. With acc. to shine on, illuminate.
Āeksios, aōhos ōñoso īlōn jehikās. — Lord, cast your light upon us[18]
  • jēlēbagon [jeːˈleːbagon]
v. C-fin. to blow (from a root *jēl-, seen in jelmion etc., + -ēbagon.)
  • jelmāzma [jelˈmaːzma]
n. 1lun. storm. Gen. Jelmāzmo Stormborn. ( < jelmio + -āzma.)
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • jelmio ['jelmi͡o]
n. 3lun. wind. Coll. jelmior ['jelmi͡or] wind collectively,[76] weather.[72] (cf. jēlēbagon)
Udra jelmior issi. — Words are wind.
  • jelmōñe [jel'moːɳe] -or
adj. III. northern ( < jelmor + -ōñe.)[77]
  • jelmor ['jelmor]
n. 3aq. north (related to jelmio.)[77]
  • jemagon [jeˈmagon]
perfect: jentan
v. to lead someone →acc., from something →acc(?), to something →dat?loc?; daoriot jemas it doesn't matter, lit. it leads nowhere. (possibly in origin i- + emagon, but this is uncertain, and in any case the verb conjugates regularly)
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • jemēla [je'meːla]
refl. 1lun. ourselves
  • jeme ['jeme]
pers.pron. you (plur.).
  • jepagon see epagon.
  • jenigon [je'nigon]
v. V-fin.? to bother[67]
Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. — The cold never bothered me.
  • jention ['jenti͡on]
n. 3ter. leadership. ( < jemagon.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • jentys ['jentys]
n. 2sol. leader. ( < jemagon.)
Jentys Dovaogēdyro syt iksā. — You are the leader of the Unsullied.
  • jēnqa ['jeːɴqa] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I eight
  • jēnqelie ['jeːɴqeli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III eighth
  • jēnqēpsa [jeːɴ'qeːpsa] indec.
num. eighty
  • jēnqīblie [jeːɴ'qiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III eightieth
  • jeson ['jeson]
n. 3ter. dust
  • jeva ['jeva] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I your (pl.)
  • jevon ['jevon]
poss.pron. 3ter. yours (pl.)
  • jikagon [ji'kagon]
perfect: jittan
v. to send (prob. jagon + -kagon.)
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • jiōragon ['ji͡oːɾagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin.? to receive (at least in the sense of receiving a guest) ( < i- + iōragon to stand)[78]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
  • jogeltigon [jo'geltigon]
v. C-fin. to silence (prob. contains jo-.)
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
  • johegagon [johe'gagon]
v. C-fin. to continue to slaughter ( < jo- + *hegagon to slaughter.)
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • jollōragon [jol'loːragon]
v. C-fin. to study +dat.?[79] ( < jor- + lōragon to drill, to bore).[79]
Issarori jollōris lua riña. — A girl who studies people.[80]
  • jomōzugon [jo'moːzugon]
v. V-fin. to continue to get drunk ( < jo- + mōzugon to drink.)
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • jorepagon [joɾe'pagon]
v. C-fin. to pray (< jor- + epagon.)
Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. — Pick a god and pray.[62]
  • jorepnon [joɾe'pnon]
n. 3ter. prayer ( < jorepagon + -non.)
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • jorhakoɡon [jor̥a'koɡon][81]
v. V-fin. to wring ondossa jorhakogon to wring one's hands [8] ( < jor- + hakogon to pull)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykapsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?
  • jorrāelagon [jor'raːɛ̯lagon]
v. C-fin. to hold dear, to love; to need [82]( < jo- + rāelagon.)
Muñus jorrāeliarzus: Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — Dearest Mother: So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • jurnegon ['juɾnegon]
perfect: jūndan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to look at, regard[83] ( < i- + urnegon.)

K

  • kaerīnio [kaɛ̯'ɾiːni͡o]
n. 3lun. savior (prob. *kaerīñagon + -io.)
Jemot kaerīnio jittas! — He has sent you a savior!
  • kaerīnnon [kaɛ̯'ɾiːnnon]
n. 3ter. salvation [8] (prob. *kaerīñagon + -non.)
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt? — Will you fight for your own salvation?
  • kasta ['kasta] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I blue, green
  • kēli ['keːli]
n. 5lun. cat, pauc. kēlin herd of cats[55]; qelbōñe kēli river otter; embōñe kēli sea otter.
Kēlir morghūlis — All cats must die.[84]
  • kēlio ['keːli͡o]
n. 3lun. lion[24] ( < kēli + -io.)
  • kēlītsos [keː'liːtsos]
n. 3sol. little cat[85] ( < kēli + -ītsos.)
  • keligon [ke'ligon]
perfect: kelitan
v. V-fin. to stop, to come to a stop. Generally used intransitively, except in the perfect passive participle: keliton ended.
Dovaogēdys .... Kelītīs. — Unsullied .... Halt.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
  • kempa ['kempa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I heavy
  • kepa ['kepa]
n. 1lun. father
riño kepa — the girl's father[55]
  • kesa ['kesa] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I this proximal, inanimate
Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. — You should not have these powers.
  • kesir ['kesir]
dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entitites, "this place."
Kesir gīmī. — You know this
kesrio syt because, for; on account of this.
  • kesīr ['kesiːr]
dem.pron. adv. here (loc. of kesir.)
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here.
  • kesy ['kesy]
dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entities
  • keskydoso [kesky'doso]
adv. in the same way, likewise. ( < demonstrative kes- + -kydoso.)
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • kessa ['kessa]
intj. yes[4] (3s fut.act.ind. of sagon.[86])
  • khal [xal],[87] khali ['xali]
n. 6for Khal, title used for the leader of a Dothraki horde ( < Doth. khal.)
  • khalēsi [xaˈleːsi][88]
n. 6for Khaleesi, Dothraki queen, wife of a khal ( < Doth. khaleesi.)
Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi — Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea
  • kiōs [ki͡oːs]
n. 3sol.[14] spring[72]
  • kipagon [kipagon][89]
v. to ride
Sesīr kipi. — And now we ride.[90]
  • kisagon [ki'sagon]
v. obsolete word for to eat. Word persists in Cassical High Valyria, but with a different meaning, not yet known.
  • kivio [ˈkivi͡o]
n. 3lun. promise
Jemot kivio ñuhe tepan — I give you my word.
  • klios [kli͡os] klioh-
n. 3sol fish
  • kona ['kona] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I that distal, inanimate
  • konir ['konir]
dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entities, that place.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
Konir sagon kostos daor. — That's not possible.
  • konor ['konor]
3aq. steam, vapor.[91]
  • konīr ['koniːr]
dem.pron. adv. there (loc. of konir.)
  • kony ['kony]
dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entities
  • korze ['koɾze]
n. 4lun. longsword (cf. korzion)
Korzoti Jelmāzma — A Storm of Swords[92]
  • korzion ['korzi͡on]
n. 3ter. steel, especially, but not exclusively Valyrian steel (cf. korze.)
  • kostagon ['kostagon]
v. C-fin. to be able, can, may.
Konir sagon kostos daor — That's not possible.
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • kostilus ['kostilus]
adv. perhaps; exp. please. (3s. fut.act.subj. of kostagon, lit. be it possible.)
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me.
  • kostōba [ko'stoːba]
adj. I powerful, strong ( < kostagon)
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
Kostōba Nēdenkā. — Strong and Brave.[93]
  • kirimves [ki'ɾimves]
n. 4sol. joy[94] ( < kirine + -ves.)
Naenio jēdoti kirimvose glaesātās! — May you live happily for many years!
  • kirimvose [ki'ɾimvose], kirimvos [ki'ɾimvos]
exp. thank you. (Inst. of kirimves.)
  • kirine [ki'ɾine] -ior
adj. II happy
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
  • kris [kris] krih-
n. 3sol. leg
  • krubo ['krubo]
n. 3lun. dwarf
  • kustikagon [kusti'kagon]
perfect: kustittan
to strengthen, enable, encourage ( < kostagon + -ikagon.)
Ābre kustittas lua vala raqiros issa. — The man who encouraged the woman is a friend.
  • kydȳbagon [ky'dyːbagon]
perfect: kydȳptan
v. C-fin. to measure (prob. contains -bagon.)
Kydȳptakson sȳz kesos. — It would be good to have been measured.[35]
  • kyndrir ['kyndrir]
n. 6col. intestines
  • kȳvanon ['kyːvanon]
n. 3ter. plan, strategy[53] (-non formation off of unknown root.)

