High Valyrian Verb Conjugation

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This page covers High Valyrian verb conjugation, specifically the unambiguously inflectional categories of tense, voice, and mood. For the verbal prefixes which straddle the line between inflection and derivation, see High Valyrian Verbal Prefixes.

Verb classes

There are two basic types of regular verb in High Valyrian:

  • "Consonant final" verbs (sometimes called "athematic" "consonant-stem" verbs)
  • "Vowel final" verbs (sometimes called "thematic" or "a-stem," "e-stem" etc. verbs)

Each of these can be divided into different sub-classes.

This will be discussed in more detail in the descriptions of the individual tenses.


Time and aspect

Notice that HV verb tenses seem to follow a pattern, which might be interpreted as a combination of "time" and "aspect":

Basic aspect Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect
Present time jaelza jaelilza jēldas
Past time jaeliles jēldes
Timeless jaelis jēldis

Which is to say:

Basic aspect Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect
Present time Present Future Perfect
Past time Imperfect Pluperfect
Timeless Aorist Past Habitual

Contents


Present Active

The present tense is most commonly used for things that are happening right now. Unlike the English present tense, it is not generally used for "timeless" actions (e.g. "I speak Valyrian"), or general truths (e.g. "One plus one is two"); these generally go in the Aorist instead.

It is worthwhile to treat the present indicative and subjunctive separately, although we will not be doing this for most other tenses.

Indicative

Consonant-final and vowel-final verbs each have their own complications for the present indicative.

Consonant final

The basic endings are as follows:

Singular Plural
1 -an -i
2 -āt
3 -za, -sa, -as -zi, -si, -is

The third person forms, singular and plural, are the only complication. Historically, the original form was *-s, eventually becoming -za and then, in some cases -as.[1] The -za is older, but by the time High Valyrian was canonized in its classical form, -as had gained enough ground to be on roughly equal footing. This trend would continue, and by the time we reach AV, -as (and its V-fin. equivalents) is nearly universal (the sole exception being irregular verbs, like sa and eza).

As things stand in Classical High Valyrian, which ending is to be used essentially depends on the final consonant of the stem. In many cases either form may be used.

  • After a liquid (except lj), -za must be used.
  • After a voiceless stop, -sa is usual. -as may also be used, but it is non-standard.
  • After a nasal (except ñ), either -za or -as may be used. They are approximately equal in acceptability.
    • A verb that ends in a nasal also has the option of conjugating like emagon. That is, in the third person the n is dropped in front of the z, with the preceding vowel lengthened in compensation. But this is very unusual, except in the case of emagon and verbs derived from it.[1]
  • After a voiced stop, -as is usual. -za may also be used, but it is non-standard.[2]
  • After a fricative, semivowel, or consonant cluster, -as is mandatory.
  • The palatal resonants, that is lj and ñ, are mostly treated as consonant clusters.[3] Thus, morghūljas (as opposed to ilza), gūrēñas (as opposed to simonza). Note, however, that the i of the plural form causes the resonant to lose its palatalization, resulting in forms like morghūlis and gūrēnis (which happen to be identical to the 3s aorist forms).

In sum:

Final Consonant Liquids Voiceless Stops Nasals Voiced Stops Fricatives Palatal Resonants Consonant Clusters
l r p t k q m n b d g h s z gh v j ñ lj
-za or -sa -za mandatory -sa regular -za acceptable -za non-standard
-as -as non-standard -as acceptable -as regular -as mandatory
Notes Forms with compensatory lengthening may also occur, but are only regular for emagon (ēza)
  • Some exceptions
  • Depalatalized in pl: -lis, -nis


jaelagon
"to want"
epagon
"to ask for"
sēnagon
"to kill"
derēbagon
"to gather"
pāsagon
"to trust"
verdagon
"to arrange"
morghūljagon
"to die"
1s jaelan epan sēnan derēban pāsan verdan morghūljan
2s jaelā epā sēnā derēbā pāsā verdā morghūljā
3s jaelza
epsa
(epas)
sēnza (sēza)
sēnas
(derēbza)
derēbas

pāsas

verdas

morghūljas
1pl jaeli epi sēni derēbi pāsi verdi morghūli
2pl jaelāt epāt sēnāt derēbāt pāsāt verdāt morghūljāt
3pl jaelzi
epsi
(epis)
sēnzi (sēzi)
sēnis
(derēbzi)
derēbis

pāsis

verdis

morghūlis

Vowel-final

Vowel-final verbs are comparatively simple here: we get the "reversed" endings in the singular, but the vowel is replaced by that of the stem. Furthermore, the 1pl form is ī instead of i.

