High Valyrian Vocabulary

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: ''n. {{4sol}}.'' cold, coldness<ref name="frozen">http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88003383998/hmm-would-it-be-too-much-to-ask-what-let-it-go-or</ref> ''( < ''{{HVlex|iosre}}'' + ''{{HVder|-ves}}''.)''
 
: ''n. {{4sol}}.'' cold, coldness<ref name="frozen">http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88003383998/hmm-would-it-be-too-much-to-ask-what-let-it-go-or</ref> ''( < ''{{HVlex|iosre}}'' + ''{{HVder|-ves}}''.)''
 
: {{quote|Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis.|The cold never bothered me.}}
 
: {{quote|Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis.|The cold never bothered me.}}
* '''iosre''' [ˈi͡osre]{{ID|iosre}}, '''ioɟe''' [ˈi͡oɟe]{{ID|ioje}},<ref>DJP is somewhat uneasy with this form, though he concedes it is valid:
+
* '''iosre''' [ˈi͡osre]{{ID|iosre}}, '''ioje''' [ˈi͡oɟe]{{ID|ioje}},<ref>DJP is somewhat uneasy with this form, though he concedes it is valid:
 
: "As for sr > j, yes, you could list those as in free variation, though for myself, I’d be hesitant to do ioje. I like iosre better. But that doesn’t mean ioje isn’t acceptable by any means."—Email 3-29-15</ref> ''-ior'', ''eq.'' '''iōrpa''', ''comp.'' '''iōrkta''', ''sup.'' '''iōrje'''  
 
: "As for sr > j, yes, you could list those as in free variation, though for myself, I’d be hesitant to do ioje. I like iosre better. But that doesn’t mean ioje isn’t acceptable by any means."—Email 3-29-15</ref> ''-ior'', ''eq.'' '''iōrpa''', ''comp.'' '''iōrkta''', ''sup.'' '''iōrje'''  
 
: ''{{adj. II}}'' cold, cool ''to the touch; for something that feels cold see {{HVlex|qapa}}''
 
: ''{{adj. II}}'' cold, cool ''to the touch; for something that feels cold see {{HVlex|qapa}}''
* '''iosrūlirion''' [i͡osˈruːliri͡on], '''ioɟūlirion''' [i͡oˈɟu:liri͡on] {{ID|iosrūlirion}}{{ID|iojūlirion}}
+
* '''iosrūlirion''' [i͡osˈruːliri͡on], '''iojūlirion''' [i͡oˈɟu:liri͡on] {{ID|iosrūlirion}}{{ID|iojūlirion}}
 
: ''n. {{3ter.i}}.'' autumn<ref name="autumn">https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/178985951281/how-would-autumn-is-here-be-in-high-valyrian</ref>, fall ''( < aorist participle of ''{{HVlex|iosrūljagon}}'' + ''{{HVder|-ion}}''.)''
 
: ''n. {{3ter.i}}.'' autumn<ref name="autumn">https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/178985951281/how-would-autumn-is-here-be-in-high-valyrian</ref>, fall ''( < aorist participle of ''{{HVlex|iosrūljagon}}'' + ''{{HVder|-ion}}''.)''
 
: {{quote|Iosrūlirion kesīr ilza.|Autumn is here.}}
 
: {{quote|Iosrūlirion kesīr ilza.|Autumn is here.}}
* '''iosrūljagon''' [i͡osˈruːʎagon], '''ioɟūlɟagon''' [i͡oˈɟu:ʎagon] {{ID|iosrūljagon}}{{ID|iojūljagon}}
+
* '''iosrūljagon''' [i͡osˈruːʎagon], '''iojūljagon''' [i͡oˈɟu:ʎagon] {{ID|iosrūljagon}}{{ID|iojūljagon}}
 
: ''{{HVverb|lj}}'' to cool, to become cool, to become cold, to cool off, to cool down ''( < ''{{HVlex|iosre}}'' + ''{{HVder|-ūljagon}}''.)''
 
: ''{{HVverb|lj}}'' to cool, to become cool, to become cold, to cool off, to cool down ''( < ''{{HVlex|iosre}}'' + ''{{HVder|-ūljagon}}''.)''
 
* '''iotāpagon''' [i͡oˈtaːpagon] {{ID|iotāpagon}}
 
* '''iotāpagon''' [i͡oˈtaːpagon] {{ID|iotāpagon}}

Revision as of 06:38, 13 July 2019

Contents

High Valyrian Vocabulary List

A note about the IPA pronunciation guides here.

  • The pronunciation of /v/ and /ɟ/ can vary significantly (between [v] and [w], and between [j], [ɟ], [ʒ], and [dʒ] respectively). They are simply transcribed here as [v] and [j] for the sake of convenience, this should not be taken as strictly accurate.
  • The letter kh can also be pronounced gh, k or h depending on the speaker, since it is not a native sound.
  • The same happens with th which can vary between t, s or z depending on the speaker.
  • Finally the vowel y should be pronounced [y] but is often realized as [i].

For more detailed information, see High Valyrian Phonology. For charts of related words, see High Valyrian Word Groups.


A

  • ābra [ˈaːbra]
n. 1lun. woman; coll. ābrar womankind, all women (cf. ābrar)
  • ābrar [ˈaːbrar]
n. 6col.1lun. humanity, all people;[1] life[2], fertility (Relexicalized collective from ābra)
  • ābrazȳrys [aːbraˈzyːrys]
n. 2sol. wife ( < ābra + -zȳrys.)
  • ābrenka [aːˈbreŋka]
adj. I female.(contains -enka.)[3]
  • ademmagon [aˈdemmagon]
perfect: aderēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to pay, to fulfill, to satisfy, to make good, object is usually inanimate[4] (originally from adere + -emagon to make smooth.)
Lannister va moriot zȳha gēlȳnī ademmis. — A Lannister always pays his debts.
  • adere [aˈdere]
adj. II slippery; sleek, smooth; fast, quick
  • aderī [aˈderiː]
adv. soon, quickly ( < adere + .)
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • aderves [aˈderves]
n. 4sol. smoothness[5], sleekness, slipperiness; quickness, fastness
  • āegenka [aːɛ̯ˈgeŋka]
adj. I iron ( < āegion iron + -enka)
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[6]
Āegenkon Dēmalion vale tēmas. — The Iron Throne pokes the man.
  • āegion [ˈaːɛ̯gi͡on]
n. 3ter. iron [7]
  • āeksākogon [aːɛ̯ˈksaːkogon]
perfect: āeksākotan
v. V-fin. to champion, to tout, to talk up s/o or s/t→loc. ( < āeksio + -ākogon)
  • āeksio [ˈaːɛ̯ksi͡o]
n. 3lun. master, lord[8] (cf. āeksion.)
Āeksio yne ilīritas. — The Lord has smiled upon me.
  • āeksion [ˈaːɛ̯ksi͡on]
n. 3ter. gold (cf. āeksio.)
Āeksio ondos — Hand of gold[9]
  • Aeliks [ˈaɛ̯liks]
prop. n. 3sol. Aelix
  • aemagon [ˈaɛ̯magon]
v. Insv. C-fin. (irreg.) to have, to contain ( < a- + emagon)
  • aeragon [ˈaɛ̯ragon]
perfect: aertan
v. C-fin. to move, to go (less intentional than jagon.)
  • aerēbagon [aɛ̯ˈreːbagon]
perfect: aerēptan
v. C-fin.. to travel, to move over a great distance ( < aeragon + -ēbagon.)
Drīvose dārys aerēbas. — Actually, the king is traveling.
  • Aerys [ˈaɛ̯rys]
prop. n. 2sol. Aerys.
  • āgugon [ˈaːgugon]
perfect: āgutan
v. V-fin. to swallow, to gulp
  • āgunon [ˈaːgunon]
n. 3ter. swallow, swallowing, gulp ( < āgugon + -non)
  • ajesurilaror [aɟesuriˈlaror]
n. 6col.3sol. spice in general (collective of ajesurilaros.)
  • ajesurilaros [aɟesuriˈlaros]
n. 3sol. spice, condiment (subst. fut. act. part. of ajesuragon, lit. that which something will be sprinkled with.)
  • ajomemēbagon [aɟomeˈmeːbagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to rage on
Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza — The war rages on
  • ājon [ˈaːɟon]
n. 3ter. island (cf. AV ajo.)
  • ajorrāelagon [aɟorˈraːɛ̯lagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to need, to require ( < a- + jorrāelagon)
  • albie [ˈalbi͡e]
adj. III bright, resplendent, shining, shiny, brilliant
  • ālion [ˈaːli͡on]
n. 3ter. area, plot of land, place, location (cf. the place suffix -(l)ion.)
  • Alysanne [alyˈsanne]
prop. n. 4lun. Alysanne
  • amanengy [amaˈneŋgy]
n. 2lun. shovel, scoop, ladle
  • amāzigon [aˈmaːzigon]
perfect: amastan
v. Insv. V-fin. to come of things ( < a- + māzigon.)
Bosys bantis amāzis, se morghor zijomy amāzis. — The long night is coming, and the dead come with it.[10]
  • āmāzigon [aːˈmaːzigon]
perfect: āmastan
v. V-fin. to return, to come back, to go back ( < ā- + māzigon.)
  • āmāzinon [aːˈmaːzinon]
n. 3ter return ( < ā- + māzigon + -non)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño āmāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[11]
  • āmazverdagon [aːmazˈverdagon]
perfect: āmazvēttan
v. C-fin. to recreate, to remake ( < ā- + mazverdagon.)
Hen perzȳ vȳs āmazverdagon āsittaks. — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world.[12]
  • amīsagon [aˈmiːsagon]
perfect: amīstan
v. Insv. C-fin. to protect, to guard, to block of things e.g. a piece of armour or shield ( < a- + mīsagon)
  • amīvindigon [amiːˈvindigon]
perfect: amīvinditan
v. Insv. V-fin. to taunt, to torture, to torment, to frustrate, to infuriate of things/inanimates ( < a- + mīv- + indigon)
  • ampa [ˈampa] indec.
num. ten.
  • amplie [ˈampli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III tenth.
  • anektogon [aˈnektogon]
v. Insv. V-fin. to cut ( < a- + nektogon)
  • anevegon [aneˈvegon]
perfect: anevetan
v. Insv. V-fin. to transport, to convey of things i.e. the conveyance ( < a- + nevegon)
  • angogon[13] [ˈaŋgogon]
perfect: angotan
v. V-fin. to bite.
Sparos rōbir angotas? — Who bit the fig?
  • anne [ˈanne]
n. 4lun. horse[14]
  • ānogar [ˈaːnogar]
n. 1aq. blood.
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
zaldrīzo ānogar — Blood of the dragon[15]
  • ao [aɔ̯]
pers.pron. you (sing.).
  • aōha [aˈoːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I your (sg.)
  • aōhon [aˈoːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. yours (sg.)
Aōhon iksan se ñuhon iksā — I am yours and you are mine[16]
  • aōhoso [aˈoːhoso]
adv. in your way, as you wish (ins. of aōha.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • aōla [aˈoːla]
refl. 1lun. you, yourself
  • āpsos [ˈaːpsos]
n. 3sol. snout, mouth of animals (cf. AV aspo "bitch".)
  • arakhi [aˈraxi], arakh [aˈrax]
n. 6for.⊙° arakh, a curved sword used by the Dothraki. ( < Doth. arakh.)
  • arghugon [ˈarɣugon]
perfect: arghutan
v. V-fin. to hunt
  • arghurys [ˈarɣurys]
n. 2sol. hunter ( < arghugon + -tys with rhotacism of the t)[17]
  • ārilla [aːˈrilla]
n. 1aq°. beer (includes -illa.)
Skoriot ñuhor ārilla issa? — Where is my beer?
  • arlī [ˈarliː]
adv. back, again, anew, once more (lit. anew, < arlie + . Cf. ar-.)
Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. — If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.
  • arlie [ˈarli͡e]
adj. III new
Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. — By the Old Gods and the New.
  • arlinio [ˈarlini͡o]
n. 3lun. one who changes, becomes different[18] ( < arliñagon + -io.)
  • arlinnon [arˈlinnon]
n. 3ter. change[18], metamorphosis ( < arliñagon + -non.)
  • arliñagon [arliˈɲagon]
perfect: arlintan
v. C-fin. to change[18], to become different, to become new, to metamorphose intrans. ( < arlie + -ñagon.)
  • asēnagon [aˈseːnagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to kill ( < a- + sēnagon)
  • āsikagon [aːsiˈkagon]
perfect: āsittan
v. C-fin. to give rebirth to, to bear again ( < ā- + sikagon.)
Hen perzȳ vȳs āmazverdagon āsittaks. — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world.[12]
  • Astapor [ˈastapor]
prop. n. 3aq. Astapor.
  • atroksia [aˈtroksi͡a]
n. 1lun. owl[19]
Konys hontes atroksia issa. — That bird is an owl.
  • ātsio [ˈaːtsi͡o]
n. 3lun tooth
  • averilla [aveˈrilla]
n. 1aq°.[20] wine,[21] ( < avero grape + -illa.)[22]
com. averilloma used as adjective meaning drunk, tipsy.
Averilloma voktys daoriot istas. — The drunk priest went nowhere.
  • avero [aˈvero]
n. 3lun. grape[23]
Avera ñuhȳ relgot eman. — I have the grapes in my mouth.
  • azandy [aˈzandy]
n. 2lun. short sword
  • azantyr [aˈzantyr]
n. 6col.2sol. army. (Relexicalized collective from azantys)
  • azantys [aˈzantys]
n. 2sol. knight, soldier, warrior, swordsman, swords-woman ( < azandy + -tys.)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

