High Valyrian Noun Declensions

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Declension classes can be defined based on which cases they merge, and (for the most part) their stem vowels. Paucals and collectives have very similar, if not identical, paradigms across all declensions; both seem to merge the vocative case with instrumental, but keep all other cases distinct (irrespective of what happens in the singular and plural). Consequently, mergers will only be listed for the singular and plural.

Forms listed in grey type are guesses, generally based on parallels from other paradigms of the same declension. They should be used very carefully, if at all.

Contents

First Declension

First declension nouns have the stem-vowel a. There are at least two types of first declension nouns:

  • Those that end in -a (e.g. vala "man"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -ar (e.g. embar "water"), mostly aquatic.

There do not appear to be solar (*-as) or terrestrial (*-an) types.

The first declension paradigm merges the genitive, dative, and locative plural (as do nearly all nouns), but distinguishes all other forms.

Lunar-type: vala

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. vala vali valun valar
Acc. vale valī valuni valari
Gen. valo valoti valuno valaro
Dat. valot valoti valunta valarta
Loc. valā valoti valunna valarra
Ins. valosa valossi valussa valarza
Com. valoma valommi valumma valarma
Voc. valus valis valussa valarza


Aquatic-type: embar

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. embar embri embrun embrar
Acc. embri embrī embruni embrari
Gen. embro embroti embruno embraro
Dat. embrot embroti embrunta embrarta
Loc. embār embroti embrunna embrarra
Ins. embrosa embrossi embrussa embrarza
Com. embroma embrommi embrumma embrarma
Voc. embus embis embrussa embrarza

Synopsis

1Lun. Singular Plural
vala
"man"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
vala vale valo valot valā valosa valoma valus vali valī valoti valoti valoti valossi valommi valis
Paucal Collective
valun valuni valuno valunta valunna valussa valumma valussa valar valari valaro valarta valarra valarza valarma valarza
1Aq. Singular Plural
embar
"water"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
embar embri embro embrot embār embrosa embroma embus embri embrī embroti embroti embroti embrossi embrommi embis
Paucal Collective
embrun embruni embruno embrunta embrunna embrussa embrommi embrussa embrar embrari embraro embrarta embrarra embrarza embrarma embrarza

Second Declension

Second declension nouns have the stem-vowel y. There are two types of second declension nouns:

  • Those that end in -y (e.g. trēsy "son"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -ys (e.g. loktys "sailer"), mostly solar.

There are not terrestrial- or aquatic-types, so any word whose citation form ends in -yn or -yr can safely assumed to be reanalyzed paucals and collectives respectively.

The second declension merges the locative and instrumental singular; locative and instrumental plural; and the genitive and dative plural. Critically it distinguishes the locative plural from the genitive/dative, and is the only noun class in the language to do so.

Lunar-type: trēsy

2Lun. Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. trēsy trēsi trēsyn trēsyr
Acc. trēsi trēsī trēsyni trēsyri
Gen. trēso trēsoti trēsyno trēsyro
Dat. trēsot trēsoti trēsynty trēsyrty
Loc. trēsȳ trēsī trēsynny trēsyrry
Ins. trēsomy trēsommi trēsyssy trēsyrzy
Com. trēsomy trēsommi trēsymmy trēsyrmy
Voc. trēsys trēsys trēsyssy trēsyrzy

Solar-type: loktys

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. loktys loktyssy loktyn loktyr
Acc. lokti loktī loktyni loktyri
Gen. lokto loktoti loktyno loktyro
Dat. loktot loktoti loktynty loktyrty
Loc. loktȳ loktī loktynny loktyrry
Ins. loktomy loktommi loktyssy loktyrzy
Com. loktomy loktommi loktymmy loktyrmy
Voc. loktys loktyssys loktyssy loktyrzy