L

  • laes [laɛ̯s] laeh-
n. 3sol. eye.
  • laehurlion [laɛ̯'huɾli͡on]
n. 3ter face [95] (perh. laes + -uragon + -lion.)
  • laehurloqitta [laɛ̯huɾlo'qitta]
adj. I faceless [95] ( < laehurlion face + -oqitta.)
Laehurloqitti Vali The Faceless Men.
  • lanta ['lanta] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I two
...kesrio syt lanta iksan. — ...for now I am two.
  • laodigon ['laɔ̯digon]
v. V-fin. to steal[92]
  • lāra ['laːɾa]
n. 1lun. crow[96]
  • leghagon [le'ɣagon]
perfect: lēdan
v. C-fin. to fill. →acc. the thing being filled, →gen. the substance with which it is filled, →inst. the instrument by which it is filled.
  • lēda ['leːda] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I filled, full →gen. with..., of... (perf. part. of leghagon.)
  • lēkia ['leːki͡a]
n. 1lun. older brother.[97]
  • lenton ['lenton]
n. 3ter. house as in a physical building in which one lives.
  • lentor ['lentor]
n. 3aq. house in the sense of family, noble line, dynasty. (originally a relexified collective of lenton, which was then reanalyzed into a 3aq. noun.)
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • lentor ['lentor]
n. 6col.3ter. village (col. of lenton.)
  • lentun ['lentun]
n. 6pauc.3ter. community (relexified paucal of lenton.)
  • letagon [le'tagon]
v. C-fin. to tie, to bind[36]
  • lilagon [li'lagon]
v. C-fin. to dance
Valar lilis. — All men must dance.[98]
  • limagon [li'magon]
perfect: limatan[99]
v. V-fin. to cry
Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. — All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.[100]
  • lioragon [li͡o'ɾagon]
perfect: liortan
v. C-fin. to sell
  • liorilaksa [li͡oɾi'laksa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I for sale (fut.pass.part. of lioragon.)
  • līr [liːr]
rel.pron. that which (is) for abstract or uncountable entitites (subst. of lua.)
Valo lurio vaoresan. — I prefer that which is a man‘s.
  • līrinon ['liːɾinon]
3ter? smile ( < *līrigon to smile + -non.)
Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! — Walk with a smile in your heart!
  • litse ['litse]
adj. II fair, beautiful.
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • lo [lo]
conj. if (perh. related to lua?)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • lodaor [lodaɔ̯r]
conj. otherwise.
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • lōgor ['loːgor]
n. 6col. ship (cf. loktys.)
  • loktys ['loktys]
n. 2sol. sailor. (cf. lōgor.)
  • lopor ['lopor]
n. 3aq.3? salt
  • lōragon ['loːragon]
v. C-fin. to drill, to bore Takes a dative object.[79]
  • *lōtinty [loː'tinty]
n. 2lun? pie[4]
  • lōz [loːz]
adj. II wet
  • lua [lu͡a]
rel.pron. adj.[101] who, which, that; agrees with head noun's gender, case & number(?) in main clause.
  • lurugon [lu'ɾugon]
v. V-fin. to fold
  • [lyː]
rel.pron. one which (is) for concrete, countable entities (subst. of lua.)
Valo luo vaoresan. — I prefer one which is a man‘s.
  • lyka ['lyka]
adj. I quiet, silent[54]
Sȳndroso lykāpa… — Quiet as a shadow…
  • lykemagon [lyke'magon]
perfect: lykēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to silence (< lyka + emagon)
Aōle lykemās. — Be quiet.
  • Lys [lys] lyh-
n. 3sol. Lys

M

  • maghagon [ma'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. to bring
Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. Iderennon maghan. — I do not bring you commands. I bring you a choice.
  • manaeragon [ma'naɛ̯ɾagon]
v. C-fin. to raise, →acc: to celebrate[102], biarvī manaeragon to celebrate (good fortune)[102].
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • mandia ['mandia]
n. 1lun older sister. [103]
  • massa ['massa]
n. 1lun bat. [104]
  • massigon ['massigon]
v. V-fin. to happen (perh. maz- + sigon, aorist of sagon.)
"Skorion massitas?" "Qringōntan." — "What happened?" "I failed."
  • mazemagon [maze'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.). to take. ( lit. come to have, < maz- + emagon)
  • mazilībagon [mazi'lībagon]
v. C-fin. to set (of the sun)[105] (lit. something like come to lie (< maz- + ilībagon, also seen in sytilībagon to belong, < ilagon to lie (down) + -ībagon.)
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[46]
  • māzigon ['maːzigon]
perfect: māstan
v. V-fin. to come.
  • mazōregon [maz'oːɾegon]
v. V-fin. to accept ( lit. come to hold < maz- + ōregon.)[78]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesĪr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
  • mazverdagon [maz'veɾdagon]
perfect: mazvēttan
v. C-fin. to create (lit. come to arrange, < maz- + verdagon.)
Valar mazvēttas luos belmossi zirȳle tolvȳs gaomoso iderennosō letis — All men bind themselves with chains that they have created, through every deed and decision.[106]
Īlōn pryjassis līr īlōn mazverdis. — What destroys us, creates us.[107]
  • mele ['mele]-ior
adj. II red
  • memēbagon [me'meːbagon]
v. C-fin. to advance. (-ēbagon formation off of unknown verb *memagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • mentyn ['mentyn]
n. 6pauc.2sol. battalion (relexicalized paucal of mentys.)
  • mentys ['mentys]
n. 2sol soldier,
Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! — Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!
col. mentyr
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • mentyr ['mentyr]
n. 6col.2sol. army
  • Merakses[108] [me'ɾakses]
n. 4sol. Meraxes, one of the dragons used in Aegon's invasion of Westeros.
  • merbugon ['merbugon]
v. V-fin. to be hungry
Merbun. — I'm hungry.[55]
  • mēre ['meːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II one
  • mērī ['meːɾiː]
adv. only, alone
Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. Jemēle mērī sytilības. — Your freedom is not mine to give. It belongs to you and you alone.
  • mhysa ['mysa]
n. 1lun., or n. 6for.[109] the Ghiscari word for mother, widely used in Slaver's Bay. One of Daenerys Targarien's titles. ( < AV mysa < Ghiscari mhysa.)
  • mība ['miːba] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I short
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
  • mijegon [mi'jegon]
v. V-fin. to lack. →inst.
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
  • mirre ['mirre] -ior
adj. II any This word has many uses, corresponding almost exactly to those of the English equivalent any; some.
In the sense of all:
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
in the sense of whatever:
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
as opposed to none:
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
with a negative:
Jomōzussis lua vala mirros ēngoso ȳdrassigon kostilos daor. — A man who keeps getting drunk will not be able to speak any language[110]
In the sense of some:
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • mirrī ['mirriː]
adv. a bit, somwhat ( < mirre + .)
  • mirros ['mirros]
indef.pron.something,[111] anything? (substantive of mirre.)
Ynot mirros epās! — Ask me something![48]
  • mīsagon ['miːsagon]
v. to defend, to protect. →acc. of the thing protected [112]
  • mīsio ['miːsio]
n. 3lun. protector [113]
Riñītsoti mīsio. — Protector of little girls.
  • mittys ['mittys]
n. 2sol. fool
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
  • molry ['molry]
n. 2lun. horn
  • morghe ['moɾɣe]
adj. II dead
Ionos Sōnaro morghe iksos daor. — Jon Snow isn't dead.[114]
  • morghon ['moɾɣon]
n. 3ter. death
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • morghūlilare [moɾɣuːli'lare] -ior
adj. II mortal[115] (future participle of morghūljagon.)
  • morghūljagon [moɾ'ɣuːʎagon]
perfect: morghūltan
v. C-fin. to die. Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting.
  • mōris ['moːɾis]
n. 5sol. end, conclusion; loc. or adv. mōrī at the end, finally; va moriot always[4] lit. to the end.
  • mōzugon ['moːzugon]
v. V-fin. to drink
  • muña ['muɲa]
n. 1lun. mother. Muño ēngos mother tongue.
Muña Zaldrīzoti. — the Mother of Dragons.
Coll. muñar "parents."
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
  • mundagon ['mundagon]
v. to be miserable
He hears the Stone Men in their misery… — mundari dorenki rybis…
  • munnon ['munnon]
n. 3ter. sorrow (perh. mundagon + -non?)
  • Mȳr [myːr]
prop. n. 3aq. Myr
  • myrdys [myrdys]
n. 2sol. or 2lun. deer[54]
Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. — Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.

