Derivational morphology

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==Agentive==
 
==Agentive==
 +
 
/'''-(a)k'''/
 
/'''-(a)k'''/
  
The agentive suffix in dothraki is /-'''k'''/ or /-'''ak'''/ (if the stem ends with a consonant). So to form an agent (one who performs an action) out of verb you simply take the stem of the verb and add the agentive suffix. For example the verb '''dothralat''' means to ride so the agent noun '''dothrak''' must mean rider. This is anolagous to the suffix /-er/ in english where when you go from the word "ride" to "rider" or "teach" to "teacher" etc.
+
The agentive suffix in Dothraki is /-'''k'''/ or /-'''ak'''/ (if the stem ends with a consonant). So to form an agent (one who performs an action) out of verb you simply take the stem of the verb and add the agentive suffix. For example the verb '''dothralat''' means to ride so the agent noun '''dothrak''' must mean rider. This is analogous to the suffix /-er/ in english where when you go from the word "ride" to "rider" or "teach" to "teacher" etc.
 
+
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''dothralat''' (to ride) -> '''dothrak''' (rider)
+
* '''dothralat''' (to ride) -> '''dothrak''' (rider)
 +
* '''ifat''' (to walk) -> '''ifak''' (foreigner)
 +
* '''lajat''' (to fight) -> '''lajak''' (warrior)
  
'''ifat''' (to walk) -> '''ifak''' (foreigner)
+
Compare to English: -er
  
'''lajat''' (to fight) -> '''lajak''' (warrior)
+
==Similative==
  
 
Compare to english: -er
 
 
 
==Similative==
 
 
/'''-ven'''/
 
/'''-ven'''/
  
The similative suffix is used to derive a word that indicates likeness or resemblance. This can closest be compared to the suffix -like in english (as in "catlike") though it's not used exactly the same way. In dothraki the similative suffix is /-'''ven'''/. An example of this can be found in the word '''vezhven''' which means great but that's of course just a metaphorical meaning of the word. The literal meaning is derived from the word vezh (stallion) plus the similative suffix so a more literal translation would be something like "stallionlike".
+
The similative suffix is used to derive a word that indicates likeness or resemblance. This can closest be compared to the suffix -like in English (as in "catlike") though it's not used exactly the same way. In dothraki the similative suffix is /-'''ven'''/. An example of this can be found in the word '''vezhven''' which means great but that's of course just a metaphorical meaning of the word. The literal meaning is derived from the word vezh (stallion) plus the similative suffix so a more literal translation would be something like "stallionlike".
 
+
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''vezh''' (stallion) -> '''vezhven''' (great)
+
* '''vezh''' (stallion) -> '''vezhven''' (great)
 
+
* '''san''' (heap, much) -> '''samven''' (numerous)
'''san''' (heap, much) -> '''samven''' (numerous)
+
  
 
''here we see that derivational affixes may sometimes introduce a sandhi; '''san''' has changed to '''sam''' to ease the pronunciation''
 
''here we see that derivational affixes may sometimes introduce a sandhi; '''san''' has changed to '''sam''' to ease the pronunciation''
  
 +
Compare to English: -like
  
Compare to english: -like
+
==Durative==
  
 
==Durative==
 
 
/'''v(i)- -(e)r'''/
 
/'''v(i)- -(e)r'''/
  
 
The durative circumfix '''/v(i)- -(e)r/''' is used to denote when the action of a verb is done continuously for a period of time without interruption. For example the verb '''tihilat''' means to look at or to glance at. When you add the circumfix you get the word '''vitihirat''' which instead means to watch or observe, and thus implies looking at something for an extended period of time. Derivational morphology affects the stem of the word, so the infinitival suffix '''-(l)at''' is attached after the circumfix.
 
The durative circumfix '''/v(i)- -(e)r/''' is used to denote when the action of a verb is done continuously for a period of time without interruption. For example the verb '''tihilat''' means to look at or to glance at. When you add the circumfix you get the word '''vitihirat''' which instead means to watch or observe, and thus implies looking at something for an extended period of time. Derivational morphology affects the stem of the word, so the infinitival suffix '''-(l)at''' is attached after the circumfix.
 
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''tihilat''' (to look at) -> '''vitihirat''' (to observe)
+
* '''tihilat''' (to look at) -> '''vitihirat''' (to observe)
 +
* '''elat''' (to go) -> '''verat''' (to travel)
  
'''elat''' (to go) -> '''verat''' (to travel)
+
In English there are no affixes with similar meaning.
  
 +
==Diminutive==
  
In english there are no affixes with similar meaning
 
 
 
==Diminutive==
 
 
/'''-i'''/
 
/'''-i'''/
  
 
A diminutive is the form of a noun that denotes smallness which at the same time can be a term of endearment which is why the diminutive form in a lot of languages is used for nicknames. In dothraki the diminutive is formed by adding the suffix /-i/ to nouns that end with a consonant. For example '''lajak''' means warrior so the word '''lajaki''' can mean "little warrior". (The suffix /-i/ is also used to denote plural and genitive).
 
A diminutive is the form of a noun that denotes smallness which at the same time can be a term of endearment which is why the diminutive form in a lot of languages is used for nicknames. In dothraki the diminutive is formed by adding the suffix /-i/ to nouns that end with a consonant. For example '''lajak''' means warrior so the word '''lajaki''' can mean "little warrior". (The suffix /-i/ is also used to denote plural and genitive).
 
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''lajak''' (warrior) -> '''lajaki''' (little warrior)
+
* '''lajak''' (warrior) -> '''lajaki''' (little warrior)
  
 +
Compare to English: -(l)ette, -(s)ie, -ling
  
Compare to english: -(l)ette, -(s)ie, -ling
+
==Augmentative==
  
 
==Augmentative==
 
 
/'''-(s)of'''/
 
/'''-(s)of'''/
  
 
An augmentative is the form of a noun that denotes great size. In Dothraki the augmentative is formed by the suffix '''/-(s)of/'''. For example the word '''vezh''' means stallion which means the word '''vezhof''' instead means "great stallion". This also works metaphorically. We have the word '''fire''' which means ring. When we add the suffix we get '''firesof''' which literally mean something like "great ring" but in the Dothraki language this is the word they use for "year".
 
An augmentative is the form of a noun that denotes great size. In Dothraki the augmentative is formed by the suffix '''/-(s)of/'''. For example the word '''vezh''' means stallion which means the word '''vezhof''' instead means "great stallion". This also works metaphorically. We have the word '''fire''' which means ring. When we add the suffix we get '''firesof''' which literally mean something like "great ring" but in the Dothraki language this is the word they use for "year".
 
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''vezh''' (stallion) -> '''vezhof''' (great stallion)
+
* '''vezh''' (stallion) -> '''vezhof''' (great stallion)
 +
* '''fire''' (ring) -> '''firesof''' (year)
  
'''fire''' (ring) -> '''firesof''' (year)
+
Compare to English: grand-, over-, super-
 
+
 
+
Compare to english: grand-, over-, super-
+
 
   
 
   
 +
==Collective==
  
==Collective==
 
 
/'''-asar'''/, /'''-eser'''/, /'''-isir'''/, /'''-osor'''/
 
/'''-asar'''/, /'''-eser'''/, /'''-isir'''/, /'''-osor'''/
  
The collective of a noun is when you form a larger group of out a single entity. In Dothraki this is done by various suffixes that depends on the last vowel of the word that is being changed. For example with the word '''fonak''' (hunter) the final vowel is an /a/ so the collective suffix would be /-'''asar'''/. The resulting noun would be '''fonakasar''' which means hunting party. Similarly we have the word '''oqet''' which means sheep and the collective noun would be '''oqeteser''' which means flock of sheep. '''Zir''' means bird and the collective noun '''zirisir''' means flock of birds. The word for dog is '''jano''' so the sollective noun janosor means pack of dogs.
+
The collective of a noun is when you form a larger group of out a single entity. In Dothraki this is done by various suffixes that depends on the last vowel of the word that is being changed. For example with the word '''fonak''' (hunter) the final vowel is an /a/ so the collective suffix would be /-'''asar'''/. The resulting noun would be '''fonakasar''' which means hunting party. Similarly we have the word '''oqet''' which means sheep and the collective noun would be '''oqeteser''' which means flock of sheep. '''Zir''' means bird and the collective noun '''zirisir''' means flock of birds. The word for dog is '''jano''' so the collective noun janosor means pack of dogs.
 
+
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''fonak''' (hunter) -> '''fonakasar''' (hunting party)
+
* '''fonak''' (hunter) -> '''fonakasar''' (hunting party)
 +
* '''oqet''' (sheep) -> '''oqeteser''' (flock of sheep)
 +
* '''zir''' (bird) -> '''zirisir''' (flock of birds)
 +
* '''jano''' (dog) -> '''janosor''' (pack of dogs)
  
'''oqet''' (sheep) -> '''oqeteser''' (flock of sheep)
+
In English there are no affixes with similar meaning.
  
'''zir''' (bird) -> '''zirisir''' (flock of birds)
+
==Negative==
  
'''jano''' (dog) -> '''janosor''' (pack of dogs)
 
 
 
In english there are no affixes with similar meaning
 
 
 
==Negative==
 
 
/'''e(s)-''' '''-(s)a'''/
 
/'''e(s)-''' '''-(s)a'''/
  
 
This reverses the meaning of the verb.
 
This reverses the meaning of the verb.
 
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''azhat''' (to gift) -> '''esazhalat''' (to take back)
+
* '''azhat''' (to gift) -> '''esazhalat''' (to take back)
  
 +
Compare to English: un-
  
Compare to english: un-
+
==Resultive==
  
 
==Resultive==
 
 
'''/-(i)kh/'''
 
'''/-(i)kh/'''
  
 
This construction forms a noun that is in some way the result of another noun or verb. For example the word '''elzat''' means "to respond". Taking the resultive of this gives us the word '''elzikh''' which means "response" which is the result of responding.
 