On the other hand, the infinitive of an a-stem vowel-final verb is identical to that of a consonant-final verb (e.g. ep·agon "to ask for," vs. penda·gon "to wonder.) So it is impossible to tell these two apart from the infinitive alone.

ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
1s iliman ōren sindin nekton bardun
2s ilimā ōrē sindī nektō bardū
3s ilimas ōres sindis nektos bardus
1pl ilimī ōrī sindī nektī bardī
2pl ilimāt ōrēt sindīt nektōt bardūt
3pl ilimasi ōresi sindisi nektosi bardusi


Irregular

sagon
"to be"
emagon
"to have"
jagon
"to go"
1s iksan eman jān
2s iksā emā
3s issa ēza is
1pl iksi emi
2pl iksāt emāt jāt
3pl issi ēzi isi

Subjunctive

The basic endings for the present subjunctive are very similar to the present active of o-stems—compare the forms of nektogon, above:

Singular Plural
1 -on -oty
2 -ōt
3 -os -osy

Note, though, that the 1pl and 3pl are surprisingly different.


Consonant final

The consonant-final conjugation is somewhat simpler in the subjunctive, as there is no variation in the third person forms:

jaelagon
"to want"
epagon
"to ask for"
sēnagon
"to kill"
derēbagon
"to gather"
pāsagon
"to trust"
verdagon
"to arrange"
morghūljagon
"to die"
1s jaelon epon sēnon derēbon pāson verdon morghūljon
2s jaelō epō sēnō derēbō pāsō verdō morghūljō
3s jaelos epos sēnos derēbos pāsos verdos morghūljos
1pl jaeloty epoty sēnoty derēboty pāsoty verdoty morghūljoty
2pl jaelōt epōt sēnōt derēbōt pāsōt verdōt morghūljōt
3pl jaelosy eposy sēnosy derēbosy pāsosy verdosy morghūljosy

Vowel-final

Vowel-final verbs are slightly more complicated in the subjunctive, because they require both their stem-vowel, and the o of the ending:

ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
1s ilimaon ōrion sindion nektvon bardvon
2s ilimaō ōriō sindiō nektvō bardvō
3s ilimaos ōrios sindios nektvos bardvos
1pl ilimaoty ōrioty sindioty nektvoty bardvoty
2pl ilimaōt ōriōt sindiōt nektvōt bardvōt
3pl ilimaosy ōriosy sindiosy nektvosy bardvosy

Irregular

Emagon and jagon are essentially regular in the present subjunctive. Only sagon is truly irregular.

sagon
"to be"
emagon
"to have"
jagon
"to go"
1s ikson emon jon
2s iksō emō
3s iksos emos jos
1pl soty emoty joty
2pl iksōt emōt jōt
3pl sosy emosy josy


Participle

The present active participle is a class II adjective ending in -re -rior:

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
Lunar/Solar jaelare ilimare ōrere sindire nektore bardure issare
Terrestrial/aquatic jaelarior ilimarior ōrerior sindirior nektorior bardurior issarior

Imperative

All imperative forms are stressed on the final syllable.

For consonant-final verbs the regular imperative ending is -ās, pl. -ātās. Vowel-final verbs replace the ā with the long form of their stem vowel:

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
Singular jaelās ilimās ōrēs sindīs nektōs bardūs sās
Plural jaelātās ilimātās ōrētēs sindītīs nektōtōs bardūtūs sātās[4]

Special expressions

Negative commands are not expressed with the imperative, but with the infinitive + daor. Thus "Write!" is bardūs, but "Do not write!" is bardugon daor.

Simlarly, it appears that the "first person plural imperative" is supplied by the "permissive command" construction: in other words īlot plus the infinitive:

Sesīr īlot jagon! — Now let us go![5]

"Third person commands" are expressed by a vocative, followed by an infinitive:

Dohaerirus māzigon! — May a slave come!

Passive

The present is the only tense for which we have a full paradigm, but the endings are likely similar in all tenses:

Indicative Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 verdaks verdaksi[6] verdoks verdoksy
2 verdāks verdāks verdōks verdōks
3 verdaks verdaksi[6] verdoks verdoksy

Notice that in the passive many forms repeat: whereas the active has a different form for each person and number, the passive distinguishes only a few.

