High Valyrian Derivational Affixes

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Derivational affixes are prefixes and suffixes used to create a new word, as opposed to inflectional affixes, which are used to inflect an existing word. In some cases it is debatable whether a particular affix is inflectional or derivational; in general, such questionable affixes are included here just in case.



do- forms negatives:

-enka adj. I:

nā- forms negatives (also used for other parts of speech):

-ōña adj. I:

-sīha adj. I: probably forms gentilics, like English -ian.


: basic adverbial suffix.

-kydoso: may form adverbs. (Cf. AV -kydho.)


-āzma 1lun.: augmentive.[3] Seems to form nouns from verbs, somewhat like English -ing, -tion.

-ītsos 2sol.: diminutive.

-non 3ter.: used to form nouns from verbs.

  • hep·non "climb."
  • ideren·non "choice."
  • vaorez·non "favor."
  • Possibly urnēb·ion. If this is not a different suffix entirely, it could be an allomorph triggered by dissimilation (from the n in the root).

-tys 2Sol.: a common noun ending, possibly originating from the perfect participle. Seems to be especially frequent in the names of professions.

-ves 4Sol.: forms abstract nouns out of adjectives, like English -ness.


a-, h-, s-: instrumental passive applicative.[4]

bē-: upon. Identical to the postposition .

-ēbagon, -ībagon v.C-fin: Probably has no meaning in itself,[5] but rather is used to create verbs.

gō-: under, beneath. Identical to the postposition .

h-, an allomorph of a-

i-, j-: applicative. Causes a verb that might otherwise have an argument in some other case to take an accusative object instead[6]

-ībagon, see -ēbagon.

j-: An allomorph of i-.

jo-: "continue."

maz-: "come," from the verb māzigon.

nā-: negates or reverse the action. Identical to the adjectival prefix:

nā·dīnagon "to remove."
*nā·rijagon, presupposed by na·rijagho "to shame."

os-: unknown. Underlying form may be *od-.

qrīd-, qrin-: "pejorative," indicates something done improperly, somewhat like English "mis-."

s-, an allomorph of a-

syt-: "for," from the postposition syt. Often followed by i-.

u-, v-, b-: Locative applicative. Causes a verb that might otherwise have an argument in some other case to take a dative or genitive object instead, generally with spatial reference.


  1. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/51979081366/i-must-say-i-love-your-work-is-there-a-translation
  2. "Nope. There is another possibility here, and it has to do with the ending -zia (or, in High Valyrian proper, -sīha)." —DJP, regarding the AV word Vesterozia
  3. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-z%C8%B3hon-keliton-issa/#comment-3267
  4. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/373584938353717248
  5. Cf. "Also, it might help to know that, even though not all the affixes have any meaning, but the second word segments as syt-i-vīl-īb-il-āt.DJP
  6. So, for instance, Yne ivestrās means more or less the same thing as ynot vestrās. There are some, rare exceptions to this rule, such as iderēbagon, which takes a dative or genitive object, in spite of the i- prefix.
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