N

  • nābēmagon [naː'beːmagon]
v. to unfasten, to unleash; to fire a siege engine ( < nā- + *bēmagon, presumably meaning to fasten, restrain.)
  • nādīnagon [naː'diːnagon]
v. to remove ( < nā- + dīnagon)
Geltī aōhe nādīnās. — Remove your helmet.
  • naejon ['naɛ̯jon]
n. 3ter. front
  • naejot ['naɛ̯jot]
postp.→gen. in front of; adv. forward. (the locative or dative case of naejon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • naejos ['naɛ̯jos]
n. 3sol. breast (cf. naejon.)
  • naena ['naɛ̯na] -ys, -on, -or
num. n. 1lun. a countless number, too high to count (cf. naenie).
  • naenie ['naɛ̯ni͡e] -ior
adj. III many (cf. naena).
  • nāgīdāves [naːgiː'daːves]
n. 4sol. Inequality[32]
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[33]
  • nākostōbāves [na:kosto:'ba:ves]
n. 4sol. weakness[116] (< nā- + kostōba + -ves.)
Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. — Love is weakness.
  • nāmorghūlilare [naːmoɾɣuːli'lare] -ior
adj. II immortal[115] ( < nā- + morghūljagon.)
  • nāmorghūlilaros [naːmoɾɣuːli'laros]
n. 3sol. immortal[115] (nominalized form of nāmorghūlilare.)
  • nāpāsiros [naː'paːsiros]
n. 3sol. unbeliever ( < nā- + pāsiros subst. aor. part. of pāsagon.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • nāpāstys [naː'paːstys]
n. 2sol. unbeliever [8] ( < nā- + pāsagon + -tys)
Belma se pōnte setessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?
  • ñāqa ['ɲaːqa]
adj. I eastern. [117] [118]
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[46]
  • nāvar ['naːvar]
n. 1aq. lake
  • nēdenka [neː'deŋka]
adj. I brave ( < nēdys + -enka.)
Kostōba Nēdenkā. — Strong and Brave.[93]
  • nēdenkirī [neː'deŋkiɾiː]
adv. bravely ( < nēdenka + .)
  • nēdys ['neːdys]
n. 2sol brave person (substantivized form of *nēda brave.)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • nehugon [ne'hugon]
v. V-fin. to leak → inst. of the substance leaked, e.g. ānogrosa nehugon to bleed
Insv. anehugon to leak with impersonal subjects.
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
  • nekēpty [ne'keːpty]
n. 2lun. idol (likely a substantivied perfect participle from unattested *nekēbagon, possibly meaning to carve, compare nektogon to cut, and the English expression graven image.)
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • nektogon ['nektogon]
v. V-fin. to cut.
  • *ñelly, -s
n. 2? skin, flesh as a specific entity?
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • ñellyr ['ɲellyr]
n. 6col.2?. skin, flesh as a general substance?
va ñellyrty perzys fire made flesh
Va ñellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oño irudy. — Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.
  • ñepegon ['ɲepegon]
v. V-fin. to sew
  • ñōghe ['ɲoːɣe]
n. 4lun arm
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • ñōghoqitta [ɲoːɣo'qitta]
adj. I armless ( < ñōghe + -oqitta.)
ñoghoqitta rīza — armless lizard[47]
  • ñombes ['ɲombes]
n. 4sol[14] elephant[119]
  • ñuha ['ɲuha] -ys, -on, -or
  • nopāzma [no'paːzma]
n. 1lun hell[4]
Sīkudi nopāzmi! — Seven hells!
poss. adj. I my
  • ñuhon ['ɲuhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. 3ter. mine
  • ñuhoso [ɲu'hoso]
adv. in my way, as I wish (ins. of ñuha.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • nūmāzma [nuː'maːzma]
n. 1lun. meaning, essence, the truth of it (probably nūmo + -āzma.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. — You quit, you mean.
  • nūmio ['nuːmi͡o]
n. 3lun. pearl[120] (cf. nūmo)
  • nūmo ['nuːmo]
n. 3lun. seed (cf. nūmio)
  • ñuqir ['ɲuqir]
n. 5aq.[14] ashes
  • nuspes ['nuspes]
4sol. cow, female head of cattlle
  • nyke ['nyke]
pers.pron. I.
  • nykēla [ny'keːla]
refl. 1lun. myself

O

  • obar ['obar]
n. 1aq. curve
  • obūljagon [o'buːʎagon]
v. C-fin. to bend [121]
reflexive to bend the knee ( < *ob- seen in obar curve + -ūljagon.)
Se morghon jāle obulilza. — And death itself will bend the knee.
  • obūljarion [o'buːʎaɾi͡on]
n. 3ter. surrender (< obūljagon)
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
  • ōdres ['oːdres]
n. 4sol. pain; damage.[122]
  • ōdrikagon [oː'drikagon]
v. C-fin.? "to harm." ( < ōdres + -ikagon.)
daorys ziry ōdrikilza. — no one will harm him.
  • ōdrio ['oːdri͡o]
n. 3lun. wound (from the same root as ōdres, but "different ... because it’s a specific pain, not a general sensation."[123])
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • ōghar ['oːɣar]
n. 1aq.[14] hair
  • ohīlagon [oˈhiːlagon]
v. C-fin. to stab (poss. oz- + hīlagon.)
  • oiro [o'iro]
n. 3lun. fat
  • ojughagon [oju'ɣagon]
perfect: ojūdan[124]
v. C-fin. to lose[83] ( < oz- + rughagon.)
  • oktion ['okti͡on]
n. 3ter city
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • olvie ['olvi͡e] olvior
adj. III much, many
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • ondor ['ondor]
n. 6col.3sol. powers (relex. col. of ondos.)
Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. — You should not have these powers.
  • ondos ['ondos]
n. 3sol. hand. For ondor and ondoso see the respective entries.
  • ondoso ['ondoso]
postp.→gen. by, at the hand of, used with passive verbs to mark the agent. (Inst. of ondos.)
Valo ondoso Aerys iderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for by the man.
  • onduragon [ondu'ragon]
v. C-fin. to take up [8] (< ondos + -uragon)
Iā jemēla zȳhys perzī ondurilāt? — Or will you take up her flames yourselves?
  • ōños ['oːɲos]
n. 3sol. light
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • ōrbar ['oːɾbar]
n. 1aq.[14] smoke
  • ōregon ['oːɾegon]
v. V-fin. to hold
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • ospȳnagon [os'spyːnagon]
v. C-fin. to squeeze (probably oz- + unknown verb *pȳnagon.)
  • ossēnagon [os'seːnagon]
v. C-fin. to kill, to slay. ( < oz- + sēnagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! — Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!
  • ossȳngagon[125] [os'syːŋgagon]
v. to terrify, terrorize (Etymology unknown but does not contain oz-[126], and is not primordially related to zūgagon[127].)
  • ossȳngnon [os'syːŋgnon][18]
n. 3ter. terror ( < ossȳngagon + -non.)
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors
  • otāpagon [o'taːpagon]
v. to think
Skoros otāpā? — What do you think?
  • ōtor ['oːtor]
n. 3aq. ram, male sheep.[21]
  • ovoño [o'voɲo]
n. 3lun. jasmine flower.[128]
  • ozbāragon [o'zbaːɾagon]
perfect: ozbārtan
v. C-fin.? to brand (contains oz-.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • ozzālagon [oz'zaːlagon]
v. C-fin. to burn away [8] ( < oz- + zālagon)
Belma se pōnte setessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?

P

  • paez [paɛ̯z]
adj. II slow.[129]
  • paghagon [pa'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. breathe
  • paktot ['paktot]
adv. to the right; to the side, beside
Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa — Your enemy is beside you.
  • pamagon [pa'magon]
v. C-fin. to rub
  • pār [paːr]
pron. then, at that time
  • parklon ['paɾklon]
n. 3ter. meat
  • parmon ['paɾmon]
n. 3ter. grass
  • pālegon ['paːlegon]
v. V-fin. to turn, to twist, to rotate
  • pāletilla [paːle'tilla]
n. 1aq°.[14] crown[130] ( < pālegon + -illa.)
  • pāsagon ['paːsagon]
perfect: pāstan
v. C-fin. to trust esp. in perf., believe esp. in imperf.[131]
Kepa zȳhe tale pāsiles. — The father believed his daughter.
  • pelar ['pelar]
n. 1aq wave[132]
  • pelōñe [pe'loːɲe]
adj. II coming from the waves (< pelar + -ōñe)[132]
  • pēko ['peːko]
n. 3lun[14] olive
  • peldio ['peldi͡o]
n. 3lun. snake, viper (possibly from a verb root *pel- meaning something like to wiggle, undulate, wave? Cf. pelar.)
Peldiō sȳndor. — The viper's shadow.[133]
  • pendagon ['pendagon]
v. V-fin. to wonder.
  • perzys ['peɾzys]
n. 2sol. fire, flame;[134] zīrtys perzys[135] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian.
Perzys Ānogār. — Fire and Blood.
col. perzyr fire as a substance.
  • pikībagon [pi'kiːbagon]
v. C-fin. to read. ( < *pikagon + -ībagon.)
perfect: pikīptan
  • pirta ['piɾta]
adj. III false (etymology unknown. Possibly derived from an obsolete verb *piragon to lie, but no such verb exists in the Classical language.)
  • pirtir ['piɾtir]
n. 5aq. falsehood, lie (subs. of pirta.)
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me.
  • pilogon [pi'logon]
v. V-fin. to hold.
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās — Slay every man who holds a whip!
  • pogry ['pogry]
n. 2lun. nail
  • pōnta ['poːnta]
pers.pron. they.
  • pōntāla [poːn'taːla]
pers.pron. themselves
  • pōja ['poːja] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I their
  • pōjon ['poːjon]
pron. theirs
  • pragrion ['pragri͡on]
n. 3ter bark
  • prūbres ['pruːbres]
n. 4sol apple [136]
  • prūmia ['pruːmi͡a]
n. 1lun. heart.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
Ñuho prūmiā iksā. — You are in my heart.[137]
  • pryjagon [pry'jagon]
perfect: pryjatan
v. V-fin. to destroy;[138] strike off. Perf.pass.part. pryjata "destroyed."
Urnet luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! — Strike the chains off every slave you see!
  • pryjatys [pry'jatys]
n. 2sol. destroyer, breaker ( < pryjagon + -tys.)
Belmo Pryjatys — Breaker of Chains
  • puatta [ˈpu͡atta] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I rotten (possibly a perfect participle)
  • pungilla [puŋ'gilla]
n. 1aq°. nostril ( < pungos + -illa.)
  • pungos ['puŋgos]
n. 3sol. nose
  • puñila [pu'ɲila]
adj. I worn, weather beaten; of language proficiency rusty
  • purtagon ['purtagon]
v. C-fin. to scratch
  • pyghagon [py'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. to jump; to beat (of the heart)
perfect: pȳdan
...rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — ... with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • pykagon [py'kagon]
v. C-fin. to spit
  • pyrys ['pyɾys]
num. 2sol. thousand[139]
col.ins. pyryrzy by the thousands
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