B

  • baelagon [ˈbaɛ̯lagon]
perfect: beldan
v. C-fin. to help, to aid, to assist someone →acc. with something →loc.
Taoba ñuhȳ botē baelza. — The boy is helping my work.
with inf.
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[10]
  • baes [baɛ̯s] baeh-
n. 3sol. top, summit, zenith, apex; point of a sword, tip
  • bāmves [ˈbaːmves]
n. 4sol. heat emanating or radiating off of or from something; compare dijāves ( < bāne + -ves.)
  • bāne [ˈbaːne] -ior
adj. II hot, warm to the touch; not something that feels hot, for which see dija.
  • bāngagon [ˈbaːŋgagon]
perfect: bāngetan
v. C-fin. to bake, to prepare a meal
Skorio syt kesī krēga bāngā? — Why are you baking these beets?
  • bantāzma [banˈtaːzma]
n. 1lun. long night, midnight or the darkest part of the night; not necessarily an instant, but a time between, say, eleven p.m. and three in the morning ( < bantis + -āzma)
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[11]
  • bantis [ˈbantis]
n. 5sol. night
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors[24]
Bosys bantis amāzis, se morghor zijomy amāzis. — The long night is coming, and the dead come with it.[10]
  • baragon [baˈragon]
perfect: bartan
v. C-fin. to mark, to smudge, to demarcate; to indicate, to refer to, to point out
  • bardugon [ˈbardugon]
perfect: bardutan
v. V-fin. to write s/t→acc. to s/o→dat.
Bono mittot rūniapos bardūs. — Write a letter to that idiot.
  • baririon [baˈriri͡on]
n. 3ter. demonstrative (grammar), demonstrative pronoun (substantivized aorist participle of baragon; cf. ozbaragon to brand.)
  • bartanna [barˈtanna]
n. 1lun. skull ( < bartos + -anna)
  • bartos [ˈbartos]
n. 3sol. head
Sparo bartos konys issa? — Whose head is that?
  • [beː]
postp.→gen. on, onto, on top of, onto the top of upon; concerning, regarding, about, with respect to, on (the subject of), about; at, in.
Meaning also often rendered with just the genitive
  • bēgor [ˈbeːgor]
n. 3aq. trout
Dāro kēla sȳriar bēgor ipradis. — The king's cats are eating a good trout.
  • belmon [ˈbelmon]
n. 3ter. chain.
Urnet luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! — Strike the chains off every slave you see!
coll. belmor bondage, servitude, slavery figuratively.
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[11]
  • belmos [ˈbelmos]
n. 3sol. chain link, link in a chain, ring (cf. belmon)
  • belmuragon [belmuˈragon]
v. C-fin. to put chains on, to chain, to chain up; to enslave ( < belmon + -uragon.)
Ñuhi zaldrīzī belmurzi! — They are chaining up my dragons!
  • belmurtys [belˈmurtys]
n. 2sol.[20] slave master, slaver ( < belmuragon + -tys.)[25]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna — Tell the slavers I will receive them here
  • bēmagon [ˈbeːmagon]
perfect: bēdan
v. C-fin. to latch, seal, fasten, make fast (cf. nābēmagon.)
  • beqes [ˈbeqes]
n. 4sol. sow, female pig
  • bērigon [ˈbeːrigon]
perfect: bēritan
v. V-fin. to hang from s/t→loc. (cf. bērio)
  • bērio [ˈbeːri͡o]
n. 3lun. tunic (cf. bērigon)
  • bēuvāedagon [beːuˈvaːɛ̯dagon]
v. Loc. appl. v. C-fin. to sing about (or upon) [26] ( < bē- + u- + vāedagon )
  • bēvilagon [beːviˈlagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to be necessary; bēvilza it is necessary +gen for... +inf. to... ( literally to lie upon, < bē- + u- + ilagon.)
Lo ziry arlī jaelāt, jemēlo syt ziry mazemagon jemo bēvilza. — If you want it back, you must take it for yourselves.
  • bēvumbagon [beːˈvumbagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to float, to hover (lit. to remain above, < bē- + u- + umbagon.)
  • bianor [ˈbi͡anor] biādr-
n. 3aq. ewe, female sheep[27]
Gevie riña biādrot zoklākos. — The beautiful girl is enticing a sheep.
  • biare [ˈbi͡are]
adj. II fortunate, lucky, happy (in the circumstantial sense)
Biarior Arlior Jēdari! — Happy New Year!
  • biarves [ˈbi͡arves]
n. 4sol. happiness, jubilation, luck, fortune[28] ( < biare + -ves.)
biarvī manaeragon to celebrate.
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
Biarver aōt! Cheers! (col. of biarves; lit. All joy to you!; perh. could be "jemot" if to many)
  • biarvose [ˈbi͡arvose]
exp. you’re welcome, sometimes shortened to biarvos (inst. of biarves)
  • bībagon [ˈbiːbagon]
perfect: bīptan
v. C-fin. to suckle, to suck (most commonly said of an infant) (common root with bīkagon + -ībagon.)
  • bīkagon [ˈbiːkagon]
perfect: bittan
v. C-fin. to suckle, give suck to; to nourish (common root with bībagon + -ikagon.)
  • biktys [ˈbiktys]
n. 2sol. wet nurse, nursing mother, nurse ( < bīkagon + -tys)
  • bisa [ˈbisa] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I this proximal, animate
Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. — These men are our guests.
  • bisir [ˈbisir]
dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entitites
  • bisy [ˈbisy]
dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, animate, for concrete, countable entities
  • blēnon [ˈbleːnon]
n. 3ter. mountain
  • blēnun [ˈbleːnun]
n. 6pauc.3ter. mountain range (paucal of blēnon)
  • bode [ˈbode]
n. 5lun. tail
  • bona [ˈbona] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I that distal, animate
  • bonir [ˈbonir]
dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, animate, for abstract or uncountable entities
  • bony [ˈbony]
dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, animate, for concrete, countable entities
  • bōsa [ˈboːsa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I long either temporally or spatially, tall
Ñuha muña bōsi azanti jorrāelza. — My mother loves a tall knight.
sup. bōsāje utmost, furthest, greatest
  • botagon [boˈtagon]
v. C-fin. to suffer →inst., the thing suffered
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
to endure
Valar botis — All men must endure[29]
to permit the thing allowed comes first in the subjunctive
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilāt? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[11]
to work, to labor for/ because of s/t→dat.
Sparos kesīr botas? — Who is working here?
  • botemagon [boteˈmagon]
perfect: botēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to make work, train, tutor, instruct ( < botagon + -emagon)
  • botes [ˈbotes]
n. 4sol. work (cf. botagon)
Taoba ñuhȳ botē baelza. — The boy is helping my work.
  • botose [boˈtose]
adv. hard, effortfully (inst. of botes)
  • brāedāzma [braːɛ̯ˈdaːzma]
n. 1lun. bronze ( < brāedion + -āzma.)
  • brāedion [ˈbraːɛ̯di͡on]
n. 3ter. copper
  • Brāvos [ˈbraːvos]
prop. n. 3sol. Braavos
Brāvo valot kesi tepās. — Give this to a man of Braavos.
  • brōzagon [ˈbroːzagon]
perfect: brōstan
v. C-fin. to name →acc. recipient, →inst. name. ( < brōzi.)
Melisandrose brōziks. — I am called Melisandre.[10]
Figuratively
Avy ñuhom azantomy brōzan. — I name you my knight.
In the reflexive to call oneself, to be named
Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? — What are your names?
  • brōzi [ˈbroːzi]
n. 5lun. name ( < brōzi.)
  • bughegon [buˈɣegon]
v. V-fin. to swim
  • buqagon [buˈqagon]
v. to hate
  • buzdari [buzˈdari], buzdar [buzˈdar]
n. 6for. slave ( < AV buzdar < Ghiscari.)
Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. — A dragon is not a slave.
  • byka [ˈbyka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I small
Kesa gelte byka issa. — This helmet is small.
  • byllie [ˈbylli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III sixth
  • bȳre [ˈbyːre] -ior
num. adj. II six.
  • bȳrēpsa [byːˈreːpsa] indec.
num. sixty.
  • bȳrīblie [byːˈriːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III sixtieth

D

  • dāeremagon [daːɛ̯reˈmagon]
perfect: dāerēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to free, to liberate. hen + →dat. from something ( < dāez + -emagon.)
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • dāeremiros [daːɛ̯reˈmiros]
n. 3sol. liberator, emancipator (lit. free-maker.)
  • dāerī [ˈdaːɛ̯riː]
adv. freely ( < dāez + .)
Averilloma voktys dāri dāerī ȳdratas. — The drunk priest spoke freely to the king.
  • dāerves [ˈdaːɛ̯rves]
n. 4sol. freedom, liberty ( < dāez + -ves.)
Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. — Your freedom is not mine to give.
  • dāez [daːɛ̯z] dāerior
adj. II free.
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • dakogon [daˈkogon]
perfect: dakotan
v. V-fin. to run[30]
  • dakones [daˈkones]
n. 4sol. race as in a race where one runs on foot, though used for any type of racing competition ( < dakogon + -nes)
  • dakonon [daˈkonon]
n. 3ter. running ( < dakogon + -non)
  • daomblīrinon [daɔ̯mˈbliːrinon]
n. 3ter. rainbow ( < daomio + līrigon + -non)
  • daomio [ˈdaɔ̯mi͡o]
n. 3lun. rain.
  • daomior [ˈdaɔ̯mi͡or]
n. 6col.3lun. rainy season, rain figurative (collective of daomio.)
Kastāmiro Daomior — The Rains of Castamere
  • daor [daɔ̯r], [da'or]
adv. not, intj. no.
  • daorion [ˈdaɔ̯ri͡on]
indef.pron. 3ter. nowhere ( < daor + -ion)
  • daoriot [ˈdaɔ̯ri͡ot]
indef.pron. adv. nowhere;
Averilloma voktys daoriot istas. — The drunk priest went nowhere.
  • daoriot jemagon [ˈdaɔ̯ri͡ot ɟeˌmagon]
v. C-fin. vp. to not matter →com. to someone; lit. to lead nowhere.
  • daorun [ˈdaɔ̯run]
indef.pron. 6pauc.3lun. nothing
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis, iā daoruni jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me, or they may have told you nothing.
  • daorys [ˈdaɔ̯rys]
indef.pron. 2sol. no one
daorys ziry ōdrikilza. — no one will harm him.
  • dāria [ˈdaːri͡a]
n. 1lun. queen.[31]
Mīrīno Dāria — Queen of Meereen [32]
  • dārilaros [daːriˈlaros]
n. 3sol. heir to the throne, crown prince, crown princess ( < the dār- root seen in the dārys family of words, plus the substantivized future participle ending -ilaros, as if from a verb *dāragon. However, no such verb exists in the classical language, and it is uncertain if there ever was one.):
Kivio Dārilaros The Prince That Was Promised
Meri kīvio dārilaros ōz maghagon kostas. — Only the prince who was promised can bring the dawn.[10]
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[33]
  • Dārio [ˈdaːri͡o]
prop. n. 3aq. Daario (cf. dārys.)
Daor, bisy arlie Dārio issa. — No, this is the new Daario.
  • dārion [ˈdaːri͡on]
n. 3ter. kingdom, domain
Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero. — the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros.
  • dārōñe [daːˈroːɲe]
adj. II royal[34], regal ( < dārys + -ōñe.)
  • Dāro Vilinion [ˈdaːro viˌlini͡on]
prop. n. 3ter. King’s Landing
  • dārys [ˈdaːrys]
n. 2sol. king.
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light
  • davābagon [daˈvaːbagon]
perfect: davāptan
v. C-fin. to rain. [35] (an -ābagon formation off a root *dav-, perh. primordially related to daomio, rain.)
  • deks [deks]
n. 3sol. foot, footfall
Aōhys zentys gevī dekossa ēza. — Your guest has beautiful feet.
  • dekuragon [dekuˈragon]
perfect: dekurtan
v. C-fin. to step.[36] ( < deks + -uragon.)
  • dekurūbagon [dekuˈruːbagon]
perfect: dekurūptan
v. C-fin. to walk, to go on foot ( < dekur- + -ēbagon.)
  • dēmagon [ˈdeːmagon]
perfect: dēmatan
v. V-fin. to sit, to sit down
Kēli Davidȳ dēmas. — The cat sits on David.[37]
  • dēmalion [ˈdeːmali͡on]
n. 3ter. throne ( < dēma- + -lion.)
Tymptir Dēmalȳti — A Game of Thrones[38]
Āegenkon Dēmalion vale tēmas. — The Iron Throne pokes the man.
  • deragon [deˈragon]
perfect: dertan
v. C-fin. to pluck, to pick fruit or flowers (cf. AV mazedhas derari he was taken.)
  • derēbagon [deˈreːbagon]
perfect: derēptan
v. C-fin. to gather, to collect ( < deragon + -ēbagon)
Vala Aero syt rōbra derēbza. — The man collects figs for Aerys.
  • dija [ˈdiɟa]
adj. I hot, warm a feeling that one can have; for something that's hot to the touch, see bāne); aroused, horny
Zenturliot diji iksi. — We are warm in the inn.
  • dijāves [diˈɟaːves]
n. 4sol. heat that one feels; desire, arousal, horniness (considered offensive, gross or silly) ( < dija + -ves)
  • dijemagon [diɟeˈmagon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to warm, to warm up, to make warm ( < dija + -emagon)
  • dīnagon [ˈdiːnagon]
perfect: dīntan
v. C-fin. to put, to place something on something else to which it is commonly associated e.g. to put a ring on a finger or a shirt on a torso, but not a book on a table[39].
to marry, to wed →nom. the one performing the ceremony; →acc. the one who is being married who is being focused on; →com. the other participant; often used in the passive[4].
Ao ynoma dīnilūks? — Will you marry me?
ozdakonot dīnagon to put to flight, chase away.
Sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr ozdakonot ziry dīntis. — Those who love the darkness chased her away.[11]
  • dobotēda [doboˈteːda]
adj. I ignorant, untutored, clumsy ( < do- + botēda)
  • dobotēdāves [doboteːˈdaːves]
n. 4sol. ignorance[40] ( < dobotēda + -ves.)
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism[41]
  • dohaeragon [doˈhaɛ̯ragon]
perfect: dohaertan
v. C-fin. to serve. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlis
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.[42]
Dohaeriakson raqan. — I like to be served.[43]
  • dohaeririon [doˈhaɛ̯riri͡on]
n. 3ter. slavery, service (type II substantivized aorist participle of dohaeragon.)
  • dohaeriros [doˈhaɛ̯riros]
n. 3sol. slave, servant (type I substantivized aorist participle of dohaeragon.)
Dārys rybis sepār dohaeriros rybis — He hears the king as he hears the slave
  • dohaertros [doˈhaɛ̯rtros]
n. 3sol. one who was previously a slave (past habitual active participle of dohaeragon.)
Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri. — Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.
  • dokimare [dokiˈmare]
adj. II serious, studious, focused, disciplined, steady, strong, driven (perh. do- + the act. pres. part. of an unknown verb *kimagon, perh. meaning something like to mess around.)
  • dokimarves [dokiˈmarves]
n. 4sol. seriousness, studiousness, discipline, drive, strength, resolve, focus ( < dokimare + -ves)
  • dōna [ˈdoːna]
adj. I. sweet[44], pleasant
  • dōre [ˈdoːre] -ior
adj. II no, none, not
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
Yn dōre vala iksan. — But I am no man.[45]
  • dōrenka [doːˈreŋka]
adj. I made of stone ( < dōron + -enka.)
  • dōrenky [doːˈreŋky]
n. 2lun stoney one; Stone Man i.e. a person in the late stages of the Grey Plague. (Subst. of dōrenka.)
He hears the Stone Men in their misery… — mundari dorenki rybis…
  • dōrī [ˈdoːriː]
indef.pron. adv. never, nohow, noway, at no point, at no time
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • dorolvie [doˈrolvi͡e] -ior
adj. III not many, not much, not a lot, few, used with the plural of countable nouns, but it will still take the appropriate form modifying a paucal or collective. ( < dor- + olvie)
  • dōron [ˈdoːron]
n. 3ter. rock, stone
  • dōror [ˈdoːror]
n. 6col.3sol. or 3aq. fort, fortification (collective of dōros)
  • dōros [ˈdoːros]
n. 3sol. wall (cf. dōron)
  • dorrīza [dorˈriːza]
n. 1lun. basilisk ( < doron + rīza)
  • dorzalty [dorˈzalty]
n. 2lun. The Unburnt (Substantivized form of *dorzalta unburnt < do- + zalta.)
Daenerys Targarien, Jelmāzmo, Dorzalty, Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero, Muña Zaldrīzoti. — Daenerys Targaryen, the Stormborn, the Unburnt, the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros, the Mother of Dragons.
  • Dothraki [ˈdoθraki]
n. 6for. Dothraki
Daenerys ampa pyrī Dothrakoti ēza. — Daenerys has ten thousand Dothraki.
  • dovaogēdy [dovaɔ̯ˈgeːdy]
n. 2lun. an Unsullied. Col. Dovaogēdyr the Unsullied as a group. (Substantivized form of *dovaogēda unsullied < do- + vaogēda, perf.part. of vaogemagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • drakarys [draˈkarys]
n. 2sol. dragon-fire[46]
  • drāmmagon [ˈdraːmmagon]
perfect: drāñēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to open specifically a door, gate or window ( < older *drāñemagon < drāñe + -emagon)
  • drāñe [ˈdraːɲe]
adj. II wide
  • drēje [ˈdreːɟe]
adj. II true, correct, right, just, veritable
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
  • drējī [ˈdreːɟiː]
adv. truly, correctly; very (intensifier) ( < drēje + .)
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
Drējī kirine arlī iksan. — I am really happy again.
  • drīves [ˈdriːves]
n. 4sol. truth, correctness, justness, justice; right, justification, excuse, reason (poss. drēje + -ves.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[47]
drīvose actually, in fact; in truth, truly, really, drīvose daor actually not, actually no
Drīvose azantys ābra issa. — Actually the knight is a woman.
  • Drogon [ˈdrogon]
prop. n. 3ter. Drogon
  • drōmon [ˈdroːmon]
n. 3ter. egg
Drōmon nektō? — Are you slicing an egg?
  • drūr [druːr]
adv. tomorrow
  • dubāzma [duˈbaːzma]
n. 1lun. cousin by father's sister or mother's brother, cross cousin[48].
Daor, bony ñuha dubāzma issa. — No, that one is my cousin.
  • dubys [ˈdubys]
n. 2sol. sibling; cousin by father's brother or mother's sister, parallel cousin[48].
Aōhys dubys gevie issa! — Your sibling is beautiful!
  • dȳñes [ˈdyːɲes]
n. 4sol. animal, beast
Dȳñer raqiror issa. — All animals are friends.[49]