This construction forms a noun that is in some way the result of another noun or verb. For example the word '''elzat''' means "to respond". Taking the resultive of this gives us the word '''elzikh''' which means "response" which is the result of responding.
 
  
 
Examples:
 
Examples:
  
'''dothralat''' (to ride) -> '''dothrakh''' (a ride)
+
* '''dothralat''' (to ride) -> '''dothrakh''' (a ride)
 
+
* '''elzat''' (to respond) -> '''elzikh''' (response)
'''elzat''' (to respond) -> '''elzikh''' (response)
+
* '''lame''' (mare) -> '''lamekh''' (mare's milk)
 
+
'''lame''' (mare) -> '''lamekh''' (mare's milk)
+

Revision as of 16:04, 7 June 2011

In Dothraki there are several consistent examples of derivational morphology.

Contents

Agentive

/-(a)k/

The agentive suffix in Dothraki is /-k/ or /-ak/ (if the stem ends with a consonant). So to form an agent (one who performs an action) out of verb you simply take the stem of the verb and add the agentive suffix. For example the verb dothralat means to ride so the agent noun dothrak must mean rider. This is analogous to the suffix /-er/ in english where when you go from the word "ride" to "rider" or "teach" to "teacher" etc.

Examples:

  • dothralat (to ride) -> dothrak (rider)
  • ifat (to walk) -> ifak (foreigner)
  • lajat (to fight) -> lajak (warrior)

Compare to English: -er

Similative

/-ven/

The similative suffix is used to derive a word that indicates likeness or resemblance. This can closest be compared to the suffix -like in English (as in "catlike") though it's not used exactly the same way. In dothraki the similative suffix is /-ven/. An example of this can be found in the word vezhven which means great but that's of course just a metaphorical meaning of the word. The literal meaning is derived from the word vezh (stallion) plus the similative suffix so a more literal translation would be something like "stallionlike".

Examples:

  • vezh (stallion) -> vezhven (great)
  • san (heap, much) -> samven (numerous)

here we see that derivational affixes may sometimes introduce a sandhi; san has changed to sam to ease the pronunciation

Compare to English: -like

Durative

/v(i)- -(e)r/

The durative circumfix /v(i)- -(e)r/ is used to denote when the action of a verb is done continuously for a period of time without interruption. For example the verb tihilat means to look at or to glance at. When you add the circumfix you get the word vitihirat which instead means to watch or observe, and thus implies looking at something for an extended period of time. Derivational morphology affects the stem of the word, so the infinitival suffix -(l)at is attached after the circumfix.

Examples:

  • tihilat (to look at) -> vitihirat (to observe)
  • elat (to go) -> verat (to travel)

In English there are no affixes with similar meaning.

Diminutive

/-i/

A diminutive is the form of a noun that denotes smallness which at the same time can be a term of endearment which is why the diminutive form in a lot of languages is used for nicknames. In dothraki the diminutive is formed by adding the suffix /-i/ to nouns that end with a consonant. For example lajak means warrior so the word lajaki can mean "little warrior". (The suffix /-i/ is also used to denote plural and genitive).

Examples:

  • lajak (warrior) -> lajaki (little warrior)

Compare to English: -(l)ette, -(s)ie, -ling

Augmentative

/-(s)of/

An augmentative is the form of a noun that denotes great size. In Dothraki the augmentative is formed by the suffix /-(s)of/. For example the word vezh means stallion which means the word vezhof instead means "great stallion". This also works metaphorically. We have the word fire which means ring. When we add the suffix we get firesof which literally mean something like "great ring" but in the Dothraki language this is the word they use for "year".

Examples:

  • vezh (stallion) -> vezhof (great stallion)
  • fire (ring) -> firesof (year)

Compare to English: grand-, over-, super-

Collective

/-asar/, /-eser/, /-isir/, /-osor/

The collective of a noun is when you form a larger group of out a single entity. In Dothraki this is done by various suffixes that depends on the last vowel of the word that is being changed. For example with the word fonak (hunter) the final vowel is an /a/ so the collective suffix would be /-asar/. The resulting noun would be fonakasar which means hunting party. Similarly we have the word oqet which means sheep and the collective noun would be oqeteser which means flock of sheep. Zir means bird and the collective noun zirisir means flock of birds. The word for dog is jano so the collective noun janosor means pack of dogs.

Examples:

  • fonak (hunter) -> fonakasar (hunting party)
  • oqet (sheep) -> oqeteser (flock of sheep)
  • zir (bird) -> zirisir (flock of birds)
  • jano (dog) -> janosor (pack of dogs)

In English there are no affixes with similar meaning.

Negative

/e(s)- -(s)a/

This reverses the meaning of the verb.

Examples:

  • azhat (to gift) -> esazhalat (to take back)

Compare to English: un-

Resultive

/-(i)kh/

This construction forms a noun that is in some way the result of another noun or verb. For example the word elzat means "to respond". Taking the resultive of this gives us the word elzikh which means "response" which is the result of responding.

Examples:

  • dothralat (to ride) -> dothrakh (a ride)
  • elzat (to respond) -> elzikh (response)
  • lame (mare) -> lamekh (mare's milk)
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