Q

  • qablos ['qablos]
n. 3sol.[14] liver
  • qana [ˈqana] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I sharp
  • qanemagon [qane'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to sharpen. ( < qane + -emagon.)
perfect: qanēdan
  • qelbar ['qelbar]
n. 1aq. river.
  • Qelbria ['qelbri͡a]
n. 1lun. the Riverlands.
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
  • qelbōñe [qel'boːɲe]
adj. II that lives/comes from the river (< qelbar + -ōñe.)[140] qelbōñe kēli river otter.
  • qeldlie ['qeldlq] -ior
adj. III yellow, golden-colored
Ondos Qeldlie — Goldenhand[141]
  • qēlos ['qeːlos]
n. 3sol. star
Vēzos qēlossās ñuho. — My sun and stars.[55]
  • qilōnagon [qi'loːnagon]
perfect: qilontan
v. C-fin.? to scourge[142] (cf. qilōny whip.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • qilōnarion [qi'loːnaɾi͡on]
n. 3ter punishment (substantivized participle from qilōnagon to scourge.)
Qilōnario Geron. — Walk of Punishment.
  • qilōny [qi'loːny]
n. 2lun. whip
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. — Slay every man who holds a whip.
  • qogron ['qogron]
n. 3ter. line (prob. in the military sense; see qogror below.)
  • qogror ['qogror]
n. 6col.3ter. ranks; class, type, gender (relexicalized collective of qogron).
Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ — You will select your own leader, from amongst your own ranks.
vēzenkon qogror. — “solar class”.[61]
  • qopsa ['qopsa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I hard, difficult
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • qrīdronnor [qriː'dronnor]
n. 6col.3ter. Chaos.[59] (< qrin- + rholagon + -non, lit. (pejorative) mixture.)[143]
Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. — Chaos is a ladder.
  • qrīdrughagon [qriːdru'ɣagon]
v. C-fin. to throw away. ( < qrin- + rughagon, with the same n-deletion rule[144] seen in bianorbiādra.)
  • qrillaetagon [qril'laɛ̯tagon]
v. C-fin.? to rape (contains qrin-.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • qrimbrōzagon [ˈqrimbroːzagon]
perfect: qrimbrōstan
v. C-fin. to curse (lit. to name badly, < qrin- + brōzagon.)
  • qrimbughegon [qrimbuˈɣegon]
v. V-fin. to drown[124] ( < qrin- + bughegon.)
  • qringaomagon [qriŋ'gaɔ̯magon]
v. C-fin. to fail, to err, to sin. ( < qrin- + gaomagon.)
perfect: qringōntan
"Skorion massitas?" "Qringōntan." — "What happened?" "I failed."
Valar Qringaomis. — All men must fail.[145]
  • qringaomio [qriŋ'gaɔ̯mi͡o]
n. 3lun. evildoer ( < qringaomagon + -io.)[146]
  • qringaomnon [qriŋ'gaɔ̯mnon]
n. 3ter. sin ( < qringaomagon + -non.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
hen pōjo qringaomnoti for their sins
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • qrinuntenka [qrinun'teŋka]
adj. I antagonistic[147]
  • qrinuntenkāves [qrinunteŋ'kaːves]
n. 4sol. antagonism.[32]
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[33]
  • qrinuntys [qri'nuntys]
n. 2sol. enemy
Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa — Your enemy is beside you.
  • qryldes ['qryldes]
4sol. male pig
  • quba [ˈquba] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I bad
  • qumblie ['qumbli͡e]
adj. III thick
  • qupēgrie [qup'eːgri͡e]
adj. III terrible ( < possibly the same root as in quba + -ēgrie.)
Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. — His Valyrian is terrible[8]
  • quptenka [qup'teŋka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I pagan; Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue; ( < quptys.)
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
  • quptys ['quptys]
n. 2sol. heathen
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • qurdon [ˈquɾdon]
n. 3ter. table
  • qūvy [ˈquːvy]
n. 2lun. tear

R

  • raedes ['raɛ̯des]
4sol. scorpion
  • rāenābagon [raːɛ̯'naːbagon]
v. C-fin. to wash ( < rāena- + -ēbagon.)
  • rāenagon ['raːɛ̯nagon]
v. C-fin. to wipe
  • rāenion ['raːɛ̯ni͡on]
3ter shore (probably connected to rāenagon and rāenābagon, with the idea of the land that the sea washes.)
  • [ryː]
post.→gen. between, through, across, throughout.
Jevo glaesoti rȳ buzdari istiat. — You have been slaves all your life.
  • rāelagon ['raːɛ̯lagon]
v. C-fin. to hold
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza. — He holds us safe.
  • rāpa ['raːpa]
adj. I soft
  • rāpūljagon [raː'puːʎagon]
perfect: rāpūltan
v. C-fin. to soften. (rāpa + -ūljagon.)
  • raqagon [ra'qagon]
perfect: rattan[148]
v. C-fin.? to like, to love "lighter" than jorrāelagon,[149] to enjoy
Dohaeriakson raqan. — I like to be served.[35]
Avy jorrāelan. Avy raqan. — I love you. I love you.
New Yorkī sōnari raqō daor? — Are you enjoying winter in New York?[150]
  • raqiros [ra'qiros]
n. 3sol. friend (relex. aor. part. of raqagon).
Zūgagon daor, ñuhys raqiros. — Don’t be afraid, my friend.
  • raqiarzy [ra'qi͡aɾzy]
n. 2lun beloved[151] (nominalized aorist passive participle of raqagon.)
  • raqnon ['raqnon]
n. 3ter. love[116]
Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. — Love is weakness.
  • rēbagon [reː'bagon]
v. to walk, to pass. [152]
Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! — Walk with a smile in your heart!
Ynot rēbagon. — Let me pass.
  • relgos ['relgos]
n. 3sol. mouth
  • remio ['remi͡o]
n. 3lun. gate
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • renigon [re'nigon]
v. V-fin. to touch with the hand.
  • Rhaegal ['r̥aɛ̯gal]
n. 6for.[153] Rhaegal
  • rhaenagon ['r̥aenagon]
perfect: rhēdan
v. C-fin. to meet; in certain contexts to begin.
Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. — I begin my day with tea.[154]
  • rhēdegon ['r̥eːdegon]
v. V-fin. to know a person, to be acquainted with (the eventative form of rhaenagon, to meet.)
Ābra kepe rhēdes lua vala raqiros issa. — The man whose father the woman knows is a friend.
  • rhinka ['r̥iŋka]
adj. I (of a material or texture) rough, coarse; by extension unpleasant[155]
  • rholagon [r̥o'lagon]
v. C-fin. to mix[143]
  • rhovagon [r̥o'vagon]
v. C-fin. to bark (perh. onomatopoeic)
Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi — The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[55]
  • *rhūqes
n. 4sol. pigeon[4]
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.
  • rijagon [ri'jagon]
perfect: riddan
v. C-fin. to praise. (cf. rijes.)
Dārys azanti rijas. — The king praises the soldier.[156]
  • rijes [ri'jes]
n. 4sol. praise. (cf. rijagon.)
rijes aōt praise to you, poss. an expression for congratulations![157]
Rijes aōt, Papayus! — Praise to you, Papaya![27]
  • rijībagon [ri'jiːbagon]
v. C-fin. to worship ( < rijagon + -ībagon.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • rijnor ['rijnor]
n. 6col.3ter. praise ( col. of *rijnon < rijagon + -non.)
Rijnondi praise (to you) poss. an expression for congratulations[158]
Rijnondi, Donis! — Praise (to you), Don!
  • riña ['riɲa]
n. 1lun. girl, maiden; child
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn riñe dōre ōdrikātās. — slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.
coll. riñar children.
  • riñītsos [ri'ɲiːtsos]
n. 3sol. little child; little girl[159] (riña + -ītsos.)
  • ripo ['ripo]
n. 3lun. the pit or stone of a fruit.
  • rīza ['riːza]
n. 1lun. reptile, lizard
ñoghoqitta rīza — armless lizard[47]
  • rizmon ['rizmon]
n. 3ter. sand
  • rōbir ['roːbir]
n. 5aq.[14] fig.
Sparos rōbir angotas. — Who bit the fig?
  • ropagon [ro'pagon]
perfect: ropatas[160]
v. V-fin. to fall
  • rōva ['roːva] , comp. rōvykta
adj. I big
Davido zaldrīzes aōhos zaldrīzose rōvyktys issa. — David’s dragon is bigger than your dragon.
  • rōvēgrie [roː'veːgri͡e]
adj. III great, excellent ( < rōva + -ēgrie.)
rōvēgrior intj. "excellent"[55]
  • rōvēgrī [roː'veːgriː]
adv. greatly, enormously ( < rōvēgrie + .)
Rōvēgrī qringōntan. — I’ve erred enormously[161]
  • ruaka [ˈru͡aka]
adj. I dull
  • ruaragon [ru͡a'ɾagon]
v. C-fin. hide (oneself); hen→dat[162] from...
Kēli hen aōt ruarza. — The cat is hiding from you.[163]
  • rudigon [ru'digon]
v. V-fin. dig
  • rughagon [ru'ɣagon]
perfect: rūdan
v. C-fin. to drop; in the reflexive to quit.
Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. — You quit, you mean.
  • rūklon ['ruːklon]
n. 3ter. flower[164]
Rūkluni ynot teptas lua vala bisy issa. — This is the man who gave me some flowers.
6for[166] R'hllor, the Lord of Light (possibly from Asshai'i.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
n. 3sol. baby, child.
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza, kesrio syt lanta iksan, rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — He holds us safe, for now I am two, with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • rȳbagon ['ryːbagon]
perfect: ryptan
v. C-fin. to hear.
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • ryptegon ['ryptegon]
v. V-fin. to listen (eventative of rȳbagon.)
  • rytsa ['rytsa]
adj. I healthy
  • rytsas ['rytsas]
exp. hello. ( < rytsa)