E

  • ēbrion [ˈeːbri͡on]
n. 3ter. night sky[34]; ēbrio gō under the night sky
  • ēbrior [ˈeːbri͡or]
n. 6col.3ter. the night skies, space (collective of ēbrion)
  • ēdrugon [ˈeːdrugon]
perfect: ēdrutan
v. V-fin. to sleep
Valar Ēdrussis — All Men Must Sleep
  • ēdrunon [ˈeːdrunon]
n. 3ter. sleep ( < ēdrugon + -non)
  • ēdrurys [ˈeːdrurys]
n. 2sol. dream ( < ēdrugon + -rys)
  • eglia [ˈegli͡a]
n. 1lun. ancestor (cf. eglie)
  • egliar [ˈegli͡ar]
n. 6col.1lun. ancestors, ancestry (collective of eglia)
  • eglie [ˈegli͡e] -ior
adj. III high (physically, in status or quality), good, superior; late (temporally)
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • eglives [eˈglives]
n. 4sol. highness, height; grace, highness, a title of respect for a ruler ( < eglie + -ves)
  • egralbar [eˈgralbar]
n. 1aq. spear ( < egros + -albar)
  • egros [ˈegros]
n. 3sol. edge; blade; sword (cf. egry.)
  • egry [ˈegry]
n. 2lun. knife, razor (cf. egros.)
Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. — The man splits the fig with a knife.
  • elēdrar [eˈleːdrar]
n. 6col.1aq. tides, ocean, time, the passage of time (collective of elēnar)
  • elekor [eˈlekor]
n. 6col.3sol. hearing (collective of eleks)
  • eleks [ˈeleks]
n. 3sol. ear
Muña taobe elekot ondurtas. — The mother grabbed the boy by his ear.
  • elēnagon [eˈleːnagon]
perfect: elēntan
v. C-fin. to swing, to sway, to oscillate, to move back and forth, to twist in the breeze (cf. elēnar)
  • elēnar [eˈleːnar]
n. 1aq. tide[50] (cf. elēni perh. the semantic connection is rhythm?)
  • elēni [eˈleːni]
n. 5lun. voice, speech;[51] music, melody;[52] individuality, opinion figurative (cf. elēnar.)
Āeksio Oño elēni jeve rybis. — The Lord of Light hears your voice.
Zaldrīzesse biādroti elēnȳti zūgusy daor. — Dragons do not fear the opinions of sheep.
  • elēnin [eˈleːnin]
n. 6pauc.5lun. performance, generally music accompanied by dance (paucal of elēni)
  • elēnir [eˈleːnir]
n. 6col.5lun. music in the general sense (collective of elēni)
  • ēlī [ˈeːliː]
adv. first
Sparos ēlī morghūlilza? — Who will die first?[53]
  • ēlie [ˈeːli͡e] -ior
adj. III first; primary
  • elilla [eˈlilla]
n. 1aq°. honey ( < ēs + -illa.)
Havon elillē emi. — We have bread and honey.
  • ellagon [ˈellagon]
perfect: elltan
v. V-fin. to embrace, to hug →inst. using a particular part of the body
  • elun [ˈelun]
n. 6pauc.3sol. swarm of bees (paucal of ēs)
  • emagon [eˈmagon]
perfect: ēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to have. 3s. pres. act. ind. ēza, 3pl. ēzi, imperfect emilen, emiles, etc.)
  • embar [ˈembar]
n. 1aq. sea, ocean. Col. embrar "the sea(s)", oceans in a more figurative sense[54]
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • embāzma [emˈbaːzma]
n. 1lun. great sea perh. in some sort of metaphorical sense? Parmenko Embāzmā The Great Grass Sea of the Dothraki ( < embar + -āzma.)
Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi — Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea
  • embōñe [emˈboːɲe] -or
adj. II aquatic, oceanic ( < embar + -ōñe.); embōñe kēli sea otter.[55]
  • endia [ˈendi͡a]
n. 1lun. west, the west (cf. endie, western)[56]
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[57]
  • endie [ˈendi͡e] -ior
adj. III west, western (adj. formation off of endia.)
  • endīha [enˈdiːha]
adj. I from the west, from the western lands ( < endia + -īha)
n. 1lun. westerner
  • ēngenka [eːŋˈgeŋka]
adj. I tasty, good said of food, flavourful (ēngos + -enka)
Ēngenkor elille emā? — Do you have good honey?
  • ēngītsos [eːŋˈgiːtsos]
n. 3sol. little tongue[58] ( < ēngos + -ītsos.)
  • ēngos [ˈeːŋgos]
n. 3sol. tongue; language. Muño ēngos "mother tongue." Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue.
Valyrio muño ēngos ñuhys issa. — Valyrian is my mother tongue.
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
com. ēngoso used as an adjective meaning talkative, chatty.
Bony ēngoso taoba issa! — That one is a chatty boy!
  • enkagon [ˈeŋkagon]
perfect: enketan
v. C-fin. to owe +inst: the thing owed; +acc: the person to whom it is owed.
Dāervose jevosy yne enkot daor. — You do not owe me your freedom.
  • epagon [eˈpagon]
perfect: eptan
v. C-fin. to ask somebody→dat. a question→acc.
Ynot mirros epās! — Ask me something![59]
of somebody→dat. a favor→acc.
Skoros ynot epilū? — What would you ask of me?
Obl. appl. iepagon (less correctly jepagon) "to ask for" something→acc., of someone→dat.
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • epses [ˈepses]
4sol. female goat, nanny goat
  • ērinagon [eːriˈnagon]
v. C-fin. to win[4]
Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. — When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
  • ērinnon [eːˈrinnon]
n. 3ter. victory[60] ( < ērinagon + -non.)
  • ēs [eːs] el-
n. 3sol. bee (cf. elilla)
  • ezīma [eˈziːma]
adj. I half
  • ezīmagon [eˈziːmagon]
v. C-fin. to split with va →dat. into... (cf. ezīma)
Vala egromy rōbir ezīmza. — The man splits the fig with a knife.
Insv. hezīmagon.
  • ezīmos [eˈziːmos]
n. 3sol. part, division (cf. ezīmagon)
  • ezīmpty [eˈziːmpty]
n. 2lun. sandal (cf. ezīmagon)
  • ezīmy [eˈziːmy]
n. 2lun. window, slit (opening in a wall) (cf. ezīmagon)

G

  • gaba [ˈgaba]
n. 1lun. monkey ( < Yi Ti)
  • gadbagi [ˈgadbagi], gadbag [ˈgadbag]
n. 6for.lun. slave name ( < AV gadbag < Ghiscari.)
Gadbag aōhe qrīdrughās. — Throw away your slave name.
  • gallie [ˈgalli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III hundredth, one hundredth
  • galry [ˈgalry]
n. 2lun. hammer, mallet
  • galryr [ˈgalryr]
n. 6col.2lun. industry, construction (collective of galry.)
  • gaomagon [ˈgaɔ̯magon]
perfect: gōntan
v. C-fin. to do, to act, to perform; →dat. & inf. allow
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • gaomilaksir [gaɔ̯miˈlaksir]
n. 5aq. task, chore, errand, mission (substantivized fut.pass.part. of gaomagon, lit. that which is to be done.)
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • gaomon [ˈgaɔ̯mon]
n. 3ter. action, issue, matter, act, deed
Se dāeri vali pōntalo syt gaomoti iderēbzi. — And free men make their own choices.
  • gaos [gaɔ̯s] gaoh-
n. 3sol nadir, underside; animal belly, animal stomach
  • gār [gaːr] indec.
num. hundred.
  • garaktys [gaˈraktys]
n. 2sol. vulture
  • gēlenka [geːˈleŋka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I silver-colored; silver-like,[61] ( < gēlion + -enka.)
  • gēliapos [ˈgeːli͡apos]
n. 3sol. silver coin ( < gēlion + -iapos.)
  • gēlion [ˈgeːli͡on]
n. 3ter. silver.
  • gēlior [ˈgeːli͡or]
n. 6col.3ter. money, currency, cash (relex. col. of gēlion silver.)
Gēlȳndi aōt tepagon jaelas. — He wants to give you money.[11]
  • gelte [ˈgelte]
n. 4lun.[20] helmet, helm (cf. geltigon.)
Geltī aōhe nādīnās. — Remove your helmet.
  • geltialbar [gelˈti͡albar]
n. 1aq. meeting place, gathering place, exhibition hall ( < geltion + -albar.)
  • geltigon [ˈgeltigon]
perfect: geltitan
v. V-fin. to cover, to cover up (cf. gelte.)
  • geltion [ˈgelti͡on]
n. 3ter. roof (cf. geltigon.)
  • gēlȳn [ˈgeːlyːn]
n. 6pauc.3ter. debt[4], owed payement (relex. pauc. of gēlion silver.)
Lannister va moriot zȳha gēlȳnī addemmis. — A Lannister always pays his debts.
  • genes [ˈgenes]
n. 4sol. mouse, rat
  • gepton [ˈgepton]
n. 3ter. left, left part, left side (cf. geptot.)
  • geptot [ˈgeptot]
adv. left, to the left, leftward (dat./loc. of gepton.)
Mittyssy geptot ilzi se voktyssy paktot. — There are fools to the left, and priests to the right.
postp.→gen. to the left of, beside, next to
  • geralbar [geˈralbar]
n. 1aq. road, street, way, thoroughfare more ready and ample than geron ( < geron + -albar.)
  • geron [ˈgeron]
n. 3ter. path, walk, walkway
Qilōnario Geron. — Walk of Punishment.
  • geros ilas [ˈgeros ˈilas]
exp. good bye, bye, farewell often shorthened to one word gerosílas; derives from the phrase Geros ilās!, lit. "May the path lie straight!"
  • gerpa [ˈgerpa]
n. 1lun. fruit, piece of fruit; more generally the edible part of a plant.
  • gevī [ˈgeviː]
adv. beautifully ( < gevia + .)
Gevī ȳdrā, azantys! — You speak beautifully, knight!
  • gevie [ˈgevi͡e]
adj. III. beautiful[62]
  • gevives [geˈvives]
n. 4sol. beauty[63] ( < gevie + -ves.)
  • gevurlion [geˈvurli͡on]
n. 3ter. park (perh. < gevie + -urlion.)
  • Ghīs [ɣiːs]
prop. n. 3sol. Ghis
Valyri Ghīs idakotis. — The Valyrians attacked Ghis.
  • Ghīska [ˈɣiːska]
adj. I Ghiscari
Mīrīn, Astapor, Junkāe Ghīska oktia issi. — Meereen, Astapor, and Yunkai are Ghiscari cities.
Ghīski āeksia Daenero zaldrīzī sindigon sylutis. — The Ghiscari masters tried to buy Daenerys' dragons.
  • gīda [ˈgiːda]
adj. I. equal, even[40]; steady, stable, by extension calm[64].
…iēdrosa gīdāpa. — …calm as still water.
  • gīdāves [giːˈdaːves]
n. 4sol. equality ( < gīda + -ves; also cf. nāgīdāves.)
  • gīdemagon [giːdeˈmagon]
perfect: gīdēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to steady, stabilize; to even up, equalize ( < gīda + -emagon.)
  • gīdrion [ˈgiːdri͡on]
n. 3ter. sin?
  • giēñagon [ˈgi͡eːɲagon]
perfect: giēntan
v. C-fin.' to heal (intransitive), to be healed, to become healed, to become healthy (perh. giez + -ēñagon.)
Insv. zgiēñagon to heal of wounds etc. as opposed to people.
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • giēñēbagon [gi͡eːˈɲeːbagon]
perfect: giēñēptan
v. C-fin. to recuperate ( < giēñagon + -ēbagon.)
  • giēñemagon [gi͡eːɲeˈmagon]
perfect: giēñēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to treat, to cure, to heal (s/o else) ( < giēñagon + -emagon.)
  • giēñilare [gi͡eːɲiˈlare]
adj. II to heal, yet to heal, not yet healed (active future participle of giēñagon, lit. "who will be healed".)
  • Giēñilaros [gi͡eːɲiˈlaros]
n. 3sol. One Who is Not Yet Healed, a term used in Astapor for Unsullied in training (type I substantive of giēñilare. AV ginilaro.)
  • gierion [ˈgi͡eri͡on]
n. 3ter. people, populace (refers to the group of people inhabiting a specific place) (type II substantive of giez.)
  • gierūljagon [gi͡eˈruːʎagon]
perfect: gierūltan
v. C-fin. to gather, assemble, congregate, get together ( < giez + -ūljagon.)
  • gierūlnon [gi͡eˈruːlnon]
n. 3ter. assembly, gathering, audience, crowd, congregation ( < gierūljagon + -non.)
  • giez [gi͡ez] gier-
adj. II whole, complete, together
  • gīmēdegon [giːˈmeːdegon]
perfect: gīmēdetan
v. V-fin. to warn, to advise, to signal, to give warning to, to notify (eventative of gīmīmagon.)
  • gīmēdenon [giːˈmeːdenon]
n. 3ter. warning, notice, signal, advice ( < gīmēdegon + -non.)
  • gīmigon [ˈgiːmigon]
perfect: gīmitan
v. V-fin. to know facts or information, to know how to do something →inf.
Kesir gīmī. — You know this
Daoruni gīmī, Ionos Sōnaro. — You know nothing, Jon Snow.
Gīmissiks. — It is known.[65]
  • gīmīmagon [giːˈmiːmagon]
perfect: gīmēdan
v. C-fin. to inform, to instruct, to teach ( < gīmigon + -emagon.)
  • gīs [giːs] gīh-
n. 3sol.[66] soul, spirit.
Zȳhys ōñoso jehikagon Āeksiot epi, se gīs hen sȳndrorro jemagon. — We ask the Lord to shine his light, and lead a soul out of darkness.
  • glaesa [ˈglaɛ̯sa]
adj. I alive (cf. glaesagon.)
  • glaesagon [ˈglaɛ̯sagon]
perfect: glaestan
v. C-fin. to live, to fare in the general sense; used with adv. to describe state of well-being: Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?, Syrī glaesan I'm good.[65]:
  • glaesenka [glaɛ̯ˈseŋka]
adj. I lifelike ( < glaeson + -enka.)
  • glaeson [ˈglaɛ̯son]
n. 3ter. life. Col. glaesor existence, life (slightly more abstract/figurative)[2]
Keso glaesot iderēptot daor. — You did not choose this life.
  • [goː]
postp.→gen. under, beneath, below, underneath, underneath of, to the underside of; before (temporally)
adv. under, beneath, below; before (temporally)
Skoriot daorys gō istas nēdenkirī jagon. — To boldly go where no one has gone before.[67]
  • gōviāragon [goːˈvi͡aːragon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to flow under ( < gō- + v- + iāragon.)
  • gōvilagon [goːviˈlagon]
perfect: gōviltan
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to be under, to be underneath, to lie under, to be below, to lie below, to be beneath, to lie beneath →gen. ( < gō- + u- + ilagon.)
...rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — ... with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • gōvilemagon [goːvileˈmagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. (irreg.) to put under, to cause to be under →dat. the thing under which it is put ( < gō- + u- + ilagon + -emagon.)
Daenerys zȳhi byki zaldrīzī qurdot gōvilēza. — Daenerys is putting her little dragon under the table.
  • gōvilirion [goːviˈliri͡on]
n. 3ter catacomb, catacombs, underground labyrinth (type II substantive of the active aorist participle of gōvilagon; lit. "that/the place which lies beneath".)
  • grēges [ˈgreːges]
n. 4sol. louse.
  • grevenka [greˈveŋka] -ys -on -or
adj. I round ( < grevy + -enka.)
  • greviapos [greˈvi͡apos]
n. 3sol. belt ( < grevion + -iapos.)
  • grevion [ˈgrevi͡on]
n. 3ter. waist, circumference (cf. grevy.)
  • grevy [ˈgrevy]
n. 2lun. wheel[68]
  • grozilla [groˈzilla]
n. 1aq°. boundary, border, bound, limit ( < grozion + -illa.)
  • grozillar [groˈzillar]
n. 6col.1aq°. borders, territory (referring to countries or lands) (collective of grozilla.)
  • grozion [ˈgrozi͡on]
n. 3ter. furrow, ditch, trench
  • grozior [ˈgrozi͡or]
n. 6col.3ter. field (plowed) (collective of grozion.)
  • gryves [ˈgryves]
n. 4sol. bear.
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • guēse [ˈgu͡eːse]
n. 4lun. tree
  • guēsin [ˈgu͡eːsin]
n. 6pauc.4lun. forest, woods (pauc. of guēse.)
  • gūrēnilaksir [guːreːniˈlaksir]
n. 5aq. lesson (type II substantive of future passive participle of gūrēñagon, lit. "that which will be learned".).
Gūrēnilaksir Ēlior — Lesson 1/First Lesson.
  • gūrēntir [guːˈreːntir]
n. 5aq. information, knowledge (type II substantive of the perfect participle of gūrēñagon; lit. "that which has been learned".)
  • gūrēñagon [guːˈreːɲagon]
perfect: gūrēntan
v. C-fin. to learn, to find out, to discover (perh. gūrogon + -ēñagon.)
Valar gūrēñis — All men must learn[69]
  • gūrogon [ˈguːrogon]
perfect: gūrotan
v. V-fin. to pick up, to get, to take[4]; in the reflexive to earn, merit, deserve + dat. the thing deserved
Ñuhor līr gūrēnna. — I will take what is mine.[4]
Laodiapossa buzdaris gūrogon. — Let the slave pick up the masks.
  • gūrotir [ˈguːrotir]
n. 5aq. dessert, fate, that which is deserved; usually in the col. gūrotrir. (type II substantive of the perfect participle of gūrogon.)
  • gūrotrir [ˈguːrotrir]
n. 6col.5aq. fate, that which one has earned, that which one deserves, one's due, just deserts (collective of gūrotir.)
Se jevo qrinuntoti pōjor gūrotriri maghan. — And I bring your enemies what they deserve.
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[6]