Synopsis

1Lun. Singular Plural
trēsy
"son"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
trēsy trēsi trēso trēsot trēsȳ trēsomy trēsomy trēsys trēsi trēsī trēsoti trēsoti trēsī trēsommi trēsommi trēsys
Paucal Collective
trēsyn trēsyni trēsyno trēsynty trēsynny trēsyssy trēsymmy trēsyssy trēsyr trēsyri trēsyro trēsyrty trēsyrry trēsyrzy trēsyrmy trēsyrzy
2sol. Singular Plural
loktys
"sailer"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
loktys lokti lokto loktot loktȳ loktomy loktomy loktys loktyssy loktī loktoti loktoti loktī loktommi loktommi loktyssys
Paucal Collective
loktyn loktyni loktyno loktynty loktynny loktyssy loktymmy loktyssy loktyr loktyri loktyro loktyrty loktyrry loktyrzy loktyrmy loktyrzy

Third Declension

Third declension nouns have the stem-vowel o. The third declension is very diverse: all four gender-types occur in the third declension, and at least two sub-types:

  • Those that end in -io and -o (e.g. āeksio "master", pēko "olive"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -os (e.g. ēngos "tongue"), mostly solar.
    • At least one subcategory, to accommodate such words as rūs "baby," kiōs "spring," baes "summit," and so on.
  • Those that end in -on (e.g. belmon "chain"), mostly terrestrial.
    • A subcategory that ends in -ion (e.g. dārion "kingdom.")
  • Those that end in -or (e.g. lentor "house"), mostly aquatic.
    • A subcategory to accommodate Mȳr (and any other words that might be like it).

The third declension merges the nominative and accusative singular, dative and locative singular; the instrumental and comitative singular; the nominative and accusative plural, and the genitive, dative, and locative plural.

Lunar-type: āeksio

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. āeksio āeksia āeksiun āeksior
Acc. āeksio āeksia
Gen. āeksiō āeksȳti
Dat. āeksiot āeksȳti
Loc. āeksiot āeksȳti
Ins. āeksioso āeksyssi
Com. āeksioso āeksyssi
Voc. āeksios āeksias

Pēko subtype

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. pēko pēka pēkun pēkor
Acc. pēko pēka
Gen. pēko pēkoti
Dat. pēkot pēkoti
Loc. pēkot pēkoti
Ins. pēkoso pēkossi
Com. pēkoso pēkossi
Voc. pēkos pēkas

Solar-type: ēngos

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. ēngos ēngossa ēngun ēngor
Acc. ēngos ēngossa
Gen. ēngo ēngoti
Dat. ēngot ēngoti
Loc. ēngot ēngoti
Ins. ēngoso ēngossi
Com. ēngoso ēngossi
Voc. ēngos ēngossas

Rūs subtype

Words of this type, which include rūs "baby," kiōs "spring," baes "summit," jaes "god," Lys "Lys," have a stem ending in h, but contract in certain forms (at least the nom/acc/voc.s, and the ins/com.s) this contracts, thus *rūhosrūs, *rūhosorūso, but gen.s. rūho, dat.s. rūhot, and so on.


Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. rūs rūhossa
Acc. rūs rūhossa
Gen. rūho rūhoti
Dat. rūhot rūhoti
Loc. rūhot rūhoti
Ins. rūso rūhossi
Com. rūso rūhossi
Voc. rūs rūhossas

Deks subtype

A similar paradigm is shown by words such as deks "foot," eleks "ear," and Aeliks "Aelix." They are essentially the same as the rūs subtype, except that they k instead of h.[1]

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. deks dekossa
Acc. deks dekossa
Gen. deko dekoti
Dat. dekot dekoti
Loc. dekot dekoti
Ins. dekso?[2] dekossi
Com. dekso?[2] dekossi
Voc. deks dekossas

Terrestrial-type: belmon

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. belmon belma belmun belmor
Acc. belmon belma
Gen. belmo belmoti belmondo
Dat. belmot belmoti
Loc. belmot belmoti
Ins. belmoso belmossi
Com. belmoso belmossi
Voc. belmos belmas

Dārion subtype

Third declension terrestrials whose stems end in -i- have a slightly different declension. So far, the only known difference is that the gen./dat./loc.pl. ends in -ȳti, instead of the expected *-ioti (the same thing happens in the third declension lunar-type, except that all known examples have stems ending in -i-. It apparently does not happen in the solar- or aquatic-types.)

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. dārion dāria dārȳn dārior
Acc. dārion dāria dārȳni
Gen. dārio dārȳti
Dat. dāriot dārȳti
Loc. dāriot dārȳti
Ins. dārȳso dārȳssi
Com. dārȳso dārȳssi
Voc. dārios dārias

Aquatic-type: lentor

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. lentor lentra lentror
Acc. lentor lentra
Gen. lentro lentroti lentrondo
Dat. lentrot lentroti
Loc. lentrot lentroti
Ins. lentroso lentrossi
Com. lentroso lentrossi
Voc. lentos lentas

Mȳr subtype

  • Mȳr "Myr": nom/acc.s. Mȳr, dat/loc.s. Mȳrot

Synopsis

3Lun. Singular Plural
āeksio
"master"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
āeksio āeksio āeksio āeksiot āeksiot āeksioso āeksioso āeksios āeksia āeksia āeksȳti āeksȳti āeksȳti āeksiossi āeksiossi
Paucal Collective
āeksiun āeksior
3Sol. Singular Plural
ēngos
"tongue"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
ēngos ēngos ēngo ēngot ēngot ēngoso ēngoso ēngos ēngossa ēngossa ēngoti ēngoti ēngoti ēngossi ēngossi
Paucal Collective
ēngun ēngor
3Ter. Singular Plural
belmon
"chain"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
belmon belmon belmo belmot belmot belmoso belmoso belmos belma belma belmoti belmoti belmoti belmossi belmossi
Paucal Collective
belmun belmor
3Ter. (i) Singular Plural
dārion
"kingdom"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
dārion dārion dārio dāriot dāriot dārioso dārioso dārios dāria dāria dārȳti dārȳti dārȳti dāriossi? dāriossi?
Paucal Collective
dāriun dārior
3Aq. Singular Plural
lentor
"house"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
lentor lentor lentro lentrot lentrot lentroso lentroso lentos lentra lentra lentroti lentroti lentroti lentrossi lentrossi
Paucal Collective
lentrun lentror

Fourth Declension

Fourth declension nouns have the stem-vowel e. There are at least three types of fourth declension nouns:

  • Those that end in -e (e.g. gelte "helmet"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -es (e.g. zaldrīzes "dragon"), mostly solar.
  • Those that end in -en (only known example at this time is Targārien "Targaryen"), mostly terrestrial.)

No aquatic-type fourth declension nouns attested so far.

It is not yet known what cases the fourth declension merges, other than the usual genitive, dative, and locative plural.

Lunar-type: gelte

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. gelte gelti geltin gelter
Acc. geltī
Gen. gelto geltoti
Dat. geltot geltoti
Loc. geltē geltoti
Ins. geltose geltossi
Com.
Voc. geltys


Solar-type: zaldrīzes

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. zaldrīzes zaldrīzesse zaldrīzin zaldrīzer
Acc. zaldrīzī zaldrīzī
Gen. zaldrīzo zaldrīzoti
Dat. zaldrīzot zaldrīzoti
Loc. zaldrīzē zaldrīzoti
Ins. zaldrīzose zaldrīzossi
Com.
Voc. zaldrīzys

Terrestrial-type: Targārien[3]

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. Targārien Targārī Targārȳn Targārior
Acc. Targārī Targārī Targārȳni Targārȳndi
Gen. Targārio Targārȳti Targārȳno Targārȳndo
Dat. Targāriot Targārȳti Targārȳnte Targārȳnde
Loc. Targāriēn Targārȳti Targārȳnne Targārȳrre
Ins. Targārȳse Targārȳssi Targārȳsse Targārȳrze
Com. Targārȳme Targārȳmmi Targārȳmme Targārȳrme
Voc. Targāries Targārīs Targārȳsse Targārȳrze

Synopsis

3Sol. Singular Plural
zaldrīzes
"dragon"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
zaldrīzes zaldrīzi zaldrīzo zaldrīzē zaldrīzose zaldrīzoti zaldrīzoti zaldrīzoti zaldrīzossi
Paucal Collective
4Ter. Singular Plural
Targārien
"Targaryen"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
Targārien Targārī? Targārio Targāriē Targāriose? Targārioti? Targārioti? Targārioti? Targāriossi?
Paucal Collective

Fifth Declension

Fifth declension nouns have the stem-vowel i. There are at least two types of fifth declension nouns:

  • Those that end in -i (e.g. brōzi "name"), mostly lunar.
  • Those that end in -is (e.g. tubis "day"), mostly solar
  • Those that end in -ir (e.g. rōbir "fig"), mostly aquatic.

There does not appear to be a terrestrial (*-in) type.

It is known that the fifth declension merges the nominative and accusative singular; the nominative and accusative plural; and the usual genitive, dative, and locative plural. It cannot yet be confirmed that these are the only mergers, but it does appear likely.

Lunar-type: brōzi

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. brōzi brōza brōzin brōzir
Acc. brōzi brōza brōzini brōziri
Gen. brōzio brōzȳti brōzino brōziro
Dat. brōziot brōzȳti brōzinti brōzirti
Loc. brōzī brōzȳti brōzinni brōzirri
Ins. brōzȳsi brōzȳssi brōzissi brōzirzi
Com. brōzȳmi brōzȳmmi brōzimmi brōzirmi
Voc. brōzys brōzas brōzissi brōzirzi

Solar-type: tubis

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. tubis tubissa tubin tubir
Acc. tubis tubissa tubini tubiri
Gen. tubio tubȳti tubino tubiro
Dat. tubiot tubȳti tubinti tubirti
Loc. tubī tubȳti tubinni tubirri
Ins. tubȳsi tubȳssi tubissi tubirzi
Com. tubȳmi tubȳmmi tubimmi tubirmi
Voc. tubys tubissas tubissi tubirzi

Aquatic-type: rōbir

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. rōbir rōbra rōbrin rōbrir
Acc. rōbir rōbra rōbrini rōbriri
Gen. rōbrio rōbrȳti rōbrino rōbriro
Dat. rōbriot rōbrȳti rōbrinti rōbrirti
Loc. rōbīr rōbrȳti rōbrinni rōbrirri
Ins. rōbrȳsi rōbrȳssi rōbrissi rōbrirzi
Com. rōbrȳmi rōbrȳmmi rōbrimmi rōbrirmi
Voc. rōbys rōbas rōbrissi rōbrirzi

Synopsis

5Lun. Singular Plural
brōzi
"name"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
brōzi brōzi brōzio brōziot brōzī brōzȳsi brōzȳmi brōzys brōza brōza brozioti? brozioti? brozioti? brozȳssi? brozȳmmi?
Paucal Collective
brōzir brōzirzi
5Aq. Singular Plural
rōbir
"fig"
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Ins. Com. Voc.
rōbir rōbir rōbra rōbra
Paucal Collective
rōbrir rōbrirzi

Sixth Declension

The sixth declension is used for miscellaneous nouns. It can be divided into three categories:

Foreign Words

Foreign words, especially those that have not been fully accepted into the language (e.g. buzdari), are mostly lumped into this paradigm.[4] Words of this type have an optional -i in the nominative singular. It is not yet known how genders are assigned to them.

The accusative singular, nominative plural, and optionally the nominative singular of this paradigm all end in -i. It has the usual genitive, dative, locative plural merger. Other than that, all forms are distinct.

Sing. Pl. Pauc. Col.
Nom. buzdar(i) buzdari
Acc. buzdari buzdarī
Gen. buzdaro buzdaroti
Dat. buzdarot buzdaroti
Loc. buzdarī buzdaroti
Ins. buzdarisi buzdarissi
Com. buzdarimi buzdarimmi
Voc. buzdaris buzdarissis

In the nominative singular the final -i is optional. It is mandatory in the accusative singular[5] and plural forms.

If a borrowed word already ends in a vowel, it can still be borrowed into this declension by keeping the final vowel in the nominative singular, in place of the optional -i, but dropping it in favor of the case-endings elsewhere, e.g. nom.s. mhysa, acc.s. mhysi, voc.s. mhysis etc.[4]

Reanalyzed Collectives

Sometimes a collective acquires so specific a meaning that it begins to be thought of as a separate word (e.g. azantyr "army," originally the collective of azantys "soldier.") At this point, a way to pluralize them becomes necessary, which puts them into the sixth declension. Reanalyzed collectives retain the gender of the original word, and therefore can be any gender.

Reanalyzed collectives merge the instrumental and vocative singular; and the genitive, dative, and locative plural.

Here is all we know about the declension reanalyzed collectives:

  • The singular keeps its usual collective declension (e.g. azantyrmy "along with an army," udrirzi "in a language.")
  • The nominative plural ends in -i or -y, depending on vowel harmony (but the exact conditions are unclear.)[6]
  • The plural declension is not identical to that of foreign words or reanalyzed paucals.
  • The plural merges no cases, except for the usual gen./dat./loc.pl.
  • If a reanalyzed collective were ever to be itself placed in the collective or paucal, the first declension paradigms (-ar, -un) would probably be used. However, it is uncertain that this ever happens.[7]

Reanalyzed Paucals

Sometimes a paucal acquires so specific a meaning that it begins to be thought of as a separate word (e.g. tīkun "wing," originally the paucal of tīkos "feather"). At this point, a way to pluralize them becomes necessary, which puts them into the sixth declension. Reanalyzed paucals retain the gender of the original word, and therefore can be any gender.

Reanalyzed paucals merge the instrumental and vocative singular; and the genitive, dative, and locative plural.

Here is all we know about the declension reanalyzed paucals:

  • The singular keeps its usual paucal declension (e.g. tīkunzo "by wing.").
  • The nominative plural probably follows the same rule as reanalyzed collectives, e.g. tīkuni "wings." The accusative plural appears to be , as seen in gēlȳnī "debts."
  • The plural declension is not identical to that of foreign words or reanalyzed collectives.
  • The plural merges no cases, except for the usual gen./dat./loc.pl.
  • If a reanalyzed plural were ever to be itself placed in the paucal or collective, the first declension paradigms (-un, -ar) would probably be used. However, it is uncertain that this ever happens.[7]

Notes

  1. "Nothing wrong with “Aelix”. Just third declension (declines like baes, but with k where baes has h)." —DJP
  2. 2.0 2.1 Email exchange, 8/3/13:
    Iustinus: What happens to Aeliks—which you've said is similar, but with a k-based stem instead of h-—in the ins/com.s? Is it, perhaps, *Aelikso?
    DJP: I think it is. I'd need to check.
  3. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93697699824/how-does-one-decline-the-name-targarien-in-hv
  4. 4.0 4.1 It is at least possible for a foreign word to be put into a different paradigm it resembles:
    I suppose it really depends on how the speaker is feeling. You could certainly drop it straight into the lunar declension I paradigm (same as vala). You could also just strip the final -a in everything but the nominative singular and put it into the paradigm for borrowings. It’s a foreign word, so you never know.
    DJP, commenting on the possibility of using the word Mhysa in High Valyrian.
    It is uncertain how common this is.
  5. At least in theory, but cf. Gadbag aōhe qrīdrughās "Throw away your slave name."
  6. At different times DJP has implied both azantyri and azantyry as the plural of azantyr. It is unclear how this should be interpreted.
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1347
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