S

  • saelie ['saɛ̯li͡e] -ior
num. adj. III third
  • sagon ['sagon]
perfect: istan
v. irreg. to be. 3s forms issa[168] and kessa[4] may be used to mean yes.
  • sambar ['sambar]
n. 1aq. cloud
  • sambrar ['sambrar]
n. 6col.1aq. fog (col. of sambar cloud.)
  • se [se]
conj. and
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • sēnagon ['seːnagon]
v. C-fin. to kill. [169]
Perzys zaldrīzi sēnagon kostos daor. — Fire cannot kill a dragon.
  • sepār ['sepaːr]
conj. and especially where consecutivity is implied, and then, next ( < se + an unknown element -pār.)
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
conj. just as
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
  • sesīr ['sesiːr]
conj. even; and now; and so. ( < se "and" + sīr "now".)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
  • sīglie ['siːgli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III seventh
  • sigligon ['sigligon]
perfect: siglitan
v. V-fin. to bear again ( < sikagon + -ligon.)
in the passive to be born again
Vys verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!
  • sikagon [si'kagon]
perfect: sittan
v. C-fin. to give birth to, to bear (prob. sagon, or its aorist sigon, + -ikagon.)
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
  • sīkuda ['siːkuda] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I seven
  • sīkudēpsa ['siːkudeːpsa] indec.
num. seventy
  • sīmonagon [siːmo'nagon]
perfect: sīmontan
v. C-fin. to rise
  • sindigon ['sindigon]
perfect: sindita
v. V-fin. to buy[170]
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • sīr [siːr]
adv. now
Yn dāeri vali sīr issi — But you are free men now.
  • sīudīblie ['siːudiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III seventieth
  • skore ['skoɾe] -ior
int.pron. adj. II which for inanimates, what
  • skorī ['skoɾiː]
int.pron. when?
Skorī vala rōbir angotas? — When did the man bite the fig?
conj./rel.pron. when
Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. — When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
  • skorion ['skoɾi͡on]
int.pron. 3ter. what esp. for places, mass nouns, and abstracts
"Skorion massitas?" — "What happened?"
skorio syt why
  • skoriot ['skoɾi͡ot]
int.pron. where? (loc. of skorion.)
SKORIOT ÑUHYZ ZALDRĪZESSE ISSI?! — WHERE ARE MY DRAGONS?![171]
  • skoros ['skoɾos]
int.pron. 3sol. what esp. for concrete, countable items
Skoros otāpā? — What do you think?
Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? — What are your names?
skoro syt why
  • skorkydoso [skoɾky'doso]
int.pron. how ( < skore + -kydoso.)
Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?[55]
  • skorȳso ['skoɾyːso]
int.pron. why; conj. because properly used in this sense only in response to a question. (instrumental of skoros.)
  • sombāzmion [som'baːzmi͡on]
n. 3ter. castle[172] ( < *somby, possibly meaning "shield," cf. sumby, -āzma, -ion.)
  • sōna ['soːna]
n. 1lun. snow. gen.col. Sōnaro Snow surname used by acknowledged bastards in The North of Westeros.
  • sōnar ['soːnar]
n. 6col.1lun. winter[173] (relex. col. of sōna.)
Sōnar Māzis — Winter Is Coming
  • sōpagon ['soːpagon]
v. C-fin. to laugh
  • sōvegon ['soːvegon]
v. V-fin. to fly
  • sōvemagon ['soːvemagon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to make fly ( < sōvegon + -emagon.)
Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. — Stories can make us fly.[174]
  • spare ['spaɾe] -ior
int.pron. adj. II which for animates
  • sparion ['spaɾi͡on]
int.pron. 3ter. who esp. for mass nouns, and abstracts.
  • sparos ['spaɾos]
int.pron. who esp. for concrete, countable entities.
Sparos rōbir angotas. — Who bit the fig?
sparo syt For whom? On account of whom? For whose sake?
  • sūmar[175] ['suːmar] sūbr-
n. 1aq. tea
Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. — I begin my day with tea.[154]
  • suvion [ˈsuvio͡n]
n. 3ter ice
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.
  • sylugon [sy'lugon]
perfect: sylutan
v. V-fin. to try[176]
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
  • sylutegon [sylu'tegon]
v. V-fin. trans. to taste something[37] (eventative of sylugon).
  • sȳndor ['syːndor]
n. 3aq.[177] shadow [133]
Peldiō sȳndor. — The viper's shadow.
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[64]
sȳndror darkness [8]
… se sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr… — … and those who love the darkness…
  • sȳrī [ˈsyːɾiː]
adv. well
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.
  • syt [syt]
postp.→gen. for. Skoro syt why? (prob. historically the locative or dative of an unknown or lost noun, perhaps something like *sion, or maybe something related to sȳz, with the idea of for the good of....)
rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • sytiderēbagon [sytide'ɾeːbagon]
perfect: sytiderēptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to chose for, select for. +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive), +dat: the thing selected. ( < syt- + i- + derēbagon.)
Vala rōbrȳti Aeri sytiderēbza. — The man selects figs for Aerys."
Aeri sytiderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for.
  • sytilībagon [syti'liːbagon]
v. C-fin. to belong. (prob. < syt- + il- + -ībagon.)
  • sytivīlībagon [sytiviː'liːbagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < syt- + i- + vīlībagon "to fight".)
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • sȳz [syːz] sȳrior
adj. II good
Kydȳptakson sȳz kesos. — It would be good to have been measured.[35]
Yn kesys tubis hen mirro tubiot sȳrpys issa. — But today is as good a day as any.[178]
Jaehossas sȳris sātās — Gods be good![65]

T

  • tāemītsos ['taːɛ̯miːtsos]
n. 3sol. stick (diminutive of unattested root tāem- + -ītsos, presumably meaning something like branch.)
  • tala ['tala]
n. 1lun. daughter[179]
  • Targārien [taɾ'gaːɾi͡en]
n. 4ter.[14] Targaryen a family name.
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • tatagon [ta'tagon]
v. C-fin. to finish.
perfect: tetan
  • tēgie ['teːgi͡e] -ior
adj. III curved
  • tēgigon ['teːgigon]
v. V-fin. intrans. to curve, be curved.
  • tēgir ['teːgir]
n. 5aq. curve
  • tegon ['tegon]
n. 3ter. ground. pauc. tegun land. coll.[180] tegor lands collectively.[181]
  • tegōñe [te'goːɳe] -or
adj. II terrestrial ( < tegon + -ōñe.)
  • tegun ['tegun]
n. 6col.3ter. land. coll. tegor lands collectively.[181] (relex. pauc. of tegon)
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[64]
  • temby ['temby]
n. 2lun. leaf.
  • tembyr ['tembyr]
n. 6col.2lun. book.[182] (col. of temby.)
  • tepagon ['tepagon]
v. C-fin. to give.
perfect: teptan
Kesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. — Today I give you freedom.
  • Thoros ['θoɾos]
n. 3sol(?) Thoros, a name.
  • tīkor ['tiːkor]
n. 6col.3sol. flock of birds[183] (col. of tīkos.)
  • tīkos ['tiːkos]
n. 3sol. feather[183]
  • tīkun ['tiːkun] (pauc. of tīkos.)
n. 6pauc.3sol. wing[183]
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
  • timpa ['timpa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I white
  • tindon ['tindon]
n. 3ter. root
  • tista ['tista] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I dry (poss. a perf. part.)
  • tistālior [ti'staːli͡or]
n. 6col?.3ter? bank (prob. coll. of *tistālion store room lit. drying place < tista + -lion.)
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[5]
  • tolī ['toliː]
adv. above; after[56]
excessively, too
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
more[4]
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.
  • tolie ['toli͡e] -ior
adj. III other (perh. lit. higher, cf. tolī, toliot.)
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
  • toliot ['toli͡ot]
post.→gen. above, over; after[56]
  • tolmio ['tolmi͡o]
3lun. far side, far wall[184]
  • tolmiot ['tolmi͡ot]
adv. far
post.→gen. across (loc. of tolmio, "far side." This is why it can be combined with hen.)
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • tolvie ['tolvi͡e] -ior
adj. III every
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. — Slay every man who holds a whip.
  • tolvys ['tolvys]
indef.pron. 2sol. everyone
Tolvys morghūlis. — Everyone must die.
  • tōma ['toːma] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I five
  • tōmo ['toːmo]
n. 3lun. elderberry plant ( < tōma, referring to the five-petaled blossoms.)
  • tōmelie ['toːmeli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fifth
  • tōmēpsa [toː'meːpsa] indec.
num. fifty
  • tōmīblie [toː'miːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fiftieth
  • tōmītsos [toː'miːtsos]
n. 3sol. elderberry ( < tōmo + -ītsos.)
  • trēsy ['treːsy]
n. 2lun. son.[185]
Tȳni Trēsi — Second Sons
  • trūma ['truːma]
adj. I deep
  • trūmirī ['truːmiɾiː]
adv. deeply ( < trūma + .)
  • tubis ['tubis]
n. 5sol. day; kesȳ tubī, tubī[4] adv. today
Kesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. — Today I give you freedom.
Tubī daor. — Not today.[4]
  • turgon [tuɾ'gon]
n. 3ter. worm.[186]
  • tymagon [ty'magon]
perfect: tymptan
v. C-fin. to play
  • tymptir ['tymptir]
n. 5aq. game (substantivized perf. part. of tymagon.)
Tymptir Dēmalȳti — A Game of Thrones[30]
  • tȳne ['tyːne] -ior
num. adj. II second; secondary.
  • tyvagon [tyˈvagon]
perfect: tȳdan
v. C-fin. to crawl, to creep
  • tyvaros [tyˈvaɾos]
n.sol. serpent, snake (subst. part. of tyvagon.)

