High Valyrian Derivational Affixes

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Derivational affixes are prefixes and suffixes used to create a new word, as opposed to inflectional affixes, which are used to inflect an existing word. In some cases it is debatable whether a particular affix is inflectional or derivational; in general, such questionable affixes are included here just in case.



do-, dor- forms negatives:

-enka adj. I:

-lie adj. III, allophones -rie, -nie.

nā- forms negatives (also used for other parts of speech):

-ōñe adj. II:

-oqitta adj. I: privative, indicates lack of something, like English -less. Possibly a perfect participle in origin.

-sīha, -īha adj. I: probably forms gentilics, like English -ian.


(for class II and III adjectives), -irī (for class I): basic adverbial suffix.

-kydoso: forms adverbs. (Cf. AV -kydho.)


-albar 1aq.: augmentive.

-āzma 1lun.: augmentive.[3] Seems to form nouns from verbs, somewhat like English -ing, -tion.

-illa 1aq° (note anomalous gender)[4]: associated with byproducts[5]

-io 3lun.: augmentative, that is, specifically the opposite of the diminutive.

  • kēl·io "lion ('great cat.')"
  • poss. nūm·io "pearl ('great seed.')"
  • poss. ōdr·io "wound ('great damage.')"
  • possibly also the source of Low Valyrian names like Syrio, Daario.

The same suffix, or a homophonous one, also seems to form nomina agentis:

-ion 3ter.: There appear to be several meanings for this suffix, or rather several suffixes of this form. Among these are:

  1. The "type 2," or "generic" substantive form for adjectives of class I and II.
  2. An allomorph of the -lion suffix, used to indicate places.
  3. Sometimes used to form verbal nouns, as in urnēb·ion "watch."
  4. Used to form abstract nouns off of titles, as dār·ion "kingdom" (from dārys "king") or jent·ion "leadership" (from jentys "leader.") It is not certain if this suffix is productive enough to assume words like, e.g., *voktion "priesthood."

-ītsos 2sol.: diminutive.

-lion (for V-fin), -ion (for C-fin), 3ter. Generally indicates a place where something is done.

  • dēma·lion "throne ('sitting place.')"
  • limalion "crying place." A nonce word, which DJP coined as an example.

-non 3ter.: used to form nouns from verbs.

-tys 2Sol.: a common noun ending, possibly originating from the perfect participle. Seems to be especially frequent in the names of professions.

Often (but not always) occurs as -rys after a vowel:[7]

This may be the ultimate origin of words like dā·rys king, ābrazy·rys wife, valzy·rys husband.

-ves (for class II adjective), -ives (class III), -āves (for class I) 4Sol.: forms abstract nouns out of adjectives, like English -ness.

-vos 3sol.: forms names of instruments.


See also High Valyrian Verbal Prefixes

a-, h-, s-, z-: instrumental-passive.[8] Promotes an instrument to the subject of the sentence.

bē-: upon. Identical to the postposition .

-ēbagon, -ībagon, -ūbagon v.C-fin (vowel appears to echo the last in the verb stem if C-fin., or combine with the final vowel if V-fin.): Probably has no meaning in itself,[9] but rather is used to create verbs.

-emagon v.C-fin.: Factitive. In combination with an adjectival root (and at least one verbal root) means "to give something a certain quality." Appears to derive from emagon, but it is unclear if verbs of this type share its irregularities.

-ēñagon v.C-fin.: Unknown.

gō-: under, beneath. Identical to the postposition .

h-, an allomorph of a-

i-, j-: oblique applicative. Causes a verb that might otherwise have an argument in some other case to take an accusative object instead[10]

-ībagon, see -ēbagon.

-ikagon, -kagon (perfect -ttan): causative.

j-: An allomorph of i-.

jor- (before vowels and r-), jol- (before l-), jo- (before other consonants): "continue."

-ligon (perfect -litan): to do something again

maz-: inceptive from the verb māzigon to come.

nā-: negates or reverse the action. Identical to the adjectival prefix:

o-, an allomorph of u-

oz-, os-: an intensifier, without much meaning of its own.

qrin-, qrim- (before labials), qril- (before l), qrīd- (before r-): "pejorative," indicates something done improperly, somewhat like English "mis-."

s-, an allomorph of a-

syt-: "for," from the postposition syt. Often followed by i-.

u-, v-, b-: Locative applicative. Causes a verb that might otherwise have an argument in some other case to take a dative or genitive object instead, generally with spatial reference.

-ūljagon v. C-fin.: Inchoative, with an adjective root indicates entering a state.

-uragon:[12] used with noun roots, seemingly with the meaning "to make use of X"

va- towards, from the preposition va

z-, an allomorph of a-

Eventative verbs

"Eventative"[13] or "eventive"[14] verbs are formed off the perfect stem of another verb, plus -egon. The semantics of this form are unknown, but perhaps they focus on the outcome of an action?


  1. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/51979081366/i-must-say-i-love-your-work-is-there-a-translation
  2. "Nope. There is another possibility here, and it has to do with the ending -zia (or, in High Valyrian proper, -sīha)." —DJP, regarding the AV word Vesterozia
  3. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-z%C8%B3hon-keliton-issa/#comment-3267
  4. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/451761993121161216, http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85524
  5. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/06/valahd/
  6. Cf. also the hypothetical obūnnon < obūljagon, discussed at http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85568
  7. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88694557124/love-your-work-in-game-of-thrones-i-was-wondering-if#disqus_thread
  8. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/373584938353717248
  9. Cf. "Also, it might help to know that, even though not all the affixes have any meaning, but the second word segments as syt-i-vīl-īb-il-āt.DJP
  10. So, for instance, Yne ivestrās means more or less the same thing as ynot vestrās. There are some, rare exceptions to this rule, such as iderēbagon, which takes a dative or genitive object, in spite of the i- prefix.
  11. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/#comment-85806
  12. DJP rather ambiguously tells us this is not "a common derivational suffix."
  13. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7178
  14. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/97841828544/in-interviews-you-often-list-dothraki-words-that
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