H

  • hae [haɛ̯]
prep.→loc. as, like, similar to, in the guise of, acting as.
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • hāedar [ˈhaːɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. younger sister; younger female cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[48].
Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. — All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.
Ñuhor haedri renīs se nykēla avy ossēninna! — Touch my sister and I'll kill you myself![70]
  • haeragon [ˈhaɛ̯ragon]
perfect: haertan
v. C-fin. to move (said of something inanimate that moves, as in an arm, a leg, a contraption, or, in certain cases, an animal)
  • hakogon [haˈkogon]
perfect: hakotan
v. V-fin. to pull s/t →acc. from s/w →loc.; to bother, to affect, to annoy because of s/t →loc.
  • hakossiarza [hakosˈsi͡arza]
adj. I crazy, insane, mad, addled (aorist passive participle of hakogon)
  • hakossiarzir [hakosˈsi͡arzir]
n. 5aq. insanity, lunacy, craziness, madness (type II substantive of hakossiarza)
  • hakossiarzy [hakosˈsi͡arzy]
n. 2lun. lunatic, crazy person, madman (type I substantive of hakossiarza)
  • hāre [ˈhaːre] -ior
num. adj. II three
  • hārēpsa [haːˈreːpsa] indec.
num. thirty
  • hārīblie [haːˈriːbli͡e]
num. adj. III thirtieth
  • harrenka [harˈreŋka]
adj. I appropriate, suitable, appropriately sized, suitably sized, the right size, appropriately long, suitably long (spatially, temporally and generic) ( < harris + -enka.)
Ñuhys zaldrīzes harrenkys issa. — My dragon is the right size.
  • harris [ˈharris]
n. 5sol. while, duration (an indefinite amount of time that varries based on the activity referred to; the appropriate amount of time that s/t ought to last based on whatever activity is being referred to) (cf. harrenka)
  • haver [ˈhaver]
n. 6col. loaf of bread (collective of haves)
  • haves [ˈhaves]
n. 4sol. piece of bread (cf. havon)
  • havon [ˈhavon]
n. 3ter bread[71]
Havon sīr ipradakson kostas. — The bread can now be eaten.[43]
  • havor [ˈhavor]
n. 6col.3ter. food; sustenance figuratively (relex. col. of havon bread.)
  • hēdrȳ [ˈheːdryː]
postp.→gen. from amongst, out of, out of the midst of, from (prob. hen + , with nasal deletion.)
Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ. — You will select a leader, from amongst your own ranks.
  • hēdys [ˈheːdys]
n. 2sol. butcher (hegagon + -tys.)
Issa, aōho hēdo taobe sēntan! — Yes, I killed your butcher's boy!
  • hegagon [heˈgagon]
v. C-fin. to slaughter
  • hegharys [heˈɣarys]
n. 2sol. carcass of an animal, usually
  • hegnīr [ˈhegniːr]
adv. like that, in that way (seemingly from hae konīr.)
Issa, drīvose hegnīr ēdrus. — Yes, she is actually sleeping like that.
conj. →subj. so that
Gēlȳndi aōt tepagon jaelas, hegnīr aōhys rūs ipradagon kostos. — He only wants to give you money, so your baby can eat.[11]
  • heksīr [ˈheksiːr]
adv. like this, in this way (seemingly from hae kesīr.)
Issa, heksīr ipradan. — Yes, I am eating like this.
  • heltar [ˈheltar]
n. 1aq. beetle
  • hembar [ˈhembar]
adv. next ( < pār, presumably with hen.)
Hembar Yunkaihot istan. — Next I went to Yunkai.
  • hen [hen]
prep.→loc. from, of; →dat. out of; because of, on account of, thanks to, on (in the sense of paid for by)
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
Hen ynot mōzīli! — Drinks are on me![72]
  • hēnka [ˈheːŋka]
adj. I same (perh. < hae + -enka.)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • hēnkirī [ˈheːŋkiriː]
adv. together ( < hēnka + .)
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
'adv. in kind
Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. — All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.
  • henujagon [henuˈɟagon]
perfect: hembistan
v. Loc. appl. irreg. to exit, to leave, to go from ( < hen- + u- + jagon.)
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • hepagon [heˈpagon]
perfect: heptan
v. C-fin. to climb, to ascend
  • hepnon [ˈhepnon]
n. 3ter. climb, ascension (< hepagon + -non.)
Hepnon. — The Climb.
  • hepvos [ˈhepvos]
n. 3sol. ladder[73], stairs, staircase (< hepagon + -vos.)
Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. — Chaos is a ladder.
  • hezīmagon [heˈziːmagon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to split, used with instrumental subjects ( < a- + ezīmagon.)
(Valo ondoso) rōbir egry hezīmza. — The knife (of the man) splits the fig.
(Egromy) rōbir hezīmaks. — The fig is split (with a knife).
  • hēzīr [ˈheːziːr]
adv. henceforth, from now on, from this point, from now; with negative, no longer ( < hen + sīr with nasal deletion.)
Hēzīr, brōza jevi jemēle iderēbilātās. — From this day forward, you will choose your own names.
  • hīghagon [ˈhiːɣagon]
perfect: hidan
v. C-fin. to scream[74], to cry out, to cry
... se avy ōdrikosy lī hīghari morghūlilzi. — ... and those who would harm you will die screaming.
  • hīlagon [ˈhiːlagon]
perfect: hīltan
v. C-fin. to punch, to hit, to strike
  • hīlībagon [hiːˈliːbagon]
perfect: hīlīptan
v. C-fin. to pummel, to beat ( < hilagon + -ībagon)
  • hilmio [ˈhilmi͡o]
n. 3lun. fist (cf. pālemio; note the short vowel despite likely from hīlagon + -mio)
  • hinikagon [hiniˈkagon]
perfect: hinittan
v. C-fin. to put outside, to put out of doors, to turn out; to expose; to risk, to put in danger (perh. related to hen, containing -ikagon)
  • hiōragon [ˈhi͡oːragon]
v. Insv. C-fin. to stand of things ( < h- + iōragon)
  • hiōriros [ˈhi͡oːriros]
n. 3sol. statue (type I substantive of the active aorist participle of hiōragon; lit. "a standing one -always-".)
  • hobrenka [hoˈbreŋka]
adj. I (!) idiotic, fucking (slang insult/curse; intensifier: crude) ( < hobres + -enka, lit. goat-like)
  • hobres [ˈhobres]
n. 4sol. male goat, billy goat.
kastys hobresse — “blue goats”.
  • hontes [ˈhontes]
n. 4sol. bird.
Issa, ñuhys raqiros hontes issa. — Yes, my friend is a bird.
  • hoskagon [ˈhoskagon]
perfect: hostan
v. C-fin. to cause to swell; to inspire pride in, to make proud, to give (one) pride (perh. hōzigon + -kagon.)
... iderēbās. Avy hoskas lue brōzi. — Choose... A name that gives you pride.
  • hōzalbor [hoːˈzalbor]
n. 3aq. ogre, beast, monster, monstrosity (cf. hōze)
  • hōze [ˈhoːze]
n. 4lun. welt, pimple, boil, protuberance, tumor (cf. hōzigon)
  • hōzigon [ˈhoːzigon]
perfect: hōzitan
v. V-fin. to swell, to swell up
  • hōzikagon [hoːziˈkagon]
perfect: hōzittan
v. C-fin. to boil (for the intransitive usage, a reflexive pronoun must be used) ( < hōzigon + -ikagon)
  • hōzinon [ˈhoːzinon]
n. 3ter. swelling; pride ( < hōzigon + -non)
  • hubon [ˈhubon]
n. 3ter. rope, cord
  • hunanne [huˈnanne]
n. 4lun. donkey, ass ( < hunes + anne)
  • hunes [ˈhunes]
n. 4sol. rabbit, hare, bunny
  • hūra [ˈhuːra]
n. 1lun. moon
Ñuho glaeso hūrus. — Moon of my life.[65]
  • hūrenka [huːˈreŋka] -ys -on -or
adj. I lunar ( < hūra + -enka.)
hūrenkon qogror. — “lunar class”.[75]
  • hynga [ˈhyŋga]
n. 1lun. (!) penis (considered offensive, gross or silly)

I

  • [i͡aː]
conj. or, either
  • iāpa [ˈi͡aːpa]
n. 1lun. mother's older brother, maternal uncle older than mother[48].
Dārys ñuhe iāpe iotāptes. — The king respects my uncle.
  • iāpanna [i͡aːˈpanna]
n. 1lun. mother's older brother's child, cousin by maternal uncle older than mother[48].
Viserys Daenero lēkia iāpannā issa. — Viserys is Daenerys's older brother and cousin.
  • iāragon [ˈi͡aːragon]
perfect: iārtan
v. C-fin. to flow, to run, to go of things like roads, mountain ranges etc.
  • īby [ˈiːby]
n. 2lun. bone (the physical entity, a single one)
  • ībyr [ˈiːbyr]
n. 6col.2lun. bone (the substance) (collective of īby.)
  • idakogon [idaˈkogon]
perfect: idakotan
v. V-fin. to attack, to assail, to have at may only be used with a direct object ( < i- + dakogon.)
Bone vale idakōs! — Attack that man!
  • idaña [iˈdaɲa]
n. 1lun. twin (cf. idañe.)
Voktys idañī izūgas. — The priest is afraid of the twins.
  • idañe [iˈdaɲe] -or
adj. II fellow, accompanying, concomitant (cf. idaña.)
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • iderēbagon [ideˈreːbagon]
perfect: iderēptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to choose, to decide on, to select +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive; the applied object is placed right before the verb)[76], +dat: the thing selected (the old direct object, left unexpressed if understandable) ( < i- + derēbagon.)
Vala rōbrȳti Aeri iderēbza. — The man selects figs for Aerys.
Aeri iderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for.
Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. — Pick a god and pray.[77]
  • iderennes [ideˈrennes]
n. 4sol. trial[4] ( < iderēbagon + -nes.)
Vīlībāzmosa iderennī emilun. — I would like a trial by combat.
  • iderennon [ideˈrennon]
n. 3ter. choice, decision, selection ( < iderēb- + -non.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • idīnagon [iˈdiːnagon]
perfect: idīntan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to marry the one performing the ceremony→nom. ; those getting married→acc. + acc. (d/o + a/o) (often used in the passive) ; to officiate a wedding ( < i- + dīnagon)
  • iēdar [ˈi͡eːdar]
n. 1aq. water
Ñuha lēkia jūlor iēdrī mōzus. — My brother is drinking milk and water.
col. iēdrar ocean, poetic for sea
  • iemny [ˈi͡emny]
n. 2lun. stomach, belly of a human
Dāro iemny rōva issa. — The king's stomach is large.
  • iemnȳ [ˈi͡emnyː]
postp.→gen. in, inside, inside of, within more emphatic than using the bare locative. (loc. of iemny stomach.)
Jēdar yno toliot. Tegon yno gō. Perzys yno iemnȳ. — Sky above me. Earth below me. Fire within me.[78]
  • ijiōragon [iˈɟi͡oːragon]
perfect: ijiōrtan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to please, make happy (object is reflexive; the pleaser is expressed with a separate clause that comes first or →dat.) ( < i- + jiōragon)
  • ikisībagon [ikiˈsiːbagon]
perfect: ikisīptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to dine on, have a meal consisting primarily of ( < i- + kisagon + -ībagon)
  • ilagon [iˈlagon]
perfect: iltan
v. C-fin. to lie, to be in a certain place[79] (locative copula). Original meaning to lay/be straight preserved in expression geros ilas good bye, literally something like may the path lie straight. (cf. ilie straight.)
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[80]
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? — Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[11]
to exist (existential copula) in the sense of there is, there are:
Zaldrīzes rihot ilza! — There is a dragon in the valley!
  • ilāragon [iˈlaːragon]
perfect: ilārtan
v. C-fin. to curse out, curse at, insult, spew obscenities out (possibly < lāra)
  • ilībagon [iˈliːbagon]
perfect: ilīptan
v. C-fin. to lie, be prostrate ( < ilagon + -ībagon)
  • ilībio [iˈliːbi͡o]
n. 3lun. (!) prostitute, whore, skank, slut of either gender; offensive ( < ilībagon + -io; > AV live)
  • ilībōños [iliːˈboːɲos]
n. 3sol. (!) whoreson, bastard, bitch, slut insult/curse used with any gender, generic (seemingly the substantive of an adjective *ilībōñe, < ilībagon + -ōñe)
  • ilie [ˈili͡e]
adj. III straight, prostrate (cf. ilagon to lie (straight).)
  • īligon [ˈiːligon]
perfect: īlitan
v. V-fin. to cross, cross over; to retread, go over, go back over (perhaps jagon + -ligon.)
  • īlilion [ˈiːlili͡on]
n. 3ter crossing, crossroads ( < īligon + -lion.)
Arlȳr īliliot ēdrun. — I am sleeping at the new crossroads.
  • ilimagon [iliˈmagon]
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to cry for, to weep for ( < i- + limagon)
  • ilinītsos [ˈiliniːtsos]
n. 3sol. rest, nap (contains -ītsos.)
  • īlinon [ˈiːlinon]
n. 3ter. crossing (in general); cross (the geometric figure), cross (reified, where someone is crucified) ( < īligon + -non)
  • īlinuragon [iːlinuˈragon]
perfect: īlinurtan
v. C-fin. to crucify ( < īlinon + -uragon.)
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • ilīrigon [iˈliːrigon]
perfect: ilīritan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to smile at, to smile for, to smile upon →acc. ( < i- + līrigon to smile.)
Āeksio yne ilīritas. — The Lord has smiled upon me.
  • Illyrio [ˈillyri͡o]
prop. n. 3aq. Illyrio
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.
  • īlon [ˈiːlon]
pers.pron. we.
  • īlōnda [iːˈloːnda]
refl. 1lun. ourselves
  • īlva [ˈiːlva] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I our
  • īlvon [ˈiːlvon]
poss.pron. 3ter. ours
  • ilzigon [ˈilzigon]
perfect: ilzitan
v. V-fin. to throw, to fling, to hurl, to toss, to scatter, to sow, to plant[81]; to put to sleep
  • imāzigon [iˈmaːzigon]
perfect: imastan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to come to, to arrive at, to attend an event. ( < i- + māzigon lit. to come for.)
Valar imāzissis. — All men must attend.[82]
  • imazumbagon [imaˈzumbagon]
perfect: imazumptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to join up with, to join only with volitional subjects ( < i- + maz- + umbagon)
  • imorghūljagon [imorˈɣuːʎagon]
perfect: imorghūltan
v. C-fin. to die for ( < i- + morghuljagon.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[83]
  • imundagon [iˈmundagon]
perfect: imūdan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to sympathize with, to have sympathy for, to commiserate with s/o →acc. ( < i- + mundagon)
  • imunnon [iˈmunnon]
n. 3ter. sympathy, commiseration ( < imundagon + -non)
  • indigon [ˈindigon]
perfect: inditan
v. V-fin. to push
  • indirarion [indiˈrari͡on]
n. 3ter. reason, motive, cause (type II substantive of the active present participle of indigon; lit. "pushing".)
  • inkon [ˈiŋkon]
n. 3ter. back, back part, back side
Kēli ñuho inkot ilza. — There is a cat on my back.
  • inkot [ˈiŋkot]
adv. in back, to the back, backward[84] (loc./dat. case of inkon.)
Iōnos! Kostilus! Inkot jagon daor. — Jon! Please! Don't go back.
postp.→gen. behind, in back of
Astaprot dohaertrossa sīr yno inkot iōrzi, dāeri — Those who were slaves in Astapor now stand behind me, free.
  • Iōnos [ˈi͡oːnos]
prop. n. 3sol. Jonos, Jon a common name
Daoruni gīmī, Iōnos Sōnaro. — You know nothing, Jon Snow.
  • iōragon [ˈi͡oːragon]
perfect: iōrtan
v. C-fin. to be standing, to stand.
  • iōrves [ˈi͡oːrves]
n. 4sol. cold, coldness[85] ( < iosre + -ves.)
Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. — The cold never bothered me.
  • iosre [ˈi͡osre], ioje [ˈi͡oɟe],[86] -ior, eq. iōrpa, comp. iōrkta, sup. iōrje
adj. II cold, cool to the touch; for something that feels cold see qapa
  • iosrūlirion [i͡osˈruːliri͡on], iojūlirion [i͡oˈɟu:liri͡on]
n. 3ter. autumn[87], fall ( < aorist participle of iosrūljagon + -ion.)
Iosrūlirion kesīr ilza. — Autumn is here.
  • iosrūljagon [i͡osˈruːʎagon], iojūljagon [i͡oˈɟu:ʎagon]
v. C-fin. to cool, to become cool, to become cold, to cool off, to cool down ( < iosre + -ūljagon.)
  • iotāpagon [i͡oˈtaːpagon]
perfect: iotāptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to think of, to think about, to suspect ( < i- + otāpagon.)
  • iotāptegon [i͡oˈtaːptegon]
perfect: iotāptetan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to respect; to consider (+ hae + loc.), to take into account; to consider the feelings of; to make plans taking into account the existence or importance of... ( < eventative of iotāpagon.)
  • iotāptenon [i͡oˈtaːptenon]
n. 3ter. respect, consideration ( < iotāptegon + -non)
  • iotāptenoso [i͡otaːpteˈnoso]
adv. respectfully, with respect (inst. of iotāptenon)
  • ipradagon [ipraˈdagon]
perfect: iprattan[88]
v. C-fin. to eat (In origin the applicative of pradagon, a verb in any case not related to eating. It supplanted kisagon as the word for to eat. )[89]
Valar Ipradis... Valar Ipradiks — All Men Must Eat... All Men Must Be Eaten.[90]
  • iqrinumbagon [iqriˈnumbagon]
perfect: iqrinumptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to antagonize ( < i- + qrinumbagon)
  • irūdir [iˈruːdir]
n. 5aq. tax, collection, tithe (type II substantive of the passive perfect participle of irughagon; lit. "given".)
  • irūdy [iˈruːdy]
n. 2lun. gift, present ( < irughagon.)
Va ñellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oño irudy. — Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.
Lo zȳhyz zaldrīzesse Āeksiō Ōñō irudy Daenerot issi, sepār Daenerys Āeksiō irudy riñarta zȳhot issa. — Just as her dragons are a gift from the Lord of Light to Daenerys, so then is Daenerys a gift from the Lord to her children.[12]
  • irughagon [iruˈɣagon]
perfect: irūdan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to give, to offer, to present, to release to, to abandon to usually used with third person objects, otherwise see tepagon ( < i- + rughagon, lit. to drop to).
  • issaros [ˈissaros]
n. 3sol. person, being, human, human being, individual (prob. subst. pres.part. of sagon, lit. being.)
  • issarys [ˈissarys]
n. 2sol. existence in the generic sense e.g. a rock exists even if it isn't alive ( < sagon + -arys.)
  • itatagon [itaˈtagon]
perfect: itetan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to finish with, to be finished with, to be done with ( < i- + tatagon)
  • ivestragon [iˈvestragon]
perfect: ivestretan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to tell, to say to ( < i- + vestragon.)
  • ivīlībagon [iviːˈliːbagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < i- + vīlībagon to fight.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[83]
  • izūgagon [iˈzuːgagon]
perfect: izūgdan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fear
Ñuhī zaldrīzī izūgilā. — You will fear my dragons.
  • izula [iˈzula] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I four
  • izulēpsa [izuˈleːpsa] indec.
num. forty
  • izulīblie [izuˈliːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fortieth
  • izunnie [iˈzunni͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fourth