U

  • ubles ['ubles]
n. 4sol. eel
  • udir ['udir]
n. 5aq. word[187] (poss. distantly related to ȳdragon.)[188]
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
May also be used, just like English word, in the sense of news:
Se vasīr dorior udir Drogo bē? — And still no word of Drogon?[189]
  • udligon [u'dligon]
perfect: udlitan
v. V-fin. to respond, to answer (Poss. *ud- seen udir + -ligon.)
May be used intransitively:
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
or transitively:
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • udrāzma [u'draːzma]
n. 1lun. command ( < udr- + -āzma.)
Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. — I do not bring you commands.
  • udrir ['udrir]
n. 6col.5aq. language (relex. coll. of udir.)
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? — Do you speak Valyrian?[55]
  • uēmagon ['u͡eːmagon]
v. C-fin. to vomit (could possibly be a Loc. appl. from u-, but if so the base verb is not yet attested. The long ē makes emagon highly unlikely.)
  • uēpa ['u͡eːpa]
adj. I old
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
  • ūja ['uːja]
pers.pron. it, (he, she) (terrestrial, aquatic).
  • umbagon [ˈumbagon]
perfect: umptan[69]
v. C-fin. to stay, to wait, to remain[190]
  • ūñagon [uː'ɳagon]
v. C-fin. to count
  • ūndegon ['uːndetan]
v. V-fin. to see, to catch sight of, to sight (eventative of urnegon.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
Ābre kustittas lue vale ūndetan. — I saw the man who encouraged the woman.
  • unektogon [u'nektogon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to cut out. ( < u- + nektogon.)
  • urnēbagon [uɾ'neːbagon]
v. C-fin. to watch. ( < urnegon + -ēbagon.)
  • urnēbion [uɾ'neːbi͡on]
n. 3ter. watch.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
  • urnegon ['uɾnegon]
perfect: ūndan
v. V-fin. to see.

V

  • va [va]
prep.→loc. towards, at, near; →dat. to, all the way up to.
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • vāedagon ['vaːɛ̯dagon]
perfect: vāettan[69]
v. C-fin. to sing
  • vāedar ['vaːɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. song
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.
  • vala ['vala]
n. 1lun. man. Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlis
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • valonqar [va'loɴqar]
n. 1aq. little brother (Some propose a connection to vala man, but this is uncertain.)[191]
  • Valyria [va'lyɾi͡a]
n. 1lun. Valyria. The Valyrian language.
Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. — His Valyrian is terrible[8]
Valyrio, Valyrio udrir the Valyrian language.
Valyrio muño ēngos ñuhys issa. — Valyrian is my mother tongue.
  • Valyrīha [valy'ɾiːha]
adj. I. Valyrian. ( < Valyria + -sīha.)
  • Valyrīhy [valy'ɾiːhy]
n. 2lun. Valyrian, i.e. a Valyrian person, or a person from the Valyrian peninsula. (Substantivized form of Valyrīha.)
  • valzȳrys [val'zyːɾys]
n. 2sol. husband ( < vala + -zȳrys.)
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • vamiot ['vami͡ot]
adv. near (possibly the locative of an unknown noun, containing va-)
  • vandis ['vandis]
n. 5sol. bull, male head of cattle
  • vaogemagon [vaɔ̯ge'magon]
perfect: vaogēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to sully, to defile ( < *vaog- seen in vaogenka + -emagon.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • vaogenka [vaɔ̯'geŋka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I dirty ( < vaog-, as in dovaogedy, + -enka.)
  • vaokses ['vaɔ̯kses]
n. 4sol. spider. [192] (perh. related to vaogenka?)
  • vaoresagon ['vaɔ̯ɾesagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to prefer, to favor →gen/dat. ( < va- + u- + *resagon)
Valo luo vaoresan. — I prefer one which is a man‘s.
  • vaoreznon [vaɔ̯'ɾeznon]
n. 3ter. favor ( < vaoresagon + -non.)
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • vasīr ['vasiːr]
adv. still, as yet, so far ( < va + sīr.)
Se vasīr Drogon ūndetoks daor? — And as yet Drogon hasn’t been sighted?[189]
  • vasrie ['vasri͡e], vajie ['vaji͡e] -ior
adj. III thin
  • vēdros ['veːdros]
n. 3sol. anger
Vēdroso, vīlīpti. — In anger, we fought.
  • vējes ['veːjes]
n. 4sol. fate, doom (including The Doom of Valyria)[193]
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
in the inst. vējose! intj. "By fate!"[194]
  • vējōñe [veː'joːɳe] -or
adj. III. southern ( < vēzor + -ōñe.)[77]
  • velkrys ['velkrys]
2sol. stag, male deer.[24]
  • verdagon ['veɾdagon]
perfect: vēttan
v. C-fin. to arrange; to make (a decision).
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • verdligon ['veɾdligon]
perfect: verdlitan
v. V-fin. to remake, recreate ( < verdagon + -ligon.)
Vys verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!
  • Vesteros ['vesteros]
n. 3sol. Westeros
Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero — the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros
  • vestragon ['vestragon]
perfect: vestretan
v. C-fin. to say
Skoros morghot vestri? — What do we say to death?[195]
with impersonal subject it seems →dat. to[196]
  • vestriarzir [ves'tri͡aɾzir]
n. 5aq[197] story (substantivized aorist passive participle of vestragon, lit. that which is (ever/habituatlly/generally) told.)
Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. — Stories can make us fly.[174]
  • vestretir ['vestretir]
n. 5aq. proclamation, statement[198] (substantivized perfect participle of vestragon, lit. that which has been said.)
  • vēttir ['veːttir]
n. 5aq. a law (referring to a specific one), regulation[199] (substantivized perfect participle of verdagon, lit. what has been arranged.)
col. vēttrir the law in general.
Vēttrir vēttrir issa. — The law is the law.[200]
  • vēzor ['veːzor] vēj-
n. 3aq. south ( < vēzos.)[77]
  • vēzos ['veːzos]
n. 3sol. sun
Vēzos qēlossās ñuho. — My sun and stars.[55]
  • vēzenka [veː'zeŋka]
adj. I solar ( < vēzos + -enka.)
vēzenkon qogror. — “solar class”.[61]
  • vīlībagon [viː'liːbagon]
v. C-fin. to fight
Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. — All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.
  • vīlībāzma [viːliː'baːzma]
n. 1lun. war, battle ( < vīlībagon + -āzma.); instr. vīlībāzmosa by combat (concerning a trial)
Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza, yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — The war rages on, but soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • vokemagon [voke'magon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to purify (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in voktys, + -emagon.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • voktys ['voktys]
n. 2sol. priest, priestess. (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in vokemagon, + -tys.)
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • vōljes ['voːʎes]
n. 4sol. raven
  • vollie ['volli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III ninth.
  • vōre ['voːɾe] -ior
num. adj. II nine.
  • vōrēpsa [voː'ɾeːpsa] indec.
num. ninety.
  • vōrīblie [voː'ɾiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III ninetieth.
  • vūjigon ['vuːjigon]
v. V-fin. to kiss
Perzo Vūjita — Kissed by Fire
Vala abre vūjitas. Vale abra vūjitas. — The man kissed the woman. The woman kissed the man.[55]
  • vys [vys] vyh-?
n. 3sol? world
Vys verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!