The present passive infinitive is verdakson. There is no present passive participle.

Aorist

The aorist of consonant-final verbs is formed by adding a i to the stem, causing the conjugation to look very similar to that of sindigon (the endings are, however, slightly different; see below). For vowel-final verbs, the suffix is, instead, ssi.


Consonant-final Vowel-final
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
1s jaelin ilimassin ōressin sindissin nektossin bardussin
2s jaelia ilimassia ōressia sindissia nektossia bardussia
3s jaelis ilimassis ōressis sindissis nektossis bardussis
1pl jaelī ilimassī ōressī sindissī nektossī bardussī
2pl jaeliat ilimassiat ōressiat sindissiat nektossiat bardussiat
3pl jaelisi ilimassi ōressi sindissi nektossi bardussi


The subjunctive is similar, but with endings in u:

Consonant-final Vowel-final
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
1s jaelun ilimassun ōressun sindissun nektossun bardussun
2s jaelua ilimassua ōressua sindissua nektossua bardussua
3s jaelus ilimassus ōressus sindissus nektossus bardussus
1pl jaeluty ilimassuty ōressuty sindissuty nektossuty bardussuty
2pl jaeluat ilimassuat ōressuat sindissuat nektossuat bardussuat
3pl jaelusy[7] ilimassusy ōressusy sindissusy nektossusy bardussusy


The aorist of sagon is almost never used—it is high-register, and possibly even pedantic,[8] and is nearly always replaced by the present tense. It does, however, exist:

Indicative Subjunctive
1s iksin iksun
2s sia sua
3s iksis iksus
1pl siti suty
2pl siat suat
3pl sisi susy

The indicative forms given here are certain,[9] but the subjunctive is specuative.


The aorist infinitive is formed as you might expect, e.g. jaeligon, ȳdrassigon. The aorist participle is slighly more complicated, being -ire for vowel stems, and -je for vowel stems:

Consonant-final Vowel-final
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
Lunar/Solar jaelire ilimaje ōreje sindije nektoje barduje
Terrestrial/Aquatic jaelirior ilimajior ōrejior sindijior nektojior bardujior


Passive

Thus far, most of the simple passives we've seen happen to be aorists:

  • 1s aor pass ind: Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñoghossi ōressiks "I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have," zāliks "I'm burned."
  • 3s aor pass ind: valar ipradiks "all men must be eaten."
  • 3pl aor pass subj is probably represented by DJP's typo[10] Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūguksy azantys vestras, which might possibly mean "The knight says that even brave men are feared for/at death."

On analogy to the perfect passive, it is likely that the second person form is *verdiaks.

Indicative Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 verdiks verdiksi[6] verduks verduksy
2 verdiaks verdiaks verduaks verduaks
3 verdiks verdiksi[6] verduks verduksy

The aorist passive infinitive is verdiakson.

The Aorist Passive Participle[11] takes the form jaeliarza (adj. I; cf. jorrāeliarza "dear," raqiarza "beloved.")

Imperfect

The imperfect is marked by the suffix -ile- in the indicative and -ilo- in the subjunctive. When a vowel-final verb takes this suffix, the stem-vowel coalesces with the i to produce a long vowel: in the case of a-stems and o-stems, this vowel is ē. In all others it's ī. Note as well the 1pl -ilin. Other than these small complications, the imperfect is very regular.

The imperfect is used to indicate action in progress, especially when setting the scene for a more instantaneous action in the perfect It can generally be translated with a "was {verb}ing" construction in English. Unlike many languages, the High Valyrian imperfect cannot be used to express habitual action. For this, use the Past Habitual instead.

