High Valyrian Syntax
High Valyrian does not use the respective conjunction se when uniting two similar words, e.g. two verbs, two adjectives, two nouns that share the same grammatical role. Instead the second word, which normally would come after "and", is modified. Its final vowel is lengthened and the word's stress shifts to the last syllable. For example:
- the man, the woman = vala, ābra (vAla, Ābra) »» the man and the woman = vala ābrā (vAla ābrĀ)
- These are my uncle and aunt. = Bisi ñuhor qȳbor ñuha velmā issi. (vElma » velmĀ) - Duolingo sentence
- Notice that when two nouns accompanied by adjectives are coordinated the adjectives remain as they are.
- Coordination can happen when there are more than two words following one another. As in English before the last word we place "and", in High Valyrian the last word is in coordination.
- *I saw a man, a woman and a knight. | Vale ābre azantī ūndan.
- Coordination is also used in compound numbers and in addition; practically larger numbers are formed by addition.
- Two-digit numbers by writing the units and putting the tens in coordination.
- fourteen » four and ten = izula ampā (ten = Ampa, and ten = ampĀ)
- seven plus seven » seven and seven = sīkuda sīkudā (sĪkuda sīkudĀ)
- twenty-two men = lanti lantēpsā vali
- For a double conjunction "both... and..." both strategies are used together: se + first element second element in coordination.
- *Both the man and the woman sing well. | Se vala ābrā sȳrī vāedis.
Non-active verb constructions
- ↑ IRC 4/22/13: DavidJPeterson: There are two ways of coordinating things: using "se" (more formal) and lengthening the final vowel of the second element (more common).
- ↑ http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85300