Y

  • ybon ['ybon]
n. 3ter. knee
  • ȳdragon ['yːdragon]
v. V-fin. to speak; →inst. a language
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? — Do you speak Valyrian?[55]
  • ȳgha ['yːɣa]
adj. I safe
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza — He holds us safe
  • yknagon ['yknagon]
v. V-fin. to smell
  • yn [yn]
conj. but.
qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn riñe dōre ōdrikātās. — slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.
  • yne, ynot etc., see nyke.
  • ȳrda ['yːrda] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I narrow
  • ȳrgos ['yːrgos]
n. 3sol. neck
  • Yunkai ['juŋkai̯] gen. Yunkaiho
n. 6for.ter Yunkai ( < Ghiscari)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.

Z

  • zālagon ['zaːlagon]
perfect: zaltan?
v. C-fin. to burn. va daorunta zālagon to burn away, to burn to nothing
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • zaldrīzes [zal'driːzes]
n. 4sol. dragon. ( < zālagon + rīza.)
Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. — A dragon is not a slave.
  • zentys ['zentys]
n.2sol. guest
Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. — These men are our guests.
  • ziksoso [zi'ksoso]
adv. in his way, as he wishes (unknown; cf. ñyhoso & aōhoso for which corresponding form should be *zȳhoso.)
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • zīragon ['ziːɾagon]
perfect: zīrtan
v. C-fin. to freeze; zīrtys perzys[135] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian
  • ziry ['ziɾy]
pron. he, she, (it) (solar & lunar).
  • zirȳla [zi'ɾyːla]
refl. 1lun. himself, herself, itself
  • zōbrie ['zoːbri͡e], -ior
adj. III dark; black
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
  • zokla ['zokla]
n. 1lun. wolf
  • zoklītsos [zo'kliːtsos]
n. 3sol. little wolf ( < zokla + -ītsos.)
  • zūgagon ['zuːgagon]
v. C-fin. to fear apparently assigns a dative, or possibly a locative
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • zūger ['zuːger]
n. perh. 4sol. or 6col. fear[54]
Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. — Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.
  • zȳha ['zyːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I his, her, its.
  • zȳhon ['zyːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. his, hers, (its).
Zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — His is the song of ice and fire.

Abbreviations

adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aq. or aquatic
conj. conjunction
dem. demonstrative
exp. expression
intj. interjection
lun. or lunar
n. noun
num. numeral
postp. postposition
pron. pronoun
prep. preposition
sol. or solar
ter. or terrestrial
v. verb
C-fin. consonant-final
V-fin. vowel-final
→acc. triggers accusative
→gen. triggers genitive
→dat. triggers dative
→inst. triggers instrumental
→loc. triggers locative
° unexpected gender

Further Information

For information on conjugation, declension, etc. see the pages below.


