Meereenese Valyrian Vocabulary

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Meereenese Valyrian Vocabulary List

We still know very little about Meereenese Valyrian. Therefore words will be given in the form in which they occur in the official transcription, rather than their citation form. Likewise the phonetic transcriptions are somewhat speculative, and should be taken with a grain of salt.


A

  • a [a]
pron. you sg. ( < HV ao, = AV o.)
She a, Thorgha Nudha? — And you, Grey Worm?[1]
  • ánghowa ['aŋɣowǝ]
n. insult ( < HV angogon to bite cf. AV angoda offended. Perhaps the -wa suffix is equivalent to AV -bo.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]
  • ashkesh [aʃ'keʃ]
n. master ( < HV āeksio, = AV aeske.)
P’ashkesh she kraj waov. — The Masters are too strong.[2]
Erntash ye kosh shp’ashkesh. — She defeated the Masters’ champion. [3]
  • avrelya [a'vɾeljǝ]
n. wine ( < HV averilla.)
Ev shka moz avrelya fej wal thosh? — You want to drink wine with these men?[4], nevertheless it probably derives from HV, something along the lines of aōhys eglios.)
Yeng shijetra, osh eghlish. Tha shifang. — Forgive me, your grace. I don’t understand.[5]
  • ej [eʒ]
of the (contraction of esh and ya, = AV eji.)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • erntash [eɾtaʃ]
v. 3s pret. defeated ( < HV ērintas.)
Erntash ye kosh shp’ashkesh. — She defeated the Masters’ champion.[3]
  • esh [eʃ]
prep. of ( < Ghiscari, cf. AV ez.)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish. — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms.[1]
  • ev [ev]
v. want ( < HV epā you ask, cf. AV eba.)
Ev shka moz avrelya fej wal thosh? — You want to drink wine with these men?[1]

F

  • fej [feʒ]
dem. pron. adj. this prox. animate, cel.pl. ( < HV bisi, = AV bezi.)
Ev shka moz avrelya fej wal thosh? — You want to drink wine with these men?[1]
Mishanje, khim shkul she fej wal. — Missandei, you know what these men are.[1]
  • fendha ['fenðǝ]
v. to walk
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]

I

  • i [i]
conj. but ( < HV yn, = AV y.)
... i riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — ... but let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
  • irosh [iɾoʃ]
n. throat (per. < HV ȳrgos.)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates.[1]

K

  • khil [xil]
n. pl. streets ( < HV gera walkways.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]
  • khim [xim]
v. you know ( < HV gīmī, = AV gimi.)
Mishanje, khim shkul she fej wal. — Missandei, you know what these men are.[1]
  • khurf [xuɾf]
n. fool ( < Ghiscari, = AV gurp.)
Shka ma khurf. — You're a fool.[2]
  • kijil ['kiʒil]
pron. here ( < HV kesīr, = AV kizir.)
Riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — Let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
  • kosh [koʃ]
n. champion (unknown, but not related to Dothraki ko.)[6]
Erntash ye kosh shp’ashkesh. — She defeated the Masters’ champion.[3]
  • koth [koθ]
v. you can ( < HV kostā, = AV kota.)
Ye Thal poghash koth nyesha she yedhra. — The Queen says you may approach and speak.[5]
Shkokhé koth pong paza? — How can you trust them?[1]"
  • kraj [kɾaʒ]
adj. powerful ( < Ghiscari, cf. AV krazi large.)
P’ashkesh she kraj waov. — The Masters are too strong.[2]
  • krenyikhé [kɾenji'xe]
adv. gladly ( < HV kirine + -kydoso, = AV *krenikydho.)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim, i riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates, but let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]

L

  • lerch [leɾtʃ]
v. 3pl. pret. they sold ( < HV liortan, AV form is probably *lertis, cf. lerraska for sale.)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • li [li]
v. pres. 3pl. they are with adjectives and locations ( < HV ilis, =AV lis.)
Riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — Let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]

M

  • ma [mǝ]
indef.art. a, an ( < HV mēre.)
Shka ma khurf. — You're a fool.[2]
  • majij [ma'ʒiʒ]
v. 3pl. they came more likely present tense, but glossed as past ( < HV māsigon, = AV majigon.)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim, i riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates, but let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
Poghethash mathash wang yel sherwa! — She said she came to free us![7]
  • mazmedha [maz'meða]
v.aux. used to form passives ( = AV. Prob. ultimately from mazemagon, but details are unclear.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]
  • mish [miʃ]
n.cel. mother ( < Ghiscari mhysa, = AV mysa.)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish. — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms.[1]
  • Mishanje [mi'ʃanʒe]
prop.n. MV pronunciation of the name Missandei.
Mishanje, khim shkul she fej wal. — Missandei, you know what these men are.[1]
  • mizozliwash [mizo'zliwaʃ]
v. 3s.fut. will protect ( < HV mīsagon, AV not attested, but nearly certain to be *mizozlivas.)
Yel mizozliwash. — She will protect us.[3]
  • moz [moz]
v. 2s. pres. you drink ( < mōzū, = AV *mozu.)
Ev shka moz avrelya fej wal thosh? — You want to drink wine with these men?[1]

N

  • nesh [neʃ]
n. pl. arms (perh. < HV ñōghe?)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • nofel ['nofel]
n. cattle (perh. < HV nusper, collective of nuspes)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • nudha ['nuðǝ]
adj. a-t. grey ( = AV nudha.)
She a, Thorgha Nudha? — And you, Grey Worm?[1]
  • nyesha ['njeʃǝ]
v. inf. to approach (possibly related to HV naejot forward, AV nejo.)
Ye Thal poghash koth nyesha she yedhra. — The Queen says you may approach and speak.[5]
  • nyeshka ['njeʃkǝ]
adv. before ( < naejot + MV shka, AV is presumably something like *nejsko.)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim, i riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates, but let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
  • nyetodha [nje'toðǝ]
n. pret. have cut ( < HV nektodan, = AV *nehtodhan.)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates.[1]

O

  • onya ['onjǝ]
uncertain. Possibly equivalent to AV uni all, or honesk there is, perfect marker. The latter hypothesis marches DJP's gloss better, but is dificult to reconcile with unyishishk.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]
  • osh [oʃ]
pron.adj. your ( < HV aōha, = oa. The -sh may be a fossilied vocative.)
Yeng shijetra, osh eghlish. Tha shifang. — Forgive me, your grace. I don’t understand.[5]

P

  • pa [pǝ], p'
def.art. pl. the ( < HV ponte them, = AV po, p'.)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
P’ashkesh she kraj waov. — The Masters are too strong.[2]
  • paza ['pazǝ]
v. to trust ( < pāsagon, = pazagho.)
Shkokhé koth pong paza? — How can you trust them?[1]"
  • poghash [po'ɣaʃ]
v. 3s.pres. says
Ye Thal poghash koth nyesha she yedhra. — The Queen says you may approach and speak.[5]
3s.pret. poghethash [poɣe'θaʃ]
Poghethash mathash wang yel sherwa! — She said she came to free us![7]
  • pong [poŋ]
pron. them ( < HV ponte, = AV pon.)
Shkokhé koth pong paza? — How can you trust them?[1]"

R

  • rim [ɾim]
n.cel? pl. gates ( < HV remia.)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates.[1]
  • rit [ɾit]
v. 2pl.pret. you heard (probably from ryptāt, AV *ryhtat.)
Yel rit! — You heard her[7]
1pl imp. riwij [ɾi'wiʒ], underlying form unkown, perhaps AV **ryvís?)
Riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — Let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
  • rovnya ['ɾovnjǝ]
n. auction (pos. < HV rōva, with the idea of "increasing price."[8].)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • rual [ru'al]
v. pres.part. allowing ( < HV rughare dropping, = ruare.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]

S

  • sa [sa]
v. 3s.pres. is ( < issa, = sa.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]
3pl.pres. she [ʃe]
P’ashkesh she kraj waov. — The Masters are too strong.[2]
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
Mishanje, khim shkul she fej wal. — Missandei, you know what these men are.[1]
2s.pres. shka [ʃka]
Shka ma khurf. — You're a fool.[2]
  • sha [ʃa]
conj. like ( < hae, = he.)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • she [ʃe]
conj. and ( < se, = si.)
Ye Thal poghash koth nyesha she yedhra. — The Queen says you may approach and speak.[5]
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • she: see above, s.v. sa.
  • sherwa ['ʃeɾwa]
poss. "to free" (cognate to daeves freedom?)
Poghethash mathash wang yel sherwa! — She said she came to free us![7]
  • shifang [ʃifaŋ]
v. 1s.pres. I understand
Yeng shijetra, osh eghlish. Tha shifang. — Forgive me, your grace. I don’t understand.[5]
  • shijetra [ʃiʒe'tɾa]
v.impv. forgive
Yeng shijetra, osh eghlish. Tha shifang. — Forgive me, your grace. I don’t understand.[5]
  • shing [ʃiŋ]
prep. from ( < hen, = hin.)
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • shka [ʃka]
conj. that to mark a subordinate clause ( = AV sko.)
Ev shka moz avrelya fej wal thosh? — You want to drink wine with these men?[1]
  • shka: see above, s.v. sa.
  • shkokhé [ʃko'xe]
pron.adv. how ( < HV skorkydoso, = skokydho.)
Shkokhé koth pong paza? — How can you trust them?[1]"
  • shkul [ʃkul]
pron. what ( < HV skore, = skure.)
Mishanje, khim shkul she fej wal. — Missandei, you know what these men are.[1]
  • shkurja ['ʃkuɾʒǝ]
pron.adv. why (perh. < HV .)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim, i riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates, but let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
  • shp'
of the (contraction of esh p'.)
Erntash ye kosh shp’ashkesh. — She defeated the Masters’ champion.[3]