J

  • jaedos [ˈɟaɛ̯dos]
n. 3sol. summer[91]
  • Jaedria [ˈɟaɛ̯dri͡a]
prop. n. 1aq°. the Lands of Summer, the Summer Isles usage unclear: it is not known wether this name is to be put in the the singular, plural, or even collective ( < jaedos + -ria.)
  • jaehio [ˈɟaɛ̯hi͡o]
n. 3lun goddess (female deity) ( < jaeh- + -io.)
  • jaelagon [ˈɟaɛ̯lagon]
perfect: jeldan
v. C-fin. to want, to wish, to wish, to opt, to hope (for)
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • jāelagon [ˈɟaːɛ̯lagon]
perfect: jāeltan
v. Insv. C-fin. to store, to house (when an animate subject is used without an inanimate possessee, the subject is put in the genitive, as this is an instrumental passive) ( < z- + rāelagon)
  • jaelarys [ˈɟaɛ̯larys]
n. 2sol. hope ( < jaelagon + -arys)
  • jaes [ɟaɛ̯s] jaeh-
n. 3sol god, deity (male or female)[92]
Jaehossi Uēpossi Arlȳssī. — By the Old Gods and the New.
Jaehossas sȳris sātās — Gods be good![82]
  • jagon [ˈɟagon]
perfect: istan
v. irreg. to go.
Sesīr īlot jagon! — Now let us go![93]
  • jāha [ˈɟaːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I its, his, her
  • jāhon [ˈɟaːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. its, his, hers
  • jakegon [ɟaˈkegon]
perfect: jaketan
v. Insv. V-fin. to contribute, to accompany, to add to (non-volitional subject; d/o [dat.]), ( < z- + rakegon.)
  • jāla [ˈɟaːla]
refl. 1lun. itself, himself, herself
  • jaos [ɟaɔ̯s] jaoh-
n. 3sol. dog
Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi. — The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[65]
  • Jaqen [ˈɟaqen]
prop. n. 6pauc. Jaqen (cf. jaqiarzir.)
Jaqen hen Lorathī iksos daor. — Jaqen is not from Lorath.
  • jaqiarza [ɟaˈqi͡arza]
adj. I glorious (Aorist passive participle of unknown verb *jaqagon, perhaps from z- + raqagon.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[83]
  • jaqiarzir [ɟaˈqi͡arzir]
n. 5aq. glory (Type 2 substantive of jaqiarza.)
Aōhor jaqiarzir ivīlībin imorghūlīn, jaqiarzus Dārȳs. — I fight and die for your glory, O glorious Queen.[83]
  • jazdan [ˈɟazdan]
n. 6for.⊙° harpy ( < AV jazdan < Ghiscari )[94]
  • jēda [ˈɟeːda]
n. 1lun. season, time, cycle
  • jēdar [ˈɟeːdar]
n. 1aq. sky (cf. jēda time and jēdar year. Possibly originally a collective, like lentor, see also ēbrion.)
col. jēdrar sky, the skies, the heavens, heaven
  • jēdar [ˈɟeːdar]
n. 6col.1aq°. year (col. of jēda time.)
Biarior Arlior Jēdari! — Happy New Year!
  • jehākogon [ɟeˈhaːkogon]
perfect: jehākotan
v. V-fin. to cheer, to cheer up, to brighten the mood of s/o →loc. ( < root *jeh-~bright + -ākogon, cf. below ↓.)
  • jehar [ˈɟehar]
n. 1aq. emerald, malachite ( < *jeh-)
  • jehikagon [ɟehiˈkagon]
perfect: jehittan
v. C-fin. to shine; to shine on, illuminate →acc. something ( < *jeh- + -ikagon)
Āeksios, aōhos ōñoso īlōn jehikās. — Lord, cast your light upon us[24]
  • jehikarȳ [ɟehiˈkaryː]
postp.→gen. in the presence of (loc. of jehikarys.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[47]
  • jehikarys [ɟehiˈkarys]
n. 2sol. radiance, glow, halo; presence, bearing, countenance ( < jehikagon + -arys.)
  • jēlēbagon [ɟeːˈleːbagon]
v. C-fin. to blow, to gust of wind or of air out of one's mouth (from a root *jēl-, seen in jelmio etc., + -ēbagon.)
  • jelmāzma [ɟelˈmaːzma]
n. 1lun. storm, violent wind. Gen. Jelmāzmo Stormborn. ( < jelmio + -āzma.)
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • jelmāzmar [ɟelˈmaːzmar] ]
n. 6col.1lun. storms, storm, bad weather, violent weather, storm season ( < collective of jelmāzma.)
  • jelmio [ˈɟelmi͡o]
n. 3lun. wind (cf. jēlēbagon.)
  • jelmior [ˈɟelmi͡or]
n. 6col. wind, winds collectively or figuratively[95]; weather[91]
Udra jelmior issi. — Words are wind.
  • jelmōñe [jelˈmoːɲe] -or
adj. III. northern ( < jelmor + -ōñe.)[96]
  • jelmor [ˈɟelmor] jēmbr-
n. 3aq. north (related to jelmio.)[96]
Jelmor rūnis. — The North remembers[97]
  • jemagon [ɟeˈmagon]
perfect: jentan
v. C-fin. to lead, to guide →acc. someone; →loc. from some place; →dat. to some place; if confusion is possible, use the prepositions hen and va; daoriot jemas it doesn't matter, lit. it leads nowhere
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • jeme [ˈɟeme]
pers.pron. you (plur.).
  • jemēbagon [ɟeˈmeːbagon]
perfect: jemēptan
v. C-fin. to reign, to govern, to rule over, to lead in the political sense ( < jemagon+ -ēbagon).
Bōsirī zirys jemēbagon. — Long may she reign.
  • jemēla [ɟeˈmeːla]
refl. 1lun. you, you all, yourselves
  • jenenka [ɟeˈneŋka]
adj. I made of glass, glass, glassy (contains -enka.)[98]
  • jenigon [ɟeˈnigon]
perfect: jenitan
v. V-fin. to touch, to abut; to bother[85] with inanimate subjects ( < z- + renigon).
Se iōrves yne dōrī jenitis. — The cold never bothered me.
  • jēnqa [ˈɟeːɴqa] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I eight
  • jēnqelie [ˈɟeːɴqeli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III eighth
  • jēnqēpsa [ɟeːɴˈqeːpsa] indec.
num. eighty
  • jēnqīblie [ɟeːɴˈqiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III eightieth
  • jentegon [ˈɟentegon]
v. V-fin. to command, to lead in the sense of leading an army ( < eventative of jemagon.)
  • jention [ˈɟenti͡on]
n. 3ter. leadership. ( < jemagon.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • jentys [ˈɟentys]
n. 2sol. leader, ruler, commander. ( < jemagon.)
Jentys Dovaogēdyro syt iksā. — You are the leader of the Unsullied.
  • jenys [ˈɟenys]
n. 2sol. glass coll. jenyr glass the substance
  • jepagon see epagon.
  • jeson [ˈɟeson]
n. 3ter. dust, powder
  • jesuragon [ɟesuˈragon]
perfect: jesurtan
v. C-fin. to powder, to dust, to sprinkle with powder or dust, to pour dust or powder on with s/t →ins. ( < jeson + -uragon)
  • jeva [ˈɟeva] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I your (pl.)
  • jevon [ˈɟevon]
poss.pron. 3ter. yours (pl.)
  • jikagon [ɟiˈkagon]
perfect: jittan
v. C-fin. to send, to send off, to put on something that doesn't naturally take whatever is being put e.g. putting a book on a table, not putting a shirt on a torso (prob. jagon + -kagon.)
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
Āeksio Oño jemot Muñe Zaldrīzoti jittas. — The Lord of Light sent the Mother of Dragons to you.[11]
  • jiōragon [ˈɟi͡oːragon]
perfect: jiōrtan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to accept, to receive, to welcome; to take in, to take on; to bring ( < i- + iōragon to stand)[99]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
with va →dat. to welcome to...
Va Mīrīnot jemī jiōran. — Welcome to Meereen.
in the imperfect passive to be welcome.
Kesīr drējī jiorilaks. — You are very welcome here.[10]
  • jiōrion [ˈɟi͡oːri͡on]
n. 3ter. reception hall, reception area, receiving room, audience chamber ( < jiōragon + -ion)
  • jiōrnon [ˈɟi͡oːrnon]
n. 3ter. a welcome in acc. pl. excl. welcome! ( < jiōragon + -non.)
  • jogeltigon [ɟoˈgeltigon]
perfect: jogeltitan
v. V-fin. to silence, to attenuate, to soften, to dampen the sound of something, or a force akin to sound (prob. contains jo-.)
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
  • johegagon [ɟoheˈgagon]
v. C-fin. to continue to slaughter ( < jo- + *hegagon to slaughter.)
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • jokorigon [ɟokoˈrigon]
perfect: jokoristan
v. irreg. to explore, to investigate (conjugates like jagon: jokorjos, jokorīles, jokoristas)
  • jollōragon [ɟolˈloːragon]
perfect: jollōrtan
v. C-fin. to study, to investigate →dat. something[100] ( < jor- + lōragon to drill, to bore.)[100]
Issarori jollōris lua riña. — A girl who studies people.[101]
  • jollōriros [ɟolˈloːriros]
n. 3sol. student (subs. aor. part. of jollōragon.)
  • jomīsagon [ɟoˈmiːsagon]
perfect: jomīstan
v. C-fin.. to wear →inst. equipment, armor or footwear →acc. on a body part ( < jo- + mīsagon, more specific than dīnagon.)
Bonys azantys geltose jomīsos daor. — That knight is not wearing a helmet.
  • jomōzugon [ɟoˈmoːzugon]
v. V-fin. to continue to get drunk ( < jo- + mōzugon to drink.)
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • jonevegon [ɟoneˈvegon]
perfect: jonevetan
v. V-fin. to wear, to bear, to port, to sport as in wear ( < jo- + nevegon)
Vala mērī vellaros ziksannā joneves. — The man is wearing only pants and a hat.
  • jorarghugon [ɟoˈrarɣugon]
perfect: jorarghutan
v. V-fin. to pursue, to chase after, to seek ( < jor- + arghugon)
  • jorepagon [ɟoreˈpagon]
perfect: joreptan
v. C-fin. to pray (< jor- + epagon.)
Jaehot avy iderēbās jorepās. — Pick a god and pray.[77]
→gen. to pray to, to beg
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[66]
  • jorepnon [ɟoˈrepnon]
n. 3ter. prayer, begging ( < jorepagon + -non.)
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • jorhakoɡon [ɟor̥akoɡon][102]
v. V-fin. to wring ondossa jorhakogon to wring one's hands ( < jor- + hakogon to pull)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[11]
  • jorilagon [ɟoriˈlagon]
perfect: joriltan
v. C-fin. to rest, to nap, to take a nap ( < jor- + ilagon)
  • jorrāelagon [ɟorˈraːɛ̯lagon]
perfect: jorrāeltan
v. C-fin. to hold dear, to love, to cherish, to care for, to revere; to need[103]( < jo- + rāelagon.)
Muñus jorrāeliarzus: Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — Dearest Mother: So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • jorrāeliarza [ɟorraːɛ̯ˈli͡arza]
adj. I dear, beloved ( < aorist passive participle of jorrāelagon.)
  • jovēnnio [ɟoˈveːnni͡o]
n. 3lun. manager, politician (cf. jovēnnon, joverdagon.)
  • jovēnnon [ɟoˈveːnnon]
n. 3ter. managing, governing, politics (cf. jovēnnio, joverdagon.)
  • joverdagon [ɟoˈverdagon]
perfect: jovēttan
v. C-fin. to manage, to govern ( < jo- + verdagon.)
  • jōzigon [ˈɟoːzigon]
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to be proud of ( < j- + hōzigon)
  • judligon [ɟuˈdligon]
perfect: judlitan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to respond to, to answer (s/o), to reply to ( < j- + udligon)
  • judlio [ˈɟudli͡o]
n. 3lun. archon ( < judligon + -io)
  • jūlor [ˈɟuːlor]
n. 3aq. milk
Aōhor jūlor mōzun. — I am drinking your milk.
  • jūlrāzma [ɟuːlˈraːzma]
n. 1lun. cheese ( < jūlor + -āzma)
  • jumbagon [ˈɟumbagon]
perfect: jumptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to wait for, to await ( < i + umbagon.)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[11]
  • Junkae, Yunkai [ˈɟuŋkaɛ̯] gen. Junkaeho
prop. n. ter° Yunkai ( < Ghiscari)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • jurnegon [ˈɟurnegon]
perfect: jūndan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to look at, regard, to examine.[104][105] ( < i- + urnegon.)
  • jurnerys [ˈɟurnerys]
n. 2sol. lookout, watch, sentry ( < jurnegon + -rys)

