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A gloss (or interlinear gloss) is a style of showing the intermediate steps of translating a sentence or phrase, in order to more clearly show how the meaning is determined. Typically it consists of the following steps:

  1. The original text in the source language (in this case, Dothraki).
  2. (optional) The original text, annotated to show the location of affixes, infixes, inflections, etc.
  3. A literal, word-by-word translation annotated to show the meaning of each word, parts of speech, etc.
  4. A natural, idiomatic translation in the target language (here, English).


shierak qiya
shierak q-iya
star-SG blood-ADJ
"bleeding star"

Common abbreviations

Abbreviation Meaning
1 first person
2 second person
3 third person
ABS absolutive
ACC accusative
ADJ adjective
ADV adverb(ial)
APB, APROB approbative
AUX auxiliary
CAUS causative
COP copula
DAT dative
DEM demonstrative
DIST distal
DU dual
ERG ergative
EX, EXCL exclusive
F feminine
FUT future
GEN genitive
IMP imperative
IMPV imperfective. = IPFV (this abbrev. may be confused w imperative)
IN, INCL inclusive
INTR intransitive. = NTR
IPFV imperfective
LAUD laudative.
M masculine
NEG negation, negative
NMZ nominalizer/nominalization
NTR, INTR intransitive.
PAS passive
PEJ pejorative
PFV perfective
PL plural
POS possessive
PRS, PRES present
PROH prohibitive
PROX proximal/proximate
PST past
PTCP participle
Q question particle/marker
QUOT quotative
RECP reciprocal
REFL reflexive
SJV subjunctive
SG singular
TOP topic, topical case
VOC vocative

See also

Leipzig Glossing Rules

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