T

  • tha [θa]
adv. not ( < HV daor, = MV do.)
Yeng shijetra, osh eghlish. Tha shifang. — Forgive me, your grace. I don’t understand.[5]
  • thal [θal]
n.cel. queen ( < HV dāria, = MV dare.)
Ye Thal poghash koth nyesha she yedhra. — The Queen says you may approach and speak.[5]
  • thorgha [θοɾɣǝ]
n.a-t. worm ( < HV torgo, = HV torgo.)
She a, Thorgha Nudha? — And you, Grey Worm?[1]
  • thowoá[2] [θowo'a]
n.cel. Unsullied ( < HV dovaogēdy, = AV dovoghedhy.)
  • tosh [toʃ]
postp. with ( < HV ondoso by, at the hands of, = AV dos.)
Ev shka moz avrelya fej wal thosh? — You want to drink wine with these men?[1]

U

  • unyishishk [unjiʃiʃk]
v. I would have (possibly < hundessiks there is (always) seen, AV *honessisk.)
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim, i riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates, but let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]

W

  • wal [wal]
n.cel. pl. men ( < HV vale, = AV *vale.)
Ev shka moz avrelya fej wal thosh? — You want to drink wine with these men?[1]
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
Mishanje, khim shkul she fej wal. — Missandei, you know what these men are.[1]
  • wang [waŋ]
conj. in order to (perh. cognate to AV vaghoma?)
Poghethash mathash wang yel sherwa! — She said she came to free us![7]
  • waov [wa'ov]
adv. too (apparently cognate to AV uvuve.)
P’ashkesh she kraj waov. — The Masters are too strong.[2]
  • wazghesh
v. 3pl.pret. they tore away
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]

Y

  • ya [ja]
prep. through
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim, i riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates, but let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
  • ye [je]
 :art. the used with the celestial gender ( < HV ziry, = AV ji.)
Erntash ye kosh shp’ashkesh. — She defeated the Masters’ champion.[3]
  • yedhra ['jeðɾǝ]
v. 3s.pres. says ( < HV ȳdras, = AV ydras.)
Ye Thal poghash koth nyesha she yedhra. — The Queen says you may approach and speak.[5]
  • yel [jel]
pron. 1pl.acc. us ( < HV ilōn, = AV *elo.)
Yel rit! — You heard her[7]
  • yel [jel]
pron. 3s.cel.acc. him/her/(it)[9] ( < HV ziry, = AV zer.)
Poghethash mathash wang yel sherwa! — She said she came to free us![7]
  • yelkhé [jel'xe]
adv. first ( < HV ēlie + -kydoso, = AV *elikydho.)
Riwij shkurja li kijil yelkhé. — Let’s hear why they’re here first.[1]
  • yelwa ['jelwǝ]
pron. adj. our ( < HV ilva, = AV *elva.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]
Krenyikhé unyishishk nyetodha poj irosh nyeshka majij ya yelwa rim — I’d gladly have slit their throats before they made it through our gates.[1]
Pa wal yel wazghesh shing pa nesh esh yelwa mish she yel lerch ej rovnya sha nofel? — The men who tore us from our mothers’ arms and sold us at auction, like cattle?[1]
  • yeng [jeŋ]
pron. 1s. me ( < HV yne, = AV yn.)
Yeng shijetra, osh eghlish. Tha shifang. — Forgive me, your grace. I don’t understand.[5]
  • yenka ['jeŋkǝ]
v. they should ( < enkis owe, = AV enkis owe.)
Tha yenka onya mazmedha rual fendha yelwa khil. Sa ánghowa. — They shouldn’t have even been allowed to walk our streets. It’s an insult.[1]


Notes

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/144459011173/dothraki-and-valyrian-dialogue-episode-604-of
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/05/valar-javaris/
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/05/valar-javaris/#comment-26645
  4. "I was really fond of that osh eghlish for “your grace” or “your highness”. It’s the characteristic phrase of MV."[1]
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/05/the-valyrian-word-for-hamster/
  6. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/05/valar-javaris/#comment-26645
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 IRC 2/2/15
  8. Cf. the etymology of "auction" in English
  9. DJP has confirmed (via private email, 5/20/16) this syncretism:
    "And yes, both are yel."
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