K

  • kaerīnio [kaɛ̯ˈriːni͡o]
n. 3lun. savior (prob. *kaerīñagon + -io.)
Jemot kaerīnio jittas! — He has sent you a savior!
  • kaerīnnon [kaɛ̯ˈriːnnon]
n. 3ter. salvation (prob. *kaerīñagon + -non.)
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt? — Will you fight for your own salvation?[11]
  • kara [ˈkara]
adj. I great, magnificent, excellent
Daenerys karys jentys kessa. — Daenerys will be a great leader.
  • kasta [ˈkasta] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I blue, green
  • kēli [ˈkeːli]
n. 5lun. cat, pauc. kēlin herd of cats[65]; qelbōñe kēli river otter; embōñe kēli sea otter.
Kēlir morghūlis — All cats must die.[106]
  • keliemagon [keli͡eˈmagon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to cease ( < keligon + -emagon)
  • keligon [keˈligon]
perfect: kelitan
v. V-fin. to stop, to come to a stop, to cease Generally used intransitively, except in the perfect passive participle: keliton ended.
Dovaogēdys .... Kelītīs. — Unsullied .... Halt.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
  • kelinītsos [keliˈniːtsos]
n. 3sol. chance (contains -ītsos)
  • kēlio [ˈkeːli͡o]
n. 3lun. lion[30] ( < kēli + -io.)
Azantys kēlio rȳbas. — The knight hears the lion.
  • kēlītsos [keːˈliːtsos]
n. 3sol. little cat, kitty[107] ( < kēli + -ītsos.)
  • kempa [ˈkempa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I heavy
  • kepa [ˈkepa]
n. 1lun. father; father's brother, paternal uncle[48].
riño kepa — the girl's father[65]
Kepo Tubis Biare — Happy Father's Day[108]
  • keragon [keˈragon]
v. C-fin.? to cook
  • kesa [ˈkesa] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I this proximal, inanimate
Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. — You should not have these powers.
  • kesir [ˈkesir]
dem.pron. 5aq. this one proximal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entitites, "this place."
Kesir gīmī. — You know this
Kesir sepār īlza — This too shall pass[109]
kesrio syt because, for; on account of this.
  • kesīr [ˈkesiːr]
dem.pron. adv. here (loc. of kesir.)
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here.
  • keskydoso [keskyˈdoso]
adv. in the same way, likewise. ( < demonstrative kes- + -kydoso.)
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • kessa [ˈkessa]
intj. yes[4] (3s fut.act.ind. of sagon.[110])
  • kesy [ˈkesy]
dem.pron. 2lun. this one proximal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entities
  • khal [xal],[111] khali [ˈxali]
n. 6for Khal, title used for the leader of a Dothraki horde ( < Doth. khal.)
  • khalēsi [xaˈleːsi][112]
n. 6for Khaleesi, Dothraki queen, wife of a khal ( < Doth. khaleesi.)
Hen Parmenko Embāzmā Khalēsi — Khaleesi of the Great Grass Sea
  • kiōs [ki͡oːs]
n. 3sol.[20] spring[91]
  • kipagon [kiˈpagon][113]
v. to ride
Sesīr kipi. — And now we ride.[114]
  • kirimves [kiˈrimves]
n. 4sol. joy[115] ( < kirine + -ves.)
Naenio jēdoti kirimvose glaesātās! — May you live happily for many years!
  • kirimvose [kiˈrimvose], kirimvos [ki'rimvos]
exp. thank you. (Inst. of kirimves.)
kirimvose daor no thank you, kirimvose, sȳz iksan thanks I'm good.
  • kirine [kiˈrine] -ior
adj. II happy
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
  • kisagon [kiˈsagon]
v. obsolete word for to eat. Word persists in Classical High Valyrian, but it is considered coarse.
  • kisalbar [kiˈsalbar]
n. 1aq. feast, (contains -albar (cf. geralbar), presumably related to kisagon, an obsolete verb meaning "to eat".)
Lāroti syt kisalbar — A Feast for Crows[116]
  • kisikagon [kisiˈkagon]
perfect: kisittan
v. C-fin. to feed →acc. the recipient, →inst. the food. ( < kisagon + -ikagon.)
Zoklī havoso kisittoty daor. — We did not feed the wolves bread.
  • kivio [ˈkivi͡o]
n. 3lun. promise (possibly related to kivo)
Jemot kivio ñuhe tepan — I give you my word.
Kivio Dārilaros The Prince That Was Promised
Meri kīvio dārilaros ōz maghagon kostas. — Only the prince who was promised can bring the dawn.[10]
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[33]
  • kivo [ˈkivo]
n. 3lun. footprint
  • klios [kli͡os] klih-
n. 3sol fish
Kesy ñuhys klios issa. — This one is my squid.
  • kona [ˈkona] -ys, -on, -or
dem.pron. adj. I that distal, inanimate
  • konir [ˈkonir]
dem.pron. 5aq. that one distal, inanimate, for abstract or uncountable entities, that place.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
Konir sagon kostos daor. — That's not possible.
  • konīr [ˈkoniːr]
dem.pron. adv. there (loc. of konir.)
  • konor [ˈkonor]
n. 3aq. steam, vapor.[117]
  • kony [ˈkony]
dem.pron. 2lun. that one distal, inanimate, for concrete, countable entities
  • kōrī [ˈkoːriː]
adv. evilly, wickedly ( < kōz + )
  • korze [ˈkorze]
n. 4lun. longsword (cf. korzion, korzita.)
Korzoti Jelmāzma — A Storm of Swords[118]
  • korzion [ˈkorzi͡on]
n. 3ter. steel, especially, but not exclusively Valyrian steel (cf. korze.)
  • korzita [ˈkorzita]
adj. I firm, taut, stretched (Perh. from a verb *korzigon.)
Korzitī prūbrī jorrāelan. — I like the firm apples.
  • kostagon [ˈkostagon]
perfect: kōttan
v. C-fin. to be able, can, may.
Konir sagon kostos daor — That's not possible.
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
Vestragon koston daor. — I cannot say.
  • kostilus [ˈkostilus]
adv. perhaps; exp. please. (3s. fut.act.subj. of kostagon, lit. be it possible.)
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me.
  • kostio [ˈkosti͡o]
n. 3lun. hero, champion (< kostagon + -io.)
  • kostion [ˈkosti͡on]
n. 3ter. power, might, ability ( < kostagon + -ion.)
Sēteroti kostion vale ossȳngas. — The power of the magic spells frightens the man.
  • kostōba [kosˈtoːba]
adj. I powerful, strong, mighty ( < kostagon)
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
Kostōba Nēdenkā. — Strong and Brave.[119]
  • kostōbirī [kosˈtoːbiriː]
adv. powerfully, mightily, strongly ( < kostōba + -irī.)
Zokla kēlio kostōbirī angotas. — The wolf bit mightily into the lion.
  • kōz [koːz] kōrior
adj. II evil, wicked, bad
  • krēgo [ˈkreːgo]
n. 3lun. beet
Skoro syt kesī krēga bāngā? — Why are you baking these beets?
  • kris [kris] krih-
n. 3sol. leg
Averilloma vala azanti krihot ondurtas. — The drunk man grabbed the knight by the leg.
  • kropos [ˈkropos]
n. 3sol. dwarf, midget (cf. AV krubo)
  • kustikagon [kustiˈkagon]
perfect: kustittan
v. C-fin. to strengthen, enable, encourage ( < kostagon + -ikagon.)
Ābre kustittas lua vala raqiros issa. — The man who encouraged the woman is a friend.
  • kȳdrenka [kyːˈdreŋka]
adj. I silk (cf. kyno, contains -enka)
  • kydȳbagon [kyˈdyːbagon]
perfect: kydȳptan
v. C-fin. to measure (prob. contains -bagon.)
Kydȳptakson sȳz kesos. — It would be good to have been measured.[43]
  • kyndrir [ˈkyndrir]
n. 6col. intestines
  • kyno [ˈkyno]
n. 3lun. silkworm
  • kyrstenka [kyrsˈteŋka]
adj. I cloth (contains -enka)
  • kȳvagon [ˈkyːvagon]
v. V-fin. to plan
Kȳvaōks daor, ñuhus trēsys. — You were not planned, my son.
  • Kȳvakio [ˈkyːvaki͡o]
prop. n. Cyvasse, a Volantene board game, lit. strategist ( < kȳvagon + -kio.)[120]
  • kȳvanon [ˈkyːvanon]
n. 3ter. plan, strategy[63] ( < kȳvagon + -non.)

L

  • laehurlion [laɛ̯ˈhurli͡on]
n. 3ter face [121] (perh. laes + -uragon + -lion.)
  • laehurloqitta [laɛ̯hurloˈqitta]
adj. I faceless [121] ( < laehurlion face + -oqitta.)
Laehurloqitti Vali The Faceless Men.
  • laes [laɛ̯s] laeh-
n. 3sol. eye.
Laehossa yne ōdris. — My eyes hurt.
  • landir [ˈlandir]
n. 6col.5sol. footwear (collective of landis)
  • landis [ˈlandis]
n. 5sol. boot
  • Lāniso Vilinion [ˈlaːniso viˌlini͡on]
prop. n. 3ter. Lannisport
  • lanta [ˈlanta] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I two
...kesrio syt lanta iksan. — ...for now I am two.
  • lantēpsa [lanˈteːpsa] indec.
num. twenty
  • lantīblie [lanˈtiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III twentieth
  • lanty [ˈlanty]
n. 2lun. fox
  • laodiapos [ˈlaɔ̯di͡apos]
n. 3sol. mask (contains -iapos. Cf. laodigon, qrillaodigon.)
Laodiaposo jomīsagon avy sytilīptas. — You should have worn the mask.
  • laodigon [ˈlaɔ̯digon]
v. V-fin. to abduct, to steal[118]
  • lāra [ˈlaːra]
n. 1lun. crow[122]
  • lēda [ˈleːda] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I filled, full →gen. with..., of... (perf. part. of leghagon.)
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors[24]
  • leghagon [leˈɣagon]
perfect: lēdan
v. C-fin. to fill. →acc. the thing being filled, →gen. the substance with which it is filled, →inst. the instrument by which it is filled.
  • lēkia [ˈleːki͡a]
n. 1lun. older brother[123]; older male cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[48].
Viserys Daenero lēkia issa. — Viserys is Daenerys's brother.
  • lenton [ˈlenton]
n. 3ter. house as in a physical building in which one lives.
  • lentor [ˈlentor]
n. 3aq. house in the sense of family, noble line, dynasty. (originally a relexified collective of lenton, which was then reanalyzed into a 3aq. noun.)
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • lentor [ˈlentor]
n. 6col.3ter. village (col. of lenton.)
  • lentot [ˈlentot]
adj. invar. civil (dat./loc. of lenton, lit. at home)
  • lentun [ˈlentun]
n. 6pauc.3ter. community (relexified paucal of lenton.)
  • letagon [leˈtagon]
v. C-fin. to tie, to bind[39]
  • lilagon [liˈlagon]
v. C-fin. to dance
Valar lilis. — All men must dance.[124]
  • limagon [liˈmagon]
perfect: limatan[125]
v. V-fin. to cry
Valar limassis, hāedus. Valar limassis. — All men must cry, little sister. All men must cry.[126]
  • lioragon [li͡oˈragon]
perfect: liortan
v. C-fin. to sell
Dohaeriros istin, sindita liortā, qilonta ozbartā. — I was a slave once, bought and sold, scourged and branded.[10]
  • liorilaksa [li͡oriˈlaksa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I for sale (fut.pass.part. of lioragon.)
  • līr [liːr]
rel.pron. that which (is) for abstract or uncountable entitites (subst. of lua.)
Valo lurio vaoresan. — I prefer that which is a man‘s.
  • līrigon [ˈliːrigon]
v. V-fin. to smile
perfect: ilīritan
  • līrinon [ˈliːrinon]
n. 3ter? smile ( < līrigon to smile + -non.)
Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! — Walk with a smile in your heart!
  • litse [ˈlitse]
adj. II cute, pretty, fair, beautiful.
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • lo [lo]
conj. if (perh. related to lua?)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
lo sīr now that
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? — Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[11]
  • lodaor [ˈlodaɔ̯r]
conj. otherwise. (lo + daor.)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
  • lōgor [ˈloːgor]
n. 6col. ship (cf. loktys.)
  • loktys [ˈloktys]
n. 2sol. sailor. (cf. lōgor.)
  • lopor [ˈlopor]
n. 3aq? salt
  • lōragon [ˈloːragon]
v. C-fin. to drill, to bore Takes a dative object.[100]
  • Lorathi, Lorath [loˈraθi]
prop. n. 6for. Lorath
Jaqen hen Lorathī iksos daor. — Jaqen is not from Lorath.
  • lōrty [ˈloːrty]
n. 2lun. tunnel, hole ( < lōragon.)
Azantys lōrtot udekurza. — The knight is approaching the tunnel.
  • lōta [ˈloːta] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I solid[127]
  • lōtinty [loːˈtinty]
n. 2lun pie
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.[4]
  • lōtirī [ˈloːtiriː]
adv. steadfastly ( < lōta + -irī.)
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[12]
  • lōz [loːz] lōrior
adj. II wet, moist
  • lua [lu͡a]
rel.pron. adj.[128] who, which, that; agrees with head noun's gender, case & number(?) in main clause (from same source as lūs.)
  • lumie [ˈlumi͡e]
adj. III sick
  • lurugon [luˈrugon]
v. V-fin. to fold
  • lurvon [ˈlurvon]
n. 3ter. ankle (perh. < lurugon.)
  • lūs [luːs] lūh-
n. 3sol. type, kind (from same source as lua.)
  • [lyː]
rel.pron. one which (is) for concrete, countable entities (subst. of lua.)
Valo luo vaoresan. — I prefer one which is a man‘s.
  • lyka [ˈlyka]
adj. I quiet, silent[64] ( < lyks.)
Sȳndroso lykāpa… — Quiet as a shadow…
  • lykāpsirī [lyˈkaːpsiriː]
adv. idly ( < *lykāpsa + -irī, presumably ultimately derived from lyka.)
Ondossa jorhakēlāt, lykāpsirī Zaldrīzoti Muño amāzinon jumbari? — Will you wring your hands, while you wait idly for the Mother of Dragons to return?[11]
  • lykemagon [lykeˈmagon]
perfect: lykēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to silence, to calm (< lyka + emagon)
Aōle lykemās. — Be quiet.
  • lykirī [lyˈkiriː]
adv. quietly, silently, calmly ( < lyka + -irī)
  • lyks [lyks]
n.3sol. peace [129] (cf. lyka.)
lyks mazverdagon to bring peace
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[10]
  • Lȳs [lyːs] lyv-
prop. n. 3sol. Lys
Lyvo vali ābrī gevī laehossa ēzi. — The men and women have beautiful eyes.
Zān hen Lyvot ābre ūndan. — Yesterday I saw a woman from Lys.

M

  • maegi [ˈmaɛ̯gi]
n. 5lun. wise-woman, witch (original language uncertain, but declension class suggests a Valyrian origin.[130] Root meaning may be wise.)[131]
  • maghagon [maˈɣagon]
v. C-fin. to bring, to carry
Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. Iderennon maghan. — I do not bring you commands. I bring you a choice.
  • majaqagon [maɟaˈqagon]
perfect: majattan
v. C-fin. to admire ( < maz- + raqagon.)
  • mālor [ˈmaːlor]
n. 3aq. rice (DJP supposes that the Valyrians cultivated it.)
  • manaeragon [maˈnaɛ̯ragon]
v. C-fin. to raise, →acc: to celebrate[132], biarvī manaeragon to celebrate (good fortune)[132].
Yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — But soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • manda [ˈmanda]
adj. I considerate, kind, courteous
  • mandia [ˈmandi͡a]
n. 1lun. older sister[133]; older female cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[48].
  • mandirī [ˈmandiriː]
adv. courteously, kindly, deferentially ( < manda + -irī)
  • massa [ˈmassa]
n. 1lun bat. [134]
  • massigon [ˈmassigon]
perfect: massitan
v. V-fin. to happen (perh. maz- + sigon, aorist of sagon, to come to be.)
"Skorion massitas?" "Qringōntan." — "What happened?" "I failed."
  • massinon [ˈmassinon]
n. 3ter. occurrence ( < massigon + -non, cf. AV másino question)
  • massirys [ˈmassirys]
n. 2sol. present as in the present tense, or the present times ( < massigon + -rys)
  • mazemagon [mazeˈmagon]
perfect: mazēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.). to take, to get, to obtain, to gain (lit. come to have, < maz- + emagon)
  • māzigon [ˈmaːzigon]
perfect: mastan
v. V-fin. to come, to arrive
  • māzīlare [maːˈziːlare]
adj. II future, coming, to come, soon to be, one day ( < future participle of māzigon)
  • māzīlarion [maːˈziːlari͡on]
n. 3ter. future, the future, that which is to come ( < māzīlare + -ion)
Hen māzīlariot māzī. — We come from the future.[135]
  • mazilībagon [maziˈliːbagon]
perfect: mazilīptan
v. C-fin. to lie down, to go to sleep; to set (of the sun)[136] (lit. come to lie < maz- + ilībagon, < ilagon to lie (down) + -ībagon.)
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[57]
  • maziōragon [maˈzi͡oːragon]
perfect: maziōrtan
v. C-fin. to stand up (lit. come to stand < maz- + iōragon)
  • mazōregon [maˈzoːregon]
perfect: mazōretan
v. V-fin. to accept, to take e.g. a present or gift (lit. come to hold < maz- + ōregon.)[99]
Belmurtī ivestrās kesĪr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
  • mazumbagon [maˈzumbagon]
{{HVperf|mazumptan}
v. C-fin. to settle, to settle down; to join up with a group →com. ( < maz- + umbagon, lit. to come to stay)
  • mazumbilla [mazumˈbilla]
n. 1aq°. nest, roost, in general, the area around the place one has settled in, so it can also be a word for one's home or room or work area ( < mazumbagon + -illa)
  • mazurnegon [maˈzurnegon]
perfect: mazūndan
v. V-fin. to catch sight of ( < maz- + urnegon, see also ūndegon)
  • mazverdagon [mazˈverdagon]
perfect: mazvēttan
v. C-fin. to create (lit. come to arrange, < maz- + verdagon.)
Valar mazvēttas luos belmossi zirȳle tolvȳs gaomoso iderennosō letis — All men bind themselves with chains that they have created, through every deed and decision.[137]
Īlōn pryjassis līr īlōn mazverdis. — What destroys us, creates us.[138]
lyks mazverdagon to bring peace
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[10]
  • mēdon [ˈmeːdon]
n. 3ter. metal (generic term)
  • mele [ˈmele]-ior
adj. II red, reddish, red-orange, dark orange, dark brown
Mele Voktys Red Priest i.e. a cleric of the Lord of Light.
Meli Voktyssy Mīrīnī lyks mazverdagon beldis. — The Red Priests helped bring peace to Meereen.[10]
  • Melisandre [meliˈsandre]
prop. n. 4lun. Melisandre (possibly of Asshai'i origin, but cf. mele.)
  • melvar [ˈmelvar]
n. 1aq. pear tree (cf. melvo)
  • melvo [ˈmelvo]
n. 3lun. pear
Ñuha muña melvo nektos. — My mother is slicing a pear.
  • memēbagon [meˈmeːbagon]
perfect: memēptan
v. C-fin. to march. (-ēbagon formation off of a root *mem-.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
  • mentyn [ˈmentyn]
n. 6pauc.2sol. battalion, squad, squadron, phalanx (relexicalized paucal of mentys; military term)
  • mentyr [ˈmentyr]
n. 6col.2sol. army
  • mentys [ˈmentys]
n. 2sol soldier (common root with memēbagon)
Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! — Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!
col. mentyr
Mentyri idañe jevi ivestrilātās keskydoso gaomagon. — You shall tell your fellow soldiers to do likewise.
  • mēny [ˈmeːny]
n. 2lun. body
Ābra mīsvoso zȳhe mēni jomīsas. — The woman is wearing armor on her body.
  • Merakses[139] [meˈrakses]
prop. n. 4sol. Meraxes, one of the dragons used in Aegon's invasion of Westeros.
  • merbugon [ˈmerbugon]
perfect: merbutan
v. V-fin. to hunger, to be hungry →inst. for something.
Merbun. — I'm hungry.[65]
  • mēre [ˈmeːre] -ior
num. adj. II one, sole, only
  • mērī [ˈmeːriː]
adv. only, alone, solely, exclusively ( < mēre + .)
Dāerves jevys tepagon yne sytilībos daor. Jemēle mērī sytilības. — Your freedom is not mine to give. It belongs to you and you alone.
  • mēriot [ˈmeːri͡ot]
adv. once, one time ( < mēre.)
Mērī mēriot ziry vūjitan! — I only kissed her once!
  • mērpa [ˈmeːrpa]
adj. I lonely, alone, single (equative of mēre)
  • mhysa [ˈmysa]
n. 1lun., or n. 6for.[140] the Ghiscari word for mother, widely used in Slaver's Bay. One of Daenerys Targarien's titles. ( < AV mysa < Ghiscari mhysa.)
  • mība [ˈmiːba] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I short physically and temporally.
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
  • mījāelagon [miːˈɟaːɛ̯lagon]
perfect: mījāeltan
v. C-fin. to pawn, to accept as a pledge, to accept as pawned (the subject is the one who agrees to lend money for a pawned good, and it is rendered in the genitive; the object is the pawned good. ( < mī- + jāelagon)
  • mījāelion [miːˈɟaːɛ̯li͡on]
n. 3ter. pawnshop ( < mījāelagon + -ion)
  • mijegon [miˈɟegon]
perfect: mijetan
v. V-fin. to lack, be without, be apart from. →inst.
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
  • Mīrīn [ˈmiːriːn]
prop. n. 6pauc.5 or 6for. Meereen
Mīrīno Dāria — Queen of Meereen
  • mirre [ˈmirre] -ior
adj. II any This word has many uses, corresponding almost exactly to those of the English equivalent any; some.
In the sense of all:
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
in the sense of whatever:
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
as opposed to none:
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
with a negative:
Jomōzussis lua vala mirros ēngoso ȳdrassigon kostilos daor. — A man who keeps getting drunk will not be able to speak any language[141]
In the sense of some:
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • mirrī [ˈmirriː]
adv. a bit, somwhat ( < mirre + .)
  • mirriot [ˈmirri͡ot]
indef.pron. somewhere/anywhere ( < mirre.)
Kesīr mirriot dēmā? — Are you sitting anywhere here?
  • mirros [ˈmirros]
indef.pron. 3sol something,[142] anything? (substantive of mirre.)
Ynot mirros epās! — Ask me something![59]
pauc. mirrun indef.pron. some, some people.
Mirrun mōrqitto bantiot sikiks. — Some are born to endless night.[143]
coll. mirror indef.pron. whatever
Ynot mirrori tepās. — Give me whatever.
  • mirtys [ˈmirtys]
indef.pron. 2sol. Someone, anyone (< mirre + -tys)
Tolvys mirtys issa. — Everybody is someone.
  • mīsagon [ˈmiːsagon]
perfect: mīstan
v. C-fin.. to defend, to protect. →acc. of the thing protected [144]
  • mīsio [ˈmiːsi͡o]
n. 3lun. protector[145] ( < mīsagon + -io.)
Riñītsoti mīsio. — Protector of little girls.
  • mīsītsor [miːˈsiːtsor]
n. 6col.3sol. clothes, clothing (collective of mīsītsos.)
  • mīsvos [ˈmiːsvos]
n. 3sol. armor ( < mīsagon + -vos.)
Ñuhos mīsvoso jomīsā? — Are you wearing my armor?
  • mittys [ˈmittys]
n. 2sol. fool
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
  • mīvojughagon [miːvoɟuˈɣagon]
v. C-fin. to forget; to misplace ( < mīv- + ojughagon to lose)
  • molry [ˈmolry]
n. 2lun. horn
  • morghe [ˈmorɣe]
adj. II dead
Ionos Sōnaro morghe iksos daor. — Jon Snow isn't dead.[146]
col. subst. morghor the dead
Bosys bantis amāzis, se morghor zijomy amāzis. — The long night is coming, and the dead come with it.[10]
  • morghon [ˈmorɣon]
n. 3ter. death
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • morghūlilare [morɣuːliˈlare] -ior
adj. II mortal[147] (future participle of morghūljagon.)
  • morghūljagon [morˈɣuːʎagon]
perfect: morghūltan
v. C-fin. to die ( < morghe + -ūljagon.)
of fire to burn out
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[66]
Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting.
  • mōris [ˈmoːris]
n. 5sol. end, conclusion; loc. or adv. mōrī at the end, finally; va moriot always[4] lit. to the end.
  • mōrqitta [moːrˈqitta]
adj. I endless[148], ceaseless ( < mōris end + -qitta.)
Mirrun mōrqitto bantiot sikiks. — Some are born to endless night.[143]
  • mōzugon [ˈmoːzugon]
v. V-fin. to drink
Aōhor jūlor mōzun. — I am drinking your milk.
  • mundagon [ˈmundagon]
v. to be miserable, to be sad
He hears the Stone Men in their misery… — mundari dorenki rybis…
Ñuha kēli byka mundas! — My little cat is sad!
  • munnon [ˈmunnon]
n. 3ter. sorrow (perh. mundagon + -non?)
  • muña [ˈmuɲa]
n. 1lun. mother; mother's sister, maternal aunt[48].
Muño ēngos mother tongue.
Muña Zaldrīzoti. — The Mother of Dragons.
Coll. muñar "parents."
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
  • Mȳr [myːr]
prop. n. 3aq. Myr
  • myrdys [ˈmyrdys]
n. 2sol. or 2lun. deer[64]
Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. — Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.

N

  • nābēmagon [naːˈbeːmagon]
perfect: nābēdan
v. C-fin. to unfasten, to unleash; to fire a siege engine ( < nā- + bēmagon, to fasten.)
  • nādīnagon [naːˈdiːnagon]
v. to remove ( < nā- + dīnagon)
Geltī aōhe nādīnās. — Remove your helmet.
  • naejītsos [naɛ̯ˈɟiːtsos]
n. 3sol. forehead ( < naejon + -ītsos.)
  • naejon [ˈnaɛ̯ɟon]
n. 3ter. front, torso
Zȳhon naejon kostōbon issa; zȳhon inkon daor. — His front is powerful, his back is not.
  • naejos [ˈnaɛ̯ɟos]
n. 3sol. breast, chest, top half of the torso (cf. naejon.)
  • naejot [ˈnaɛ̯ɟot]
adv. forward, in front, to the front (the locative or dative case of naejon.)
Dovaogēdys! Naejot memēbātās! — Unsullied! Forward march!
postp.→gen. in front of, before
  • naena [ˈnaɛ̯na] -ys, -on, -or
num. n. 1lun. many, multitude, horde (often used in the collective for a countless number, too high to count, cf. naenie.)
  • naenākogon [naɛ̯ˈnaːkogon]
perfect: naenākotan
v. V-fin. to multiply, to increase s/t →loc. ( < naena + -ākogon.)
  • naenie [ˈnaɛ̯ni͡e] -ior
adj. III many (cf. naena.)
  • nagegon [naˈgegon]
perfect: nagetan
v. V-fin. to sweat (cf. nager.)
Taoba nagetos daor. — The boy did not sweat.
  • nāgeltigon [naːˈgeltigon]
perfect: nāgeltitan
v. V-fin. to uncover, to reveal, to expose ( < nā- + geltigon.)
  • nager [ˈnager]
n. 4aq. sweat (cf. nagegon.)
  • nāgīdāves [naːgiːˈdaːves]
n. 4sol. Inequality[40]
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[41]
  • nājikagon [naːɟiˈkagon]
v. C-fin. to remove, to move (only s/t which doesn't naturally belong on or at the place from which it's being removed [e.g. a book from a table, not a shirt from a torso or a ring from a finger]) ( < nā- + jikagon.)
Ziry nājikātās! — Take him![149]
  • nākostōba [naːkosˈtoːba]
adj. I weak ( < nā- + kostōba.)
  • nākostōbāves [naːkostoːˈbaːves]
n. 4sol. weakness[150] (< nākostōba + -ves.)
Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. — Love is weakness.
  • nāmorghūlilare [naːmorɣuːliˈlare] -ior
adj. II immortal[147] ( < nā- + morghūljagon.)
  • nāmorghūlilaros [naːmorɣuːliˈlaros]
n. 3sol. immortal[147] (nominalized form of nāmorghūlilare.)
  • nāpāsiros [naːˈpaːsiros]
n. 3sol. unbeliever ( < nā- + pāsiros subst. aor. part. of pāsagon.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • nāpāstys [naːˈpaːstys]
n. 2sol. unbeliever ( < nā- + pāsagon + -tys)
Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?[11]
  • nāqopsir [ˈnaːqopsir]
n. 5aq. that which is easy, the basics (substantive of *nāqopsa easy < nā- + qopsa.)
  • nāvar [ˈnaːvar]
n. 1aq. lake
  • nēdenka [neːˈdeŋka]
adj. I brave ( < nēdys + -enka.)
Kostōba Nēdenkā. — Strong and Brave.[119]
  • nēdenkirī [neːˈdeŋkiriː]
adv. bravely ( < nēdenka + .)
  • nēdys [ˈneːdys]
n. 2sol brave person (substantivized form of *nēda brave.)
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • nehugon [neˈhugon]
v. V-fin. to leak → inst. of the substance leaked, e.g. ānogrosa nehugon to bleed
Insv. anehugon to leak with impersonal subjects.
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
  • nekēbagon [neˈkeːbagon]
v. C-fin. to carve
  • nekēpty [neˈkeːpty]
n. 2lun. idol (substantivized perfect participle from nekēbagon to carve; compare nektogon to cut, and the English expression graven image.)
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • nektogon [ˈnektogon]
perfect: nektotan
v. V-fin. to cut, to slice.
Ābra gerpī nektotas. — The woman cut the fruit.
  • *nerni, -y, -ys
n. 5lun./2lun./2sol. door
Nerni ōrēs! — Hold the door!
  • nevegon [neˈvegon]
perfect: nevetan
v. V-fin. to carry
Azantys taobe zenturliot nevetas. — The knight carried the boy to the inn.
  • ninkion [ˈniŋki͡on]
n. 3ter. plain, field
  • nopalbar [noˈpalbar]
n. 1aq. cave ( < nopon + -albar.)
  • nopāzma [noˈpaːzma]
n. 1lun hell[4] (< nopon + -āzma.)
Sīkudi nopāzmi! — Seven hells!
  • nopon [ˈnopon]
n. 3ter. hole, pit
  • Norvos [ˈnorvos]
prop. n. 3sol. Norvos
  • nūda [ˈnuːda]
adj. I grey (cf. nudha, perh. ñuqir.)
  • nūmāzma [nuːˈmaːzma]
n. 1lun. meaning, essence, the truth of it (probably nūmo + -āzma.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. — You quit, you mean.
  • nūmio [ˈnuːmi͡o]
n. 3lun. pearl[151] (cf. nūmo)
  • nūmo [ˈnuːmo]
n. 3lun. seed (cf. nūmio)
  • nuspes [ˈnuspes]
n. 4sol. cow, female head of cattle
  • nyke [ˈnyke]
pers.pron. I.
  • nykēla [nyˈkeːla]
refl. 1lun. myself
  • nȳmagon [ˈnyːmagon]
v. to call

Ñ

  • ñābranna [ɲaːˈbranna]
n. 1lun. father's younger sister's child, cousin by paternal aunt younger than father[48].
Iōnos ñuha ñābranna issa. — Jon is my cousin.
  • ñāmar [ˈɲaːmar] nābro
n. 1aq. father's younger sister, paternal aunt younger than father[48].
Rhaella aōhor ñāmar issa? — Is Rhaella your aunt?
  • ñāqa [ˈɲaːqa]
adj. I eastern.[152] [153]
Lo vēzos endiā sīmonus se ñāqot mazilībus. — When the sun rises in the west and sets in the east.[57]
  • ñāqes [ˈɲaːqes]
n. 4sol. morning, but can also refer to the dawn.[154][155] ( < ñāqa.)
  • ñellyr [ˈɲellyr]
n. 6col.2?. skin, flesh as a general substance?
va ñellyrty perzys fire made flesh
Va ñellyrty perzys zȳhyz zaldrīzesse issi, Āeksio Oño irudy. — Her dragons are fire made flesh, a gift from the Lord of Light.
  • *ñelly, -ys
n. 2lun./2sol. skin, flesh as a specific entity?
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • ñepegon [ɲeˈpegon]
v. V-fin. to sew
  • ñōghe [ˈɲoːɣe]
n. 4lun. arm
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • ñōghoqitta [ɲoːɣoˈqitta]
adj. I armless ( < ñōghe + -oqitta.)
ñoghoqitta rīza — armless lizard[58]
  • ñōghybon [ˈɲoːɣybon]
n. 3ter. elbow ( < ñōghe + ybon.)
Ñuhon ñōghybon renigon daor, mittys! — Don't touch my elbow, fool!
  • ñombes [ˈɲombes]
n. 4sol.[20] elephant[156]
  • ñoves [ˈɲoves]
n. 4sol. chicken
  • ñuha [ˈɲuha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I my
  • ñuhon [ˈɲuhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. mine
  • ñuhoso [ɲuˈhoso]
adv. in my way, as I wish (ins. of ñuha.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • ñuqir [ˈɲuqir]
n. 5aq. ash, ashes
Hen sȳndrorro, ōños. Hen ñuqīr, perzys. Hen morghot, glaeson. — From darkness, light. From ashes, fire. From death, life.[66]

O

  • obar [ˈobar]
n. 1aq. curve
  • obūljagon [oˈbuːʎagon]
v. C-fin. to bend [157]
reflexive to bend the knee ( < *ob- seen in obar curve + -ūljagon.)
Se morghon jāle obulilza. — And death itself will bend the knee.
  • obūljarion [oˈbuːʎari͡on]
n. 3ter. surrender (type II substantive of active present participle of obūljagon; lit. "bending (the knee)".)
Belmurtī ivestrās kesīr pōnte jiōrinna se pōjon obūljarion mazōrīnna. — Tell the slavers I will receive them here and accept their surrender.
  • ōdragon [ˈoːdragon]
v. C-fin. to hurt especially of body parts, with the person in the acc.
Laehossa yne ōdris. — My eyes hurt.
  • ōdres [ˈoːdres]
n. 4sol. pain; damage.[158] (cf. ōdragon.)
  • ōdrikagon [oːdriˈkagon]
v. C-fin.? "to harm." ( < ōdres + -ikagon.)
daorys ziry ōdrikilza. — no one will harm him.
  • ōdrio [ˈoːdri͡o]
n. 3lun. wound (from the same root as ōdres, but "different ... because it’s a specific pain, not a general sensation."[159])
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi... — Some old wounds never truly heal...
  • ōghar [ˈoːɣar]
n. 1aq.[20] hair
  • ohīlagon [oˈhiːlagon]
v. C-fin. to stab (poss. oz- + hīlagon.)
  • ohīlvos [oˈhiːlvos]
n. 3sol. dagger, knife ( < ohīlagon + -vos.)
Azantys ohīlvoso taobe idakos! — The knight is attacking the boy with a dagger!
  • oiro [oˈiro]
n. 3lun. fat
  • ojehikagon [oɟehiˈkagon]
perfect: ojehittan
v. C-fin. to bless. ( < oz- + jehikagon.)
  • ojenilla [oɟeˈnilla]
n. 1aq°. sex as in sexual intercourse ( < oz- + renigon + -illa; lit. "the result of intense touch".)
  • ojughagon [oɟuˈɣagon]
perfect: ojūdan[160]
v. C-fin. to lose[105], to misplace ( < oz- + rughagon.)
  • oktion [ˈokti͡on]
n. 3ter city
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • olvī [ˈolviː]
adv. a lot, profusely
Issa, olvī ziry jorrāelan. — Yes, I love him very much.
  • olvie [ˈolvi͡e] olvior
adj. III much, many
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • olvȳn [ˈolvyːn]
indef.pron. 6pauc.2sol much, many
Olvȳni zaldrīzī eman. — I have many dragons.
  • olzon [ˈolzon]
n. 3ter. amaranth[161]
  • ondor [ˈondor]
n. 6col.3sol. powers (relex. col. of ondos.)
Kesys ondor avy sytilībus daor. — You should not have these powers.
  • ondos [ˈondos]
n. 3sol. hand. For ondor and ondoso see the respective entries.
Jentys bykyz ondossa ēza. — The ruler has small hands.
  • ondoso [ˈondoso]
postp.→gen. by, at the hand of, used with passive verbs to mark the agent. (Inst. of ondos.)
Valo ondoso Aerys iderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for by the man.
  • onduragon [onduˈragon]
v. C-fin. to grasp, to take up, to grab, to seize, to obtain ( < ondos + -uragon)
Iā jemēla zȳhys perzī ondurilāt? — Or will you take up her flames yourselves?[11]
  • onjapos [ˈonɟapos]
n. 3sol. carrot
Anne onjapossa ipradas. — The horse is eating carrots.
  • ōños [ˈoːɲos]
n. 3sol. light
Roberti Dāri zȳhi nekēpti se Āeksiot Ōño jemagon. — Turn King Robert away from his idols and toward the Lord of Light.
  • ōrbar [ˈoːrbar]
n. 1aq.[20] smoke
  • ōregon [ˈoːregon]
v. V-fin. to hold
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • ospȳnagon [osˈpyːnagon]
v. C-fin. to squeeze (probably oz- + unknown verb *pȳnagon probably meaning to press .)
  • ossēnagon [osˈseːnagon]
v. C-fin. to kill, to slay. ( < oz- + sēnagon.)
Dovaogēdys! Āeksia ossēnātās, menti ossēnātās! — Unsullied! Slay the masters, slay the soldiers!
  • ossȳngagon[162] [osˈsyːŋgagon]
v. to terrify, terrorize (Etymology unknown but does not contain oz-[163], and is not primordially related to zūgagon[164].)
  • ossȳngnon [osˈsyːŋgnon][24]
n. 3ter. terror ( < ossȳngagon + -non.)
Kesrio syt bantis zōbrie issa se ossȳngnoti lēdys. — For the night is dark and full of terrors
  • otāpagon [oˈtaːpagon]
perfect: otāptan
v. C-fin. to think, to opine
Skoros otāpā? — What do you think?
  • ōtor [ˈoːtor]
n. 3aq. ram, male sheep.[27]
  • ovoño [oˈvoɲo]
n. 3lun. jasmine flower.[165]
  • ōz [oːz] on-
n. 3sol. dawn (perhaps distantly related to ōños?)[166]
Meri kīvio dārilaros ōz maghagon kostas. — Only the prince who was promised can bring the dawn.[10]
  • ozbaragon [ozbaˈragon]
perfect: ozbartan
v. C-fin. to brand (< oz- + baragon.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • ozdakonon [ozdaˈkonon]
n. 3ter. running away ( < oz- + dakogon + -non, by way of *ozdakogon presumably to run away, to flee .)
ozdakonot dīnagon put to flight, chase away.
Sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr ozdakonot ziry dīntis. — Those who love the darkness chased her away.[11]
  • ozepagon [ozeˈpagon]
perfect: ozeptan
v. C-fin. to demand
  • ozgūrogon [ozˈguːrogon]
v. V-fin. to capture ( < oz- + gūrogon)
  • ozgūroty [ozˈguːroty]
n. 2lun. prisoner, captive (substantivized participle of ozgūrogon to capture.)
Kisalbrot ozgūrotys jagon. — Let the prisoners go to the banquet.
  • ozmijegon [ozmiˈɟegon]
v. V-fin. to miss ( < oz- + mijegon.)
  • ozurnēbagon [ozurˈneːbagon]
v. C-fin. to watch over, to look after ( < oz- + urnēbagon.)
Tolyssy yne ozurnēbagon kostis. — The others can watch over me.[167]
  • ozzālagon [ozˈzaːlagon]
v. C-fin. to burn away ( < oz- + zālagon.)
Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them? "[11]

P

  • paerī [ˈpaɛ̯riː]
adv. slowly ( < paez + .)
Kēlia vale paerī iprattis. — The lions ate the man slowly.
  • paez [paɛ̯z]
adj. II slow.[168]
  • paghagon [paˈɣagon]
v. C-fin. breathe
  • paktot [ˈpaktot]
adv. right, to the right, rightward
postp.→gen. to the right of, to the side, beside
Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa. — Your enemy is beside you.
  • pālegon [ˈpaːlegon]
v. V-fin. to turn, to twist, to rotate
  • pālemio [ˈpaːlemi͡o]
n. 3lun. wrist
Riña zȳhi raqiros pālemiot ondurtas. — The girl grabbed her friend by the wrist.
  • pāletilla [paːleˈtilla]
n. 1aq°.[20] crown[169] ( < pālegon + -illa.)
  • pamagon [paˈmagon]
perfect: pamptan
v. C-fin. to rub
Taobo bartos ondot pamptan. — I rubbed the boy's head with his own hand.
  • pār [paːr]
pron. then, at that time
Ēlī prūbrī iprattan, pār averille mōzutan. — First I ate the apples, then I drank the wine.
  • parkliapos [ˈparkli͡apos]
n. 3sol. burger ( < parklon + -iapos.)
  • parklon [ˈparklon]
n. 3ter. meat
Kēlio parklon ipradas. — The lion is eating meat.
  • parklun [ˈparklun]
n. 6pauc.3ter. serving (paucal of parklon; lit. a few pieces of meat.)
  • parmon [ˈparmon]
n. 3ter. grass
  • pasābagon [paˈsaːbagon]
v. C-fin. to follow someone as in "be a follower of". [170]( < pāsagon + -ēbagon)
  • pāsābare [paːˈsaːbare]
adj. II faithful (present active participle of pasābagon)
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[12]
  • pāsagon [ˈpaːsagon]
perfect: pāstan
v. C-fin. to trust esp. in perf., believe esp. in imperf.[171]
Kepa zȳhe tale pāsiles. — The father believed his daughter.
  • pāstys [ˈpaːstys]
n. 2sol. citizen ( < pāsagon + -tys.)
  • pēko [ˈpeːko]
n. 3lun[20] olive
  • pelar [ˈpelar]
n. 1aq wave[172]
  • peldio [ˈpeldi͡o]
n. 3lun. snake, viper (possibly from a verb root *pel- meaning something like to wiggle, undulate, wave? Cf. pelar.)
Peldiō sȳndor. — The viper's shadow.[173]
  • pelōñe [peˈloːɲe]
adj. II coming from the waves (< pelar + -ōñe)[172]
  • pendagon [ˈpendagon]
v. V-fin. to wonder.
  • Pentos [ˈpentos]
prop. n. 3sol. Pentos
  • perzys [ˈperzys]
n. 2sol. fire, flame;[174] zīrtys perzys[175] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian; perzo bē ȳgha fireproof.
Perzys Ānogār. — Fire and Blood.
col. perzyr fire as a substance.
  • pikagon [piˈkagon]
perfect: piktan
v. C-fin. to follow, to walk after s/o. [176]
  • pikībagon [piˈkiːbagon]
perfect: pikīptan
v. C-fin. to read. ( < pikagon + -ībagon.)
Riña raqiroso pikīptas. — The girl read with a friend.
  • pilogon [piˈlogon]
perfect: pilotan
v. V-fin. to hold with the hands (not the arms.)
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās — Slay every man who holds a whip!
  • pirta [ˈpirta]
adj. III false (etymology unknown. Possibly derived from an obsolete verb *piragon to lie, but no such verb exists in the Classical language.)
  • pirtiapos [ˈpirti͡apos]
n. 3sol. joke (contains -iapos; cf. pirta, pirtir.) [177]
  • pirtir [ˈpirtir]
n. 5aq. falsehood, lie (subs. of pirta.)
Kostilus jevi āeksia yno bē pirtra jemot vestretis. — Your masters may have told you lies about me.
  • pogry [ˈpogry]
n. 2lun. nail, claw
  • pōja [ˈpoːɟa] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I their
  • pōjon [ˈpoːɟon]
poss.pron. 3ter. theirs
  • pōnta [ˈpoːnta]
pers.pron. they.
  • pōntāla [poːnˈtaːla]
refl. 1lun. themselves
  • pradagon [praˈdagon]
perfect: prattan
v. C-fin. to set, to begin (cf. ipradagon.)
Īlos pradagon? — Shall we begin?[178]
  • pragrion [ˈpragri͡on]
n. 3ter bark
  • pragron [ˈpragron]
n. 3ter. case, casing, casket
  • prūbres [ˈpruːbres]
n. 4sol apple[179]
Korzitī prūbrī jorrāelan. — I like the firm apples.
  • prūmia [ˈpruːmi͡a]
n. 1lun. heart.
Dārys issa vestris, se prūmio ñuho konir drējior issa. — They say he is a king and of my heart that is true.
Ñuho prūmiā iksā. — You are in my heart.[180]
  • pryjagon [pryˈɟagon]
perfect: pryjatan
v. V-fin. to destroy, to break;[181] strike off. Perf.pass.part. pryjata "destroyed."
Urnēt luo buzdaro tolvio belma pryjātās! — Strike the chains off every slave you see!
  • pryjatys [pryˈɟatys]
n. 2sol. destroyer, breaker ( < pryjagon + -tys.)
Belmo Pryjatys — Breaker of Chains
  • puatagon [pu͡aˈtagon]
perfect: puattan
v. to rot (reverse hypothesised through puatta and puatarys.)
  • puatarys [pu͡aˈtarys]
n. 2sol. mould ( < puatagon + -arys.)
  • puatta [ˈpu͡atta] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I rotten (perfect participle of puatagon.)
  • pūlbar [ˈpuːlbar]
n. 1aq. mucus
  • pungilla [puŋˈgilla]
n. 1aq°. nostril ( < pungos + -illa.)
  • pungos [ˈpuŋgos]
n. 3sol. nose
Skoriot aōhys pungos ilza, ñuhus talus? — Where is your nose, my daughter?
  • puñila [puˈɲila]
adj. I worn, weather beaten; of language proficiency rusty
  • purtagon [ˈpurtagon]
v. C-fin. to scratch
  • pyghagon [pyˈɣagon]
v. C-fin. to jump; to beat (of the heart)
perfect: pȳdan
...rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — ... with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • pykagon [pyˈkagon]
v. C-fin. to spit
  • pyrys [ˈpyrys]
num. 2sol. thousand[182]
col.ins. pyryrzy by the thousands
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.

Q

  • qablos [ˈqablos]
n. 3sol.[20] liver
  • qaedar [ˈqaɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. whale
Qaedