In the first tutorial we had examples of sentences that only featured the very basic parts of a sentence, the subject, verb and object. In this second tutorial there will be examples of sentences that add additional features as well.
Sentences with a possessor
Possession can be a tricky thing to express. These examples will show how a possessor is marked in a sentence. In Dothraki there are two ways in which the possessor is marked depending on whether the possession is alienable or inalienable. Alienable possession is any possession which isn't permanent. In these cases the possessor will be in the genitive case. Inalienable possession is when the possession is permanent. This could for example be ones body parts. Your hand will always be yours even if it would be cut off for example. These cases are marked by the ablative case. So we will once again need to know the animacy of any noun that appears as a possessor. We will also need to know the genitive or ablative form of any pronouns that appear as a possessor. In Dothraki the possessor appears at the end of the sentence after other modifiers to the object that is being possessed. A way to think of this is to instead of saying "my arakh" you say "arakh of mine".
- Mahrazh assamva arakh anni. — "The man breaks my arakh." The word anni (my) is the genitive case of anha (I). It appears after the word arakh which is the object of possession.
- Jahak khaloon allayafa khaleesi. — "The khal's hair-braid pleases the khaleesi." Here the possessor of the jahak (hair-braid) is khal and the ablative of khal is khaloon. Khal is in the ablative because his braid is still attached.
- Lajak vindee zhores mawizzoon. — "The warrior stabs the rabbits heart." Since a heart is inalienable possessed, the possessor mawizzi (rabbit) is in the ablative.
Sentences with a direct address
When addressing someone in Dothraki the person being addressed is marked by the vocative particle zhey. The vocative particle is put right ahead of the title or name that is used when addressing someone.
- Athchomar chomakaan, zhey Daenerys. — "Respect to you, Daenerys"
- Jadi, zhey Jorah Andahli. — "Come, Jorah the andal."
- Anha, zhey Drogo, atak jin. — "I, Drogo, will do this."
Sentences with an adjective
In Dothraki adjectives appear after the word it is modifying so instead of "a red ball" you say "a ball red". For adjective comparison check the adjectives page. If there is an adverb that modifies the adjective then the adverb appears before the adjective.
- Athchomar chomakea, zhey khal vezhven. — "Respect to you, great khal." The adjective vezhven (great) appears after the word it modifies (khal)
- Mahrazh assamva arakh hasa anni. — "The man breaks my sharp arakh." Here we see the word hasa (sharp) appear after object (arakh) but before the possessor (anni).
- Mahrazh assamva arakh sekke hasa anni. — "The man breaks my very sharp arakh." Here the adverb sekke (very) appears before the adjective hasa.