Other languages

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Martin used other languages, besides Dothraki, in the Song of Ice and Fire world. Although Dothraki has the most amount of words, there are other languages such as High Valyrian whose grammar may be deduced from the examples which occur. All information on those languages, whether referential or evidential, should be included here. All references to Dothraki from the books should be put on the Original Corpus page. All references to Petersonian Dothraki belongs on the Corpus page.

As with Dothraki, proper names do not seem to be entirely indicative of the actual sounds of a language. In some cases, names violate actual known phonotactic rules. Thus, a list of all of the proper names in each tongue is not given here, unless there is little other linguistic evidence. Also, George R.R. Martin seems to be guilty of the common amateur constructive linguist sin of the errant apostrophe; apostrophes in use may have several interpretations, none of which can be ascertained due to their environment. An apostrophe may be used, normally, to mean either ejective consonants, contraction, glottal stops, change of stress, or intonational pauses. As well, the possibility of digraphs for a single phoneme is high, particularly in names like H'ghar, where the gh may be a voiced velar fricative. (A digraph is where two letters mean one sound, e.g. th for a dental fricative in English)

Regarding the collective plural and adjectival forms of cities and their citizens, it is not probable that any form comes from any distinct language. Martin tended to use an -i for the a noun, and -ish for the adjectival usage, applied without standarisation: Braavosi, but Norvoshi and Tyroshi. Myrish, but Qohorik. Skagosi and Westerosi are forms which show that this is not merely for the Free Cities. Other forms exist: Lysene, Lyseni, Volantene. The irregular nature suggests that these were made on the cuff, and are not standard in the Common Tongue, but rather frozen forms for each usage.

Contents

On Westeros

Many tongues are spoken on Westeros, but only two are native to it: the Old Tongue, which was spoken before the Andal invasion, and the Common Tongue, which followed it. It may be possible that the Rhoynar brought their own language with them, but this has since disappeared. Foreign tongues are (probably) taught only in the Citadel;[1] otherwise, they are brought from other lands by immigrants, merchants, sellswords, and the like.

The history of the Common Tongue in relation to the old is not easy to figure out. Names which predate the Andal, Rhoynar, and Targaryen invasions show that the Common Tongue is not merely the language of the Andals, but a mix of the Old Tongue and the new ones. This is particularly apparent in the name Urron Greyiron, a king on the Iron Islands before the invasions.[2] His name is clearly a mix of grey and iron. (In a possible bit of humor, Martin named another Ironborn family the Kennings, which is the term in English for the rhetorical device by which many such families as Greyiron got their names.)[3] Other names sound suspiciously derivational from more common roots: Mudd, or Darklyn.[4] Still other names contain constructions that would be illegal in any of the Westerosi tongues currently known, such as Qhorin Halfhald and Qarl the Maid.[5] Indeed, the use of /q/ without /u/ is fairly common in George R.R. Martin's books. It's ubiquity suggests that it is not standing in for a uvular stop, as [q], but rather that it is another spelling of [k]. David Peterson took the uvular approach when forming the Dothraki phoneme inventory.

It is possible that the Common Tongue is not English, as is the case in Tolkien's Middle Earth, where the Common Tongue is rendered in English but is originally meant to be Westron. [6] There is at least one mention of a Common Tongue derivation coming from Latin, however, as English: "I'm named Bella...for the battle." This is probably referring to Latin bellum "war" (or more likely, it's nothing to do with Latin and just tacking an 'a' on to 'bell' from Battle of the Bells).[7] This would explain the issue with /q/, but would not explain why most other names fit English phonotactic constraints.