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
emagon
"to have
1s jaelilen ilimēlen ōrīlen sindīlen nektēlen bardīlen īlen emilen
2s jaelilē ilimēlē ōrīlē sindīlē nektēlē bardīlē īlē emilē
3s jaeliles ilimēles ōrīles sindīles nektēles bardīles īles emiles
1pl jaelilin ilimēlin ōrīlin sindīlin nektēlin bardīlin īlin emilin
2pl jaelilēt ilimēlēt ōrīlēt sindīlēt nektēlēt bardīlēt īlēt emilēt
3pl jaelilis ilimēlis ōrīlis sindīlis nektēlis bardīlis īlis emilis

Likewise, the subjunctive:

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
emagon
"to have
1s jaelilon ilimēlon ōrīlon sindīlon nektēlon bardīlon īlon emilon
2s jaelilō ilimēlō ōrīlō sindīlō nektēlō bardīlō īlō emilō
3s jaelilos ilimēlos ōrīlos sindīlos nektēlos bardīlos īlos emilos
1pl jaeliloty ilimēloty ōrīloty sindīloty nektēloty bardīloty īloty emiloty
2pl jaelilōt ilimēlōt ōrīlōt sindīlōt nektēlōt bardīlōt īlōt emilōt
3pl jaelilosy ilimēlosy ōrīlosy sindīlosy nektēlosy bardīlosy īlosy emilosy


Passive

Our one imperfect passive form attested is zālileks "I was being burned."[12] From this we may surmise:

Indicative Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 verdileks verdiliks verdiloks verdiloksy
2 verdilēks verdilēks verdilōks verdilōks
3 verdileks verdiliks verdiloks verdiloksy

Future

The future appears to be very similar to the imperfect, except that the endings are consonant-final instead of e-stem. Note in particular that in the 1s form, *-il·na assimilates to -inna. The future of sagon is known to be suppletive: kessa in the 3s ind,[13] and kesos in the 3s subj,[14] from which we me guess the rest of the paradigm


Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
emagon
"to have
1s jaelinna ilimēnna ōrīnna sindīnna nektēnna bardīnna kesan eminna
2s jaelilā ilimēlā ōrīlā sindīlā nektēlā bardīlā kesā emilā
3s jaelilza ilimēlza ōrīlza sindīlza nektēlza bardīlza kessa emilza
1pl jaelili ilimēli ōrīli sindīli nektēli bardīli kesi emili
2pl jaelilāt ilimēlāt ōrīlāt sindīlāt nektēlāt bardīlāt kesāt emilāt
3pl jaelilzi ilimēlzi ōrīlzi sindīlzi nektēlzi bardīlzi kessi emilzi

The future subjunctive appears to be formed off the stem-vowel u. The 1s -un, and 3s -us are certain, the rest surmised.

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
jaelagon
"to want"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
emagon
"to have
1s jaelilun ilimēlun ōrīlun sindīlun nektēlun bardīlun keson emilun
2s jaelilū ilimēlū ōrīlū sindīlū nektēlū bardīlū kesō emilū
3s jaelilus ilimēlus ōrīlus sindīlus nektēlus bardīlus kesos emilus
1pl jaeluty ilimēluty ōrīluty sindīluty nektēluty bardīluty kesoty emiluty
2pl jaelilūt ilimēlūt ōrīlūt sindīlūt nektēlūt bardīlūt kesōt emilūt
3pl jaelilusy ilimēlusy ōrīlusy sindīlusy nektēlusy bardīlusy kesosy emilusy

Future participles, and are formed exactly as the present participle is, e.g. jaelilare "going to want, about to want." There does not appear to be a future infinitive.[15] The future imperative seems to be formed like the present imperative: idērēbilātas "you (pl.) shall choose."

Passive

The future passive is not attested, except for zālilaks "I will have been burned," and the participle (see below), but on that basis, we can reconstruct the following paradigm with some certainty:

Indicative Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 verdilaks verdiliks verdiluks verdiluksy
2 verdilāks verdilāks verdilūks verdilūks
3 verdilaks verdiliks verdiluks verdiluksy

It is not certain if the gloss "I will have been burned" should be taken to mean that the passive has a future-perfect sense that the active does not.

The participle is verdilaksa (adj. I). Although it most literally means something like "which will be done," it often has broader uses, as attested by liorilaksa "to be sold (i.e. for sale)" and the nominalized gaomilaksir "that which is to be done (i.e. mission)."

Perfect

The perfect is formed off a different stem from the present (though it is generally formed from the present stem with t added to the end.) It is generally better to memorize the perfect stem along with the present stem, rather than trying to predict it, as it is so unpredictable.

Nevertheless, here are some rules of thumb:

  • Vowel-final verbs are usually very predictable: simply add -t- to the final vowel. E.g. pryjagonpryjatan, angogonangotan and so on. On the other hand, māzigonmāstan.
  • Consonant-final verbs are much more complex.
    • If the present stem ends with a consonant cluster, the perfect is regularly -etan,[16] with an epenthetic e: vestragonvestretan. On the other hand, verdagonvettan, umbagonumptan.
    • If the present stem ends in a nasal, the perfect will usually be in -ntan: gaomagongōntan, gūrēñagongūrēntan
    • If the present stem ends in a liquid, the perfect will usually be a simple -tan (with lj becoming a simple l): dohaeragondohaertan, morghūljagonmorghūltan. On the other hand, jaelagonjēldan.
    • ** If the present stem ends in t or d, the perfect will be in -ttan: ipradagoniprattan, vāedagonvāettan.
    • If the present stem ends in k, the perfect will also be in -ttan:[17] jehikagonjehittan, sikagonsittan. This appears to be true for q as well: raqagonrattan.
    • If the present stem ends in b (as many do!) then the perfect will be in -ptan: derēbagonderēptan, rȳbagonrȳptan
    • If the present stem ends in s or z, then the perfect will be in -stan: pāsagonpāstan, brōzagonbrōstan.
    • If the present ends in gh, j, or v (or if the verb is derived from emagon), the perfect will end in -dan, and the stem vowel will usually be lengthened: leghagonlēdan, tyvagontȳdan. But rijagonriddan, with a double d and short i.

These rules, however, are just tendencies and should not be taken as absolute.

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
derēbagon
"to gather"
epagon
"to ask for"
verdagon
"to arrange"
jaelagon
"to want"
morghūljagon
"to die"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
jagon
"to go"
emagon
"to have"
1s derēptan eptan vettan jēldan morghūltan ilimatan ōretan sinditan nektotan bardutan istan ēdan
2s derēptā eptā vettā jēldā morghūltā ilimatā ōretā sinditā nektotā bardutā istā ēdā
3s derēptas eptas vettas jēldas morghūltas ilimatas ōretas sinditas nektotas bardutas istas ēdas
1pl derēpti epti vetti jēldi morghūlti ilimati ōreti sinditi nektoti barduti isti ēdi
2pl derēptāt eptāt vettāt jēldāt morghūltāt ilimatāt ōretāt sinditāt nektotāt bardutāt istāt ēdāt
3pl derēptis eptis vettis jēldis morghūltis ilimatis ōretis sinditis nektotis bardutis istis ēdis

The subjunctive of the perfect doubles as the pluperfect subjunctive. It is as follows:

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
derēbagon
"to gather"
epagon
"to ask for"
verdagon
"to arrange"
jaelagon
"to want"
morghūljagon
"to die"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
jagon
"to go"
emagon
"to have"
1s derēpton epton vetton jēldon morghūlton ilimaton ōreton sinditon nektoton barduton iston ēdon
2s derēptō eptō vettō jēldō morghūltō ilimatō ōretō sinditō nektotō bardutō istō ēdō
3s derēptos eptos vettos jēldos morghūltos ilimatos ōretos sinditos nektotos bardutos istos ēdos
1pl derēptoty eptoty vettoty jēldoty morghūltoty ilimatoty ōretoty sinditoty nektototy bardutoty istoty ēdoty
2pl derēptōt eptōt vettōt jēldōt morghūltōt ilimatōt ōretōt sinditōt nektotōt bardutōt istōt ēdōt
3pl derēptosy eptosy vettosy jēldosy morghūltosy ilimatosy ōretosy sinditosy nektotosy bardutosy istosy ēdosy

The perfect infinitive ("to have gathered," etc.) is formed from the perfect stem, plus the usual -agon ending: derēptagon, ōretagon etc. The single perfect participle is normally analyzed as a passive form, although it sometimes has an active meaning.

Passive

There is a simple perfect form in HV,[18] and this is represented by zāltaks "I was burned"[12] sittāks "you were born" (which would make this 2s perf.pass.ind.), from which we might reconstruct a paradigm something like this:

Indicative Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 vettaks vettaksi[6] vettoks vettoksy
2 vettāks vettāks vettōks vettōks
3 vettaks vettaksi[6] vettoks vettoksy

The same thought may also be expressed periphrastically by means of the perfect participle with a form of sagon, as in keliton issa "is ended."[18]

The perfect passive infinitive is vettakson.

Perfect Participle

The perfect participle (also called the "Perfect Passive Participle" or "Perfect Absolutive Participle") is perfect in tense, but its effective meaning varies from passive, for transitive verbs (e.g. barduta "written, having been written"), to active, for intransitive verbs (e.g. ēdruta "having slept".)[19] In form the perfect participle is a simple class I adjective formed off the perfect stem:

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
derēbagon
"to gather"
epagon
"to ask for"
verdagon
"to arrange"
jaelagon
"to want"
morghūljagon
"to die"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
jagon
"to go"
emagon
"to have"
Lunar derēpta epta vetta jēlda morghūlta ilimata ōreta sindita nektota barduta ista ēda
Solar derēptys eptys vettys jēldys morghūltys ilimatys ōretys sinditys nektotys bardutys istys ēdys
Terrestrial derēpton epton vetton jēldon morghūlton ilimaton ōreton sinditon nektoton barduton iston ēdon
Aquatic derēptor eptor vettor jēldor morghūltor ilimator ōretor sinditor nektotor bardutor istor ēdor

Past Habitual

The "Past Habitual" tense,[20] is used to indicate things that were true over a period of time, and may frequently be translated with a "used to" form in English. It is in form an aorist based off of the perfect stem, except for the 3pl form, which is -isi, making it distinct from the perfect and pluperfect equivalents.

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
derēbagon
"to gather"
epagon
"to ask for"
verdagon
"to arrange"
jaelagon
"to want"
morghūljagon
"to die"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
jagon
"to go"
emagon
"to have"
1s derēptin eptin vettin jēldin morghūltin ilimatin ōretin sinditin nektotin bardutin istin ēdin
2s derēptia eptia vettia jēldia morghūltia ilimatia ōretia sinditia nektotia bardutia istia ēdia
3s derēptis eptis vettis jēldis morghūltis ilimatis ōretis sinditis nektotis bardutis istis ēdis
1pl derēpti? epti? vetti? jēldi morghūlti? ilimati? ōreti? sinditi? nektoti? barduti? isti? ēdi?
2pl derēptiat eptiat vettiat jēldiat morghūltiat ilimatiat ōretiat sinditiat nektotiat bardutiat istiat ēdiat
3pl derēptisi eptisi vettisi jēldisi morghūltisi ilimatisi ōretisi sinditisi nektotisi bardutisi istisi ēdisi

Subjunctive:

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
derēbagon
"to gather"
epagon
"to ask for"
verdagon
"to arrange"
jaelagon
"to want"
morghūljagon
"to die"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
jagon
"to go"
emagon
"to have"
1s derēptun eptun vettun jēldun morghūltun ilimatun ōretun sinditun nektotun bardutun istun ēdun
2s derēptua eptua vettua jēldua morghūltua ilimatua ōretua sinditua nektotua bardutua istua ēdua
3s derēptus eptus vettus jēldus morghūltus ilimatus ōretus sinditus nektotus bardutus istus ēdus
1pl derēptuty eptuty vettuty jēlduty morghūltuty ilimatuty ōretuty sindituty nektotuty bardututy istuty ēduty
2pl derēptuat eptuat vettuat jēlduat morghūltuat ilimatuat ōretuat sindituat nektotuat bardutuat istuat ēduat
3pl derēptusy eptusy vettusy jēldusy morghūltusy ilimatusy ōretusy sinditusy nektotusy bardutusy istusy ēdusy

The past-habitual active participle is formed with the suffix -tre (adj. II): derēptre, vettre and so on. There is no past-habitual infinitive.

Passive

Our one attestation is zāltiks "I used to be burned."[12]

Indicative Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 vettiks vettiksi[6] vettuks vettuksy
2 vettiaks vettiaks vettuaks vettuaks
3 vettiks vettiksi[6] vettuks vettuksy

The past-habitual passive participle is formed with the suffix -tiarza (adj. I): derēptiarza, vettiarza and so on.

Pluperfect

The pluperfect is formed off the perfect stem, but with a thematic vowel of -e-. The subjunctive is identical to that of the perfect, and cannot be distinguished. The 3pl form of the indicative is also identical to the perfect.

Since the only forms we have attested are zālten and zālteks,[12] everything but the 1s form should be regarded as speculation.

Consonant-final Vowel-final Irregular
derēbagon
"to gather"
epagon
"to ask for"
verdagon
"to arrange"
jaelagon
"to want"
morghūljagon
"to die"
ilimagon
"to mourn"
ōregon
"to hold"
sindigon
"to buy"
nektogon
"to cut"
bardugon
"to write"
sagon
"to be"
jagon
"to go"
emagon
"to have"
1s derēpten epten vetten jēlden morghūlten ilimaten ōreten sinditen nektoten barduten isten ēden
2s derēptē eptē vettē jēldē morghūltē ilimatē ōretē sinditē nektotē bardutē istē ēdē
3s derēptes eptes vettes jēldes morghūltes ilimates ōretes sindites nektotes bardutes istes ēdes
1pl derēptin eptin vettin jēldin morghūltin ilimatin ōretin sinditin nektotin bardutin istin ēdin
2pl derēptēt eptēt vettēt jēldēt morghūltēt ilimatēt ōretēt sinditēt nektotēt bardutēt istēt ēdēt
3pl derēptis eptis vettis jēldis morghūltis ilimatis ōretis sinditis nektotis bardutis istis ēdis

The passive should be:

Indicative Subjunctive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
1 vetteks vettiks vettoks vettoksy
2 vettēks vettēks vettōks vettōks
3 vetteks vettiks vettoks vettoksy

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1
    DavidJPeterson: But you could also see other forms.
    DavidJPeterson: For example, just creating a nonce word: If you have madanagon, you might see madāza.
    Mad_Latinist: like emagon?!
    DavidJPeterson: That would be where those forms came from. :)
    Mad_Latinist: how do you mean? madanagon oesn't appear to be *derived* from emagon, so you must mean something else.
    DavidJPeterson: *ems > *emz > *emza > ēza.
    DavidJPeterson: In other words, that's why those forms are that way.
    DavidJPeterson: So if you had madanagon, you might see madāza for the same reason you see ēza.
    Mad_Latinist: OK, but they wound up becoming the set form for emagon, but an eccentric form for other verbs ending in a nasal?
    DavidJPeterson: Correct.
    —DJP, IRC 1/29/14
  2. Notice that Daenerys in particular seems to favor this:
    Se dāeri vali pōntalo syt gaomoti iderēbzi. — And free men make their own choices.
    This is apparently a feature of Targaryen High Valyrian:
    DavidJPeterson: They are more archaic, but the thing is since they exist, they're available for use—or misuse, as the case may be. And recall that as a splinter group, their dialect is likely to remain *more* conservative, as they try to adhere to the original Valyrian ethos.
    —DJP, IRC 1/29/14
    However, not even Dany does this consistently:
    Jemēle mērī sytilības. — It belongs to you and you alone.
  3. There are, however, some exceptions:
    "With the palatals, unless explicitly stated, you should basically treat them like a double consonant. Thus not ūnza, but ūñas; not morghūlza but morghūljas. That doesn't mean some won't be irregular; it just means that you should expect them to take the -Vs endings."
    —DJP, email, 1/31/14
  4. http://geekyconblr.tumblr.com/post/116039992144/this-might-be-the-coolest-special-guest
  5. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/352348019221471233
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-83145
  7. Cf. zūgusy
  8. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/84737612397/hi-ever-since-i-was-a-kid-i-wondered-if-it-was
  9. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91682702722/valar-morghulis-i-need-some-help-in-translating-a#comment-1483968427
  10. See the note at the bottom of Valar Dohaeris:
    [Edit: Bleh. I made a baby typo (should've been zūgusy not zūguksy, which is what it was originally. Unfortunately zūguksy is, in fact, a licit form of the verb, which was really throwing me for a loop, but it's also one letter off from the correct form in this case, so it was obviously just a typo (was probably looking at the wrong field).]
  11. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/60283121214/hey-there-im-a-big-fan-of-your-works-i-was-wondering#comment-1032875052
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 http://dothraki.com/dl/ssc_got.pdf
  13. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/465550610108923904
  14. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91382440334/is-there-such-a-thing-as-a-passive-infinitive-in-high
  15. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91382440334/is-there-such-a-thing-as-a-passive-infinitive-in
  16. DJP via IRC:
    DavidJPeterson: Vestret-
    DavidJPeterson: Or, in other words, vestragon is completely regular.
  17. cf. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7010
  18. 18.0 18.1
    "For the title, it’s the copula and a participle to try to match the English construction (which, by today’s standards, is a bit antiquated). It could have been done quite simply with just a verb appropriately conjugated."
    DJP on keliton issa as a translation of "is ended."
  19. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2035
  20. It is easy to conflate the terms "aorist" and "habitual"—even DJP himself does this on occasion.

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