For words listed according to subject matter, see

Notes

  1. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52258261806/thank-you-for-the-castithian-my-friend-and-i-just
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/338005118010130432, https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/347619785397370880
  3. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92768950255/hello-i-was-just-wondering-if-like-in-a-previous-post
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2014/5/8/high-valyrian-101-learn-and-pronounce-common-phrases
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-38103
  6. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92768950255/hello-i-was-just-wondering-if-like-in-a-previous-post
  7. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474704833518116864
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143383597638/valyrian-and-dothraki-dialogue-episode-601-of
  9. Form reconstructed from perfect angotas. May be incorrect.
  10. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92671165154/hi-mr-peterson-i-admire-what-you-did-for-game-of
  11. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88694557124/love-your-work-in-game-of-thrones-i-was-wondering-if#comment-1434792964
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119626846322/ive-been-looking-around-the-hv-wiki-pages-and-the
  13. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/gryves-se-rina-litse/#comment-2143
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 Gender confirmed
  15. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/451498834666221568
  16. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/451761993121161216
  17. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85570
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69709127260/hi-huge-fan-of-your-work-on-thrones-really-brougt-the
  19. Lexical form, gender, gloss: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/348732679384076288; etymology: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/348858959114948609
  20. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/438934775563157505
  21. 21.0 21.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7846
  22. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/78803739713/hi-david-a-friend-of-mine-wants-to-get-all-men-must
  23. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/ask#comment-1674963176
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7851
  25. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335166657926410240
  26. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/509053010991788032
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/
  28. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94646713173/how-do-you-say-to-rain-in-hv-is-it-daomio-ropagon
  29. Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. , revealed before release at https://twitter.com/GretchenAMcC/status/635850295130595328?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw
  30. 30.0 30.1 http://www.whosay.com/articles/1559-how-do-you-say-game-of-thrones-in-high-valyrian
  31. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/424640427719786497
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/130164397557/i-saw-your-high-valyrian-translation-of-reform
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/09/how-would-donald-trump-sound-dothraki
  34. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93606199925/whats-all-women-must-die-in-high-valyrian-wink
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91382440334/is-there-such-a-thing-as-a-passive-infinitive-in-high#permalink-notes
  36. 36.0 36.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-46878
  37. 37.0 37.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84258
  38. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91682702722/valar-morghulis-i-need-some-help-in-translating-a
  39. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91661010691/hi-mr-peterson-i-have-a-friend-who-wants-to-know-how
  40. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119452523036/any-chance-youre-allowed-to-provide-a-transcript
  41. https://www.facebook.com/eleni.mandell.1/posts/10153866837815220
  42. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/452973907188793344
  43. The word for “sea” in High Valyrian is embar (or, more figurately, embrar) —DJP
  44. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94386491674/how-do-you-say-otter-in-high-valyrian
  45. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121691127784/hey-i-recently-got-a-pet-snake-and-wanted-a-name
  48. 48.0 48.1 https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/508612.David_J_Peterson (Not clear if mirros should be translated "something," or "anything," but the former seems more appropriate for a Type 1 substantive.
  49. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85299
  50. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/53805143580/hi-david-im-a-huge-fan-of-your-work-d-i-have-a
  51. Meaning is approximately "may your path be straight."
  52. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85573
  53. 53.0 53.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/134348169425/hi-there-im-sprekenze-dick-from-the-question
  55. 55.00 55.01 55.02 55.03 55.04 55.05 55.06 55.07 55.08 55.09 55.10 55.11 55.12 55.13 55.14 Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. 
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/elat-kathivezhofari/
  57. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/576521593104543744 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/113644671562/could-you-tell-us-wheel-so-that-we-can-do-im
  58. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1265, http://www.vulture.com/2013/04/game-of-thrones-dothraki-language-inventor.html
  59. 59.0 59.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96486949844/i-was-just-recommended-your-blog-and-wow
  60. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91890097707/i-want-her-collar-to-have-inscribed-in-it-in-high
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 The names for the solar and lunar genders were long thought to be vēzenkor qogror and hūrenkor qogror, due to this comment, but DJP has since clarified that that was in error, and that qogror is indeed terrestrial, precisely as one would expect. As this error has persisted uncorrected for two years, it has already been propagated to any discussions of HV on the internet. If you are in a position to do so, please correct any references you may find to ˣvēzenkor qogror or ˣhūrenkor qogror to vēzenkon and hūrenkon respectively.
  62. 62.0 62.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/97662740892/hey-hey-hi-i-was-wondering-if-you-could-tell-me
  63. http://www.dothraki.com/2011/09/the-header-script/#comment-93965
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121116158163/can-you-translate-in-the-land-of-mordor-where
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 http://geekyconblr.tumblr.com/post/116039992144/this-might-be-the-coolest-special-guest
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121683073283/were-the-pit-fighters-saying-a-high-valyrian
  67. 67.0 67.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88003383998/hmm-would-it-be-too-much-to-ask-what-let-it-go-or
  68. DJP is somewhat uneasy with this form, though he concedes it is valid:
    "As for sr > j, yes, you could list those as in free variation, though for myself, I’d be hesitant to do ioje. I like iosre better. But that doesn’t mean ioje isn’t acceptable by any means."
    —Email 3-29-15
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107545400399/what-are-the-perfect-stems-of-umbagon-vaedagon
  70. DJP originally said this was not the applicative i-, or at least not so analyzed in Classical High Valyrian: https://www.facebook.com/Dedalvs/posts/10152824337550207?comment_id=40431635&offset=0&total_comments=7. However, in later conversation he revealed that it actually is an applicatve in origin.
  71. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/337310280780496896 et seq.
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/53797550110/does-hv-have-words-for-seasons-also-in-the-word
  73. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474603184929783809
  74. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/352348019221471233
  75. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/130206304747/hi-david-i-was-wondering-is-there-a-word-for
  76. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/84737612397/hi-ever-since-i-was-a-kid-i-wondered-if-it-was
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 77.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/139864549891/do-you-have-a-word-for-north-and-south-in-high
  78. 78.0 78.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/gryves-se-rina-litse/#comment-2096
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107610313810/jolloragon-is-to-study-so-what-does-loragon
  80. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107328192595/hi-david-lori-from-vegas-id-love-to-tattoo
  81. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143383597638/valyrian-and-dothraki-dialogue-episode-601-of#comment-2644399467
  82. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-83146
  83. 83.0 83.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85092
  84. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/373713198580371456
  85. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120048022336/hi-in-hv-keli-is-word-for-cat-and-itsos-is
  86. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/465550610108923904
  87. http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1chmc4/eseneziri_im_david_peterson_the_creator_of_the/c9glye7
  88. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/the-treasure-of-the-wastes/#comment-7464
  89. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92671165154/hi-mr-peterson-i-admire-what-you-did-for-game-of
  90. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/126022622650/in-a-dance-with-dragons-the-tattered-prince-says
  91. http://aquestforquintessence.tumblr.com/post/121356065817
  92. 92.0 92.1 http://www.whosay.com/articles/1568-how-do-you-say-steel-steal-in-high-valyrian
  93. 93.0 93.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88325977566/hello-im-getting-a-tattoo-pretty-soon-with-the-text
  94. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/89727687332/you-have-such-a-fantastic-blog-perfect-dose-of
  95. 95.0 95.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121289233637/how-you-say-faceless-men-in-valyrian
  96. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121414275532/lara
  97. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2161
  98. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/588610106226384896
  99. https://twitter.com/GretchenAMcC/status/635845315715796993
  100. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52129761918/saw-this-in-a-reddit-comment-section-and-htought-it
  101. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7298
  102. 102.0 102.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/78803739713/hi-david-a-friend-of-mine-wants-to-get-all-men-must
  103. https://mobile.twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/489225828203384833
  104. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94582504901/how-do-you-say-bat-in-hv
  105. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  106. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-46875
  107. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/114140801248/hey-i-am-getting-a-tattoo-soon-and-ai-would-like
  108. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93815665904/i-took-a-look-at-the-high-valyrian-orthography-and
  109. "I suppose it really depends on how the speaker is feeling. You could certainly drop it straight into the lunar declension I paradigm (same as vala). You could also just strip the final -a in everything but the nominative singular and put it into the paradigm for borrowings. It’s a foreign word, so you never know." —DJP
  110. This sentence is unusual in that it was composed by Iustinus rather than DJP. However, DJP did correct this sentence, and confirm that the use of mirros in this sense was valid. As it is our only example (so far) of that usage, it seemed valid to cite it here.
  111. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/126038417371/hiya-could-you-translate-something-into-valyrian
  112. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92747480573/hi-could-you-translate-my-name-to-high-valyrian-it-is#_=_
  113. http://tmblr.co/ZCfvzu1Ti9KAA
  114. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/122447211945/how-do-you-say-jon-snow-isnt-dead-in-valyrian
  115. 115.0 115.1 115.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/51979081366/i-must-say-i-love-your-work-is-there-a-translation
  116. 116.0 116.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/109247050112/how-to-say-love-is-weakness-in-high-valyrian
  117. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  118. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/103850253334/how-do-you-say-east-in-hv-it-begins-with-naqo
  119. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/400882778138349568
  120. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/54359640759/seeing-your-name-ask-just-a-few-ago-makes-me-curious
  121. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/491113189849853953
  122. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/349242524906438656
  123. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/82008642642/hey-im-a-huge-fan-of-the-work-you-do-on-game-of
  124. 124.0 124.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85745
  125. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69709127260/hi-huge-fan-of-your-work-on-thrones-really-brougt-the#disqus_thread
  126. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/#comment-85806
  127. Christian Thalmann: Hmmm, could sȳngagon "to scare" be primordially related to zūgagon "to fear", like ȳdragon "to speak" and udir "word" might be?
    David J. Peterson: I suppose it could, but in this case it is not: it's primordially related to something else.
  128. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94656655691/hi-i-absolutely-love-the-languages-you-created-for
  129. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/607413757350809600
  130. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85525
  131. http://www.unstuckbooks.org/1/post/2014/01/the-language-experiment-an-interview-with-david-j-peterson.html
  132. 132.0 132.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52747943689/hi-im-a-big-fan-of-your-work-on-game-of-thrones-and
  133. 133.0 133.1 http://tmblr.co/ZCfvzu1QuCNSU
  134. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1178, http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7846
  135. 135.0 135.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/85073783014/whats-the-high-valyrian-word-for-dragonglass-obsidian
  136. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94376285120/how-do-you-say-apple-in-hv-is-it-lunar-like-gerpa#_=_
  137. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/343078908415066112
  138. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2035
  139. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/425106456510074880
  140. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94386491674/how-do-you-say-otter-in-high-valyrian
  141. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474698086950793217
  142. Form presumed based on qilonty and qilonārion.
  143. 143.0 143.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96907499002/you-just-said-qridronnor-is-the-hv-word-for-chaos
  144. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94740862654/you-said-bianor-biadra-was-subject-to-the
  145. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2079
  146. http://ic.pics.livejournal.com/jdm314/492753/3125/3125_300.png
  147. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/100781485428/hello-mr-peterson-first-of-all-congratulations
  148. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93634645640/whats-the-past-tense-of-raqagon-raqtan-rattan
  149. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7667
  150. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/137111885757/ahhhhhhh-i-havent-been-on-tumblr-in-a-few-days
  151. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/60283121214/hey-there-im-a-big-fan-of-your-works-i-was-wondering
  152. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/06/valahd/#comment-100401
  153. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/07/valyrian-adjectives/#comment-2171
  154. 154.0 154.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/103841342123/hi-i-wanted-to-translate-i-begin-my-day-with
  155. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/134341895420/lexember-2015
  156. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/359200104382607360
  157. But this is not "set in stone": http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/#comment-85851
  158. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119387023579/sorry-about-that-how-do-you-say-congratulations
  159. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/60283121214/hey-there-im-a-big-fan-of-your-works-i-was-wondering
  160. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7331
  161. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/65717684734/hey-there-david-i-was-wondering-how-would-one-say#disqus_thread
  162. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/603437916082335744
  163. http://www.whosay.com/status/davidjpeterson/1107697, https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/603293497588916224
  164. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/386360871313629184
  165. It is possible that this should actually be Rullōr [rul'loːr]: "I just kept an irregular stress pattern, since it’s a borrowing. That said, it’s not as if the rules are hard and fast for how a borrowed word should be rendered. It very well could come out as Rullōr. That wouldn’t explain its nominative stress pattern (word-final), but it would explain the rest of the paradigm." —DJP
  166. It may be assumed this name follows the "foreign" declension, given that it is clearly a borrowing, and has irregular stress. But the only oblique case we've encountered is gen. Rullóro, which could indicate any declension class at all.
  167. For the citation form rūs, see http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/mhysa/#comment-1926
  168. Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. 
  169. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/85369375334/grey-worm-says-kill-the-masters-in-valyrian-in-a (presumably the short e is a typo), http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118731657289/how-would-you-say-fire-cannot-kill-a-dragon-in
  170. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/#comment-1764
  171. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/357282200112218115
  172. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/112862909962/thatsvalyrious-thank-you-mario-but-our-heir-to#comment-1891392739
  173. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/48918159946/hi-i-know-youre-busy-but-can-i-ask-you-something
  174. 174.0 174.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118971485709/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-stories-can
  175. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/110910885973/how-do-you-say-tea-in-hv-is-it-subar-or
  176. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/110291243121/what-does-sylugon-mean-sylutegon-hv
  177. Formerly thought to be 6col., per http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/97579530014/how-do-you-say-the-vipers-shadow-in-hv-and#comment-1841093921. Now known to be 3aq.: http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121116158163/can-you-translate-in-the-land-of-mordor-where#comment-2070602424
  178. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118392872372/text-asshekh-ray-jad-its-use-your-mother
  179. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335160470984069120, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/
  180. But this has been cast into doubt by http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94365589689/how-do-i-say-i-am-trent-of-the-land-in-high
  181. 181.0 181.1
    Tegun is actually "land" (paucal, terrestrial). Tegor would work if you need to say "lands" collective (e.g. "These are my various lands").
    —DJP, email, 2-9-2014.
  182. http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1chmc4/eseneziri_im_david_peterson_the_creator_of_the/c9glye7, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/08/valyrian-numerals
  183. 183.0 183.1 183.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2126
  184. http://www.dothraki.com/2016/01/asshekhqoyi-vezhvenagain/#comment-117032
  185. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335164222797398016, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/
  186. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335156670466490368
  187. Lexical form: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/349242524906438656
  188. "The stem of "word" is ud-. The stem of "speak" is ȳdra- .... However, they may be related. It would be at a time in prehistory." —DJP, IRC
  189. 189.0 189.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-35391
  190. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/421794510801096704
  191. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-z%C8%B3hon-keliton-issa/#comment-1255
  192. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/106751117720/how-do-you-say-spider-and-spiderweb-in-hv
  193. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96562098256/do-you-have-a-word-as-mentioned-in-the-books-in-high
  194. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84261
  195. http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2014/5/8/high-valyrian-101-learn-and-pronounce-common-phrases
  196. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84262
  197. On the declension, see http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118971485709/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-stories-can#disqus_thread
  198. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69007223679/how-would-you-say-primary-and-secondary-in-valyrian
  199. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120130992540/you-wrote-vettrir-is-the-word-for-the-law-its
  200. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/117187344410/hey-david-could-you-explain-how-vettri-vettri


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