The Common Tongue

The Common Tongue was brought to Westeros by the Andhals and the Rhoynar. It is spoken in the entirety of Westeros. There are regional accents, as "Pyp had travelled the Seven Kingdoms with a mummers' troupe, and bragged that he could tell what you were and where you'd been born just from the sound of your voice",[8] but there is no lack of comprehensibility, in any region. Some of regional accents can be geographically limited to a single city, as Kings Landing.[9]

The largest dichotomy of speech appears to be between the lowborn and the educated, most likely due to a long history of prescriptivist tutors for the Highborn young. (For example, Lady Mariya corrects Lardy Amerei's use of the word hung to hanged, in regards to Merret Frey's death.)[10] There are differences that are not exhibited in the orthography, as it is possible to distinguish highborn from low accent merely by listening: ""Doran!" called some highborn voice. "To the spears!""[11] These differences encapsulate both highborn vs. lowborn as well as regional dialects:

"How could you tell I was of noble birth?" [Sam asked].
"The same way you can tell that I'm half Dornish." The statement was delivered with a smile, in a soft Dornish drawl.[12]

Mycah the butcher's son's few lines shows the lowborn patois:

"She ast me to, m'lord," Mycah said. "She ast me to."..."It's not no sword, it's only a stick." [13]

Another stablehand in the Red Keep has other non-standard usages: "She don't know me," he said, "but I knows her, oh, yes...I says, come."[14] And one of Ser Gregor's men uses the colloquial past tense of eat, et.[15]

Even the warriors of the Mountains of the Moon, who have not had much contact with anyone for at least several hundred years, have little difference in their speech.

Shagga glowered, a fearsome sight to see. "Shagga son of Dolf likes this not. Shagga will go with the boyman, and if the boyman lies, Shagga will chop off his manhood."[16]

The Old Tongue

The Old Tongue was brought over to Westeros by the First Men, over 12,000 years prior to the start of the series. It is a harsh, clanging language. Names originating from the Old Tongue tend to be short, simple, and descriptive. The language is all but extinct in Westeros, except for the lands beyond the Wall, where it is still used by the race of giants and a few other wildlings.

"Half the wildling host had lived all their lives without so much as a glimpse of the Wall, Jon judged, and most of those spoke no word of the Common Tongue. It did not matter. Mance Rayder spoke the Old Tongue, even sang in it, fingering his lute and filling the night with strange wild music."[17]

A few words are known: sygerrik, meaning deceiver, a name taken by Bael the Bard,[18] magnar lord,[19] and skagos stone.[20] Mag Mar Tun Doh Weg is the name for Mag the Mighty, and probably reflects five separate words. Jon describes the Old Tongue as sounding "harsh, clanging...[and] coarse."[21]

Of course, many of the names of the Free Folk probably originate in the Old Tongue. These include Harma, Dalla, Val, Ygritte, Ryk, Ragwyle, Lenyl, Styr, Jarl, Grigg, Errok, Quort, Bodger, Del, Dan, Henk, Lenn, Tormund, Toregg, Torwyrd, Dormund, Dryn, Munda, Orell, Varamyr, and Alfyn, as well as Craster and his family Gilly, Dyah, Ferny, Nella,[22] and other Wildlings, such as Arson,[23] Gendel and his brother Gorne,[24] Joramun, Bael[25], Tristifer Mudd,[26] Raymun Redbeard[27] and doubtless others.

It had a runic writing system, as Lord Yohn Royce has armor which "is bronze, thousands and thousands of years old, engraved with magic runes that ward him against harm."[28] Also, the ancient crown of Winter was "an open circlet of hammered bronze incised with the runes of the First Men."[29] The Horn of Joramun had runes graven upon it, as well. [30] However, the runes were not used in books: "The First Men only left us runes on rocks, so everything we think we know about the Age of Heroes and the Dawn Age and the Long Night comes from accounts set down by septons thousands of years later."[31]

Elsewhere

High Valyrian

Valyria was an empire to the east of Westeros, before the Doom came and it fell apart. High Valyrian was its language, which is no longer spoken, although there are songs and books still sung and read in it. [32][33]

The Targaryen family came from Valyria, after the Doom, and thus can be considered to have High Valyrian names. They also most likely gave names in Valyrian, as the dragons: "The singers had given them the names of gods: Balerion, Meraxes, Vhagar."[34] Other names include: Ayrmidon,[35] Aegon, Aemon, Aerys, Jaehaerys, Rhaegar, Visenya, Rhaenys, Aenys, Maegor, Daeron, Rhaenyra, Baelor, Naerys, Daeron, Maekar, Rhaella, Viserys, Daenerys,[36] Aerion,[37] Maelys[38] and Alysanne.[39] Velaryon, being of Valyrian descent, is probably also a Valyrian name. [40] Not all dragons have Valyrian names: Alysanne's dragon was named Silverwing.[41] It is also likely that Tolos, Elyria, Oros, Tyria, and Mantarys are names in Valyrian, being cities so close to Old Valyria.[42]

The phrase, "valar morghulis" [43], is translated as "all men must die."[44]. A counterpart phrase, "valar dohaeris"[45], is translated as "all men must serve."[46]

The word "dracarys" is translated as meaning "dragonfire." [47] Obsidian is called dragonglass in the Common Tongue, but frozen fire in High Valyrian. This may be a direct translation of obsidian, the word, but given the word dracarys, it isn't likely.[48] Valonqar is the word for litte brother.[49] High Valyrian is the most likely source language for maegi (pronounced differently from 'Maggy')[50], which means wise.[51]

The Valyrian writing system, or at least a Valyrian writing system, is described as involving glyphs.[52] It was also probably standard practice to write on scrolls, and not in books. [53] The glyphs can also be inscribed, as on an old Valyrian Dragonhorn, which, when sounded, had "every line and letter shimmering with white fire."[54]

Valyrian steel is forged with spells, as well as hammers. Those spells were assumedly in Valyrian, or another, unknown language. [55] Some smiths still know them, although not entirely.[56]

Low Valyrian

Bastard Valyrian, as it is also called, is the language of the nine Free cities,[57] which are Lys, Myr, Pentos, Braavos, Lorath, Norvos, Qohor, Volantis, and Tyrosh.

The Free Cities use Valyrian glyphs, as "Arya could not read the name painted on the hull; the words were strange, Myrish, Braavosi, perhaps even High Valyrian."[58] The Ghiscari certainly use glyphs to write Valyrian.[59]

It is possible that the citizens of the Free Cities are often bilingual or polyglots. However, it is noted as exceptional that Patchface, from Volantis, was able once to "sing prettily in four tongues."[60] These would probably be High Valyrian, Low Valyrian, the Common Tongue of Westeros, and something unknown, as of now. The Braavosi seamen on the Titan's Daughter "had a smattering of the Common Tongue from nights ashore in Oldtown and King's Landing and Maidenpool, though only the captain and his sons spoke it well enough to talk to Arya."[61] Another Lysene seaman only knew six words in the Common Tongue. [62]

The names of citizens of the Free Cities may not match the phonotactics of their language: notably Jaqen H'ghar of Lorath (possibly of Braavos) seems to have new sounds unknown previously to be in Low Valyrian.[63] Salladhor Saan[64] the Lyseni and Khorane Sathmantes[65] also shows interesting construction, especially as Davos uses the shortened form Salla at one point, which suggests that -dhor is some sort of suffix, or that clipping is an acceptable practice for forming sobriquets.[66] (Davos might have known some Valyrian, having served under Roro Uhoris of the Cobblecat.)[67] Bastard Valyrians have two names, a first name and a family name. There is one Volantene name: Colloquo Votar. [68]

There are few words which are certainly Low Valyrian, as opposed to High Valyrian. One of them may be a Norvoshi drink, nahsa, (remembered by Areo Hotah of Norvos)[69] as it is italicised in the books, and clearly is not of English origin. [70] The game cyvasse, from Volantis, is another.[71]

Valyrian is described as sounding "liquid".[72]

Tyroshi

Little is known about Tyroshi Low Valyrian, except concerning its pronunciation. Moreo, the captain who ferried Cately Stark to Kings Landing, "spoke the Common Tongue fluently, with only the slightest hint of a Tyroshi accent."[73] Danaerys, when trading in the Western Market in Vaes Dothrak, spoke in "Valyrian, Valyrian as they spoke it in the Free Cities. The words felt strange on her tongue, after so long." The merchant, upon hearing this, guesses that she is from Tyroshi. She replies, "My speech may be Tyroshi..." [74] Another Tyroshi, Collio Quaynis, had an almost unintelligible singing voice.[75] Chett says that "he didn't speak their wet, girly tongue," referring to Tyrosh. [76] A few names, like Daario Naharis, indicate that Tyroshi at least has long or geminated vowels. [77]

Braavosi

Each of the cities has it's own dialect, and each dialect likely has it's own separate derived vocabulary. Braavosi certainly does: "Arya only knew a few words of Braavosi, the ones that were the same in High Valyrian."[78] The result is unintelligibility with High Valyrian: "I only have a little High Valyrian, and when they speak to me in Braavosi I cannot understand half of what they're saying," Sam says.[79]

Braavosi names often contain geminates: Moroggo, Nabbo, Terro,[80] Beqqo, Umma,[81] Roggo, Lanna, Quill, Tagganaro, Cossomo,[82] Joss, Allaquo,[83] Ezzelyno, Myrmello.[84] The Braavosi Ternesio Terys, and his son Yorko Terys (and his other son Denyo)[85] all indicate family names, and show a certain affinity for naming brothers similar names, as with Gyloro Dothare and his brother Gyleno.[86] Other Braavosi names include Yna,[87] Noho Dimittis,[88] Brusco, Talea, Brea,[89] Orbelo,[90] Lotho Lornel, Moredo,[91] S'vrone, Canker Jeyne, Meralyn, called Merry (the last three all being whore's names, and so of dubious actual linguistic origin, particularly Jeyne), [92] Bellegere Otherys (named for an ancestor), Bellonara,[93] Narbo,[94] Quence, Sloey,[95] Bethany, Eustace.[96] Older names, possiby from High Valyrian, include Prestayn and Antaryon.[97] Casso is a seal's name, indicating that the Braavosi name their pets, as well.[98]

In the text, the Braavosi have been noted to at least have words for please, thank you, sea, star, and fire wine,[99] stop,[100] cup, candle, shoe,[101] six-and-thirty,[102] mussels, cockles, clams.[103]

At least one construction spoken in the Common Tongue by a Braavosi speaker is unusual, and may reflect the language: "How many years have you?" (It is worth noting, just after this: "The Braavosi counted days differently than they did in Westeros.")[104] As well, the use of gooder as a comparative may show that Braavosi is more likely to have suffixation rather than suppletive comparative and superlative forms. [105]

The Braavosi accent was particularly hard for Arya to master, and may be so for all native speakers of the Common Tongue.[106]

It is worth noting that Braavos may derive from bravos, an archaic word for a daring bandit or performer. Vowel lengthening may be a morphological process in Braavosi.

The publication of the Lands of Ice and Fire map book has added a couple of words (both place names) to the extent Braavosi corpus. Some have already been used in the books, and others are entirely in English. Those that aren't are: Chequy Port and Pynto's[107]. There's no qualifying information, so these names could be borrowings, could be Braavosi, could be Valyrian, etc. "Port" is English, as is the "'s" (so it's Pynto's place).

Slaver Cities

The Slaver Cities of Yunkai, Meereen, and Astapor have their own versions of low Valyrian, which have been influenced mainly by Ghiscari.

Astapori Valyrian is described as having a "characteristic growl," influenced by Ghiscari.[108] Also, Syrio Forel of Braavos "had an accent, the lilt of the Free Cities, Braavos perhaps, or Myr."[109] One of the Mummers is described as having a "thick Myrish accent."[110]

Yankai has it's own variations on Valyrian.

[Dany asks:]"Missandei, what language will these Yunkai'i speak, Valyrian?"
"Yes, Your Grace," the child said. "A different dialect than Astapor's, yet close enough to understand. The slavers name themselves the Wise Masters."[111]

Yunkai used to be part of Ghis, and has at least languages tongues which are spoken in the city. Mhysa, Maela, Aelalla, Qathei, and Tato are given as names for mother, but which tongue fits which name is unknown (excepting the first, which is Ghiscari).[112]

A few things can be gathered from Astapori Kraznys mo Nakloz (probably a Ghiscari name), whose "High Valyrian was twisted and thickened by the characteristic growl of Ghis, and flavored here and there with words of slaver argot."[113] For one, he constantly refers to Dany as the "Westerosi whore", which may indicate a genitive or attributive suffix of -i.[114] This may be backed up by the referral to Yunkish people, from Yunkai, as Yunkai'i.[115] He is monolingual.[116] He mentions a few other proper nouns: Jothiel's Pit,[117] Douquor's Pit[118] . As well, he constantly uses the words this one, which may imply deictic, non-gendered pronoun usage.[119] In what may be a biased narration, Martin says that "[Dany's] words did not move the plump perfumed slaver, even when rendered in his own ugly tongue."[120] This could also refer to Ghiscari, although it is probably Valyrian.

Ghiscari

Ghiscari itself is largely forgotten, replaced by Valyrian.[121] One word is known: Mhysa, mother. Tokar is probably another, as it is Ghiscari in origin.[122]

There are quite a few names from the present era that do not match other Valyrian names. This may be due to influences from old Ghiscari on the Bastard Valyrian used in Astapor and Yunkai. These names are: Kraznys mo Nakloz, Grazdan mo Ullhor, and Prendahl na Ghezn.[123] Oznak zo Pahl is another name, from Meereen, which may show some similar derivation in zo and mo.[124] Missandei, of Naath, is probably not a Valyrian name, but may be, given it's geographical location. Note that all of these names have various constructions and phonemes not found in other Valyrian phrases, such as /z/. [125] Yunkai, which used to be part of the Ghis empire,[126] has similar names to Astapor, like Grazdan mo Eraz.[127] The Skahazadhan river in Meereen may also be a Ghiscari name,[128] as well as Cleon and Ghael, former slaves. [129] Gorghan is another name, from Old Ghis.[130]

Meereen presents a few new proper names, probably from Ghiscari. Khyzai Pass,[131] Galazza Galare,[132] Reznak mo Reznak, Skahaz mo Kandaq, the latter of whom "spoke a bastard form of High Valyrian, much corrupted and flavored with a thick Ghiscari growl."[133] Others follow: Zhak, Hazkar, Ghazeen, Merreq,[134] and Hizdahr zo Loraq.[135] Interestingly enough, the noble Grazdan zo Galare is another person, listed as a cousin of Galazza Galare: zo is likely a marker of nobility, and perhaps mo and na as well. [136]

Ghiscari is consistently described as being like a 'growl.'[137][138][139][140]

Qartheen

The Qartheen have their own language. Dany express joy "to hear men speaking Valyrian once more, and even the common tongue",[141] so it is known that the Qartheen definitely have their own language.

The first Qartheen name in the books is Xaro Xhoan Daxos, which certainly does not sound Valyrian. [142] Next is Mathos Mallarawan, Wendello Qar Deeth, and Egon Emeros.[143] Pyat Pree may not be Qartheen in origin, as he appears to either curse or spell caste in another language unknown to Dany.[144] Other names are Urrathon Night-Walker, the Gardens of Gehane, and Blind Sybassion.[145] Sallor the Bald was a member of the Stormcrows.[146]


Pah may be the only Qartheen word we know, used possibly as a particle for disgust [147] Aieee may be another one, used to indicate pain, but is likely just a normal cry, as in any other language.[148]

The Language of Asshai

The Asshai'i, as they are known,[149] are well versed in witchcraft and wizardry, and have a language of their own, used in their spells (as did the Valyrians). Mirri Maz Duur, who learned in Asshai, sang in a foreign tongue, her voice described as "shrill" and "ululating".[150] Furthermore, she:

...chanted words in a tongue that Dany did not know, and a knife appeared in her hand. Dany never saw where it came from. It looked old; hammered red bronze, leaf-shaped, its blade covered with ancient glyphs.[151]

The first definite evidence for the language comes from Melisandre, who "walked round the fire three times, praying [to R'hllor] once in the speech of Asshai, once in High Valyrian, and once in the Common Tongue."[152] In the same chapter, a figure named Azor Ahai is mentioned as being related to the faith of R'hllor, and written about in ancient books.[153] His wife is named Nissa Nissa.[154] (Melisandre also speaks the Common Tongue "flavoured with the music of the Jade Sea", which may indicate how it is perceived.)[155] Another Asshai'i, from Qarth, is named Quaithe. [156]

Concerning pronunciation, Davos says about R'hllor that "the very name sounds queer on [Westerosian] tongues". Stannis does not agree: "R'hllor. Why is that so hard?"[157] Arya confirms Davos' view: ""Who's Rulore?" She couldn't even say it."[158]

Lhazareen

The Lhazareen have a language of their own, with "songs and spells pleasing to the Great Shepherd."[159] It is described as sounding sing-song.[160] Few names are known: Mirri Maz Duur, and Eroeh.[161]

The Summer Tongue

The Summer Isles have their own language, called the Summer Tongue.[162] So far, it is only attested in a few proper names: Quhuru Mo,[163], Jalabhar Xho the exiled prince,[164] Chataya and Alayaya (summer whores in King's Landing),[165] and Kojjo Mo (Quhuru's daughter).[166]

From Xhondo a few interesting second language passages, in the Common Tongue, can be taken, which might show the nature of the Summer Isles language. For instance, the lack of pronouns, the possibility of an imperfective aspectual marker, the probability of OSV sentence structure:

"You owe Xhondo many feathers. The water ruined Xhondo's fine cloak."
It had, Sam saw. The feathered cloak clung to the black man's huge shoulders, sodden and soiled. "I never meant..."
"...to be swimming? Xhondo saw. Too much splashing. Fat men should float ... Xhondo mates on Cinnamon Wind. Many tongues he speaks, a little. Inside Xhondo laughs, to see you punch the singer. And Xhondo hears." A broad white smile spread across his face. "Xhondo knows these dragons."[167]

And later: "Now we drink his life", indicating that Xhondo didn't know the use of the preposition to here.[168]

Sothoros might be a name for one of the Summer Isles, as it is referenced in relation to apes,[169] and the only other such reference concerns the Isles.[170] It is more possible that this is a misspelling of Sothoryos, the name for the southern continent, as given in the map in A Storm of Swords and in private correspondance.[171]

The Trade Tongue

The Trade Tongue is mentioned in only one chapter. It is a pidgin from many languages, and contains the only known sign language.

Cat [Arya] knew the Braavosi words for mussels and cocles and clams, but along the Ragman's Harbor she cried her wares in the trade tongue, the language of the wharves and docks and sailor's taverns, a coarse jumble of words and phrases from a dozen languages, accompanied by hand signs and gestures, most of them insulting. Those were the ones that Cat liked best. Any man who bothered her was apt to see the fig, or hear himself described as an ass's pizzle...[172]

It is not interchangeable with the Common Tongue: "Cat stopped at the foot of ever gangplant to cry her clams and oysters, once in the trade talk and again in the Common Tongue of Westeros."[173]

Other Languages

There are other languages, which do not have any evidence as of yet. One would be the language of the Jogos Nhai, who have moonsinger birthing songs.[174] Another would be the languages of the warrior maids described as being "from Bayasabhad, Shamyriana, and Kayakayanaya with iron rings in their nipples and rubies in their cheeks..."[175] Ibbenese is also a language: "People said that he...talked with hairy Ibbenese and pitch-black Summer Islanders in their own tongues."[176] There may be many others: "Seamen from half a hundred nations wandered among the stalls, drinking spiced liquors and trading jokes in queer-sounding tongues."[177] And also "I have heard their prayers, in half a hundred tongues."[178]

It is also known that there are other languages, besides High Valyrian, which have died, as the Qartheen Undying used them. [179]

Non-Human Communication

The Children of the Forest

Samwell Tarly says that he found "drawings of the faces in the trees, and a book about the tongue of the children of the forest."[180] It is known that this tongue was able to be learned by men, as there was communication. The greenseers of the children had "power over the beasts of the wood and the birds in the trees", which may have manifested itself linguistically.[181]

The Others' Language

In A Game of Thrones, there is a reference to a language used by the Others beyond the Wall.

"The Other said something in a language that Will did not know: his voice was like the cracking of ice on a winter lake, and the words were mocking."
"Far beneath him, he heard their voices and laughter sharp as icicles." [182]

Technically, this could be the Old Tongue. Will doubtless did not know it, and most likely would not have been able to identify it when it came from a walking corpse.

In a Storm of Swords, Sam Tarly says that "The wights have blue eyes, though, and they don't have tongues, or they've forgotten how to use them."[183] This is not an inconsistency: the Others are different from the wights. Those are generally soldiers or corpses who have been unburned, and so rise again as thralls to the Others.[184]

Necromancy

There are many references to speaking with the dead. Mormont states that "The children of the forest could speak to the dead, it's said."[185] It is also said that the Silent Sisters can speak to the dead, so this may just be a common saying.[186] Arya wonders if "perhaps the dead could speak to [ravens] in some secret tongue the living could not hear.[187] Qyburn is rumoured to have lost his maester's chain for dabbling in necromancy,[188] although he admitted that this was not the main reason.[189]

Animals

The direwolves of the Starks are considered by Bran to be able to communicate, "as if they were singing in a language he had once known and somehow forgotten."[190] They appear to be more intelligent than dogs. The ravens ubiquitously used for communication are able to imitate human speech, and on certain occasions seem to be able to both offer uncannily pertinent advice and to understand what Osha called the language of the Old Gods,[191] as when "[Sam] heard the dark red leaves of the weirwood rustling, whispering to one another in a tongue he did not know."[192] The dragons' screeches are also suggested to be, metaphorically, like singing. [193]

References

Due to various versions, the page numbers may not match up exactly.

  1. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 676. ISBN 0553582038. 
  2. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 165. ISBN 0-553-80150-3. 
  3. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 166. ISBN 0-553-80150-3. 
  4. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 134. ISBN 0-553-80150-3. 
  5. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 159. ISBN 0-553-80150-3. 
  6. "Westron". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westron. 
  7. Martin, George R.R. (2000). A Storm of Swords. Bantam Dell. p. 332. ISBN 0-553-38170-9. 
  8. Martin, George R.R. (1996). A Game of Thrones. Bantam Dell. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-553-57340-4. 
  9. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 556. ISBN 0553582038. 
  10. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 450. ISBN 0553582038. 
  11. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 41. ISBN 0553582038. 
  12. Martin, George R.R. (2005). A Feast for Crows. Bantam Dell. p. 678. ISBN 0553582038. 
  13. Martin, George R.R. (1996). A Game of Thrones. Bantam Dell. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-553-57340-4. 
  14. Martin, George R.R. (1996). A Game of Thrones. Bantam Dell. p. 538. ISBN 978-0-553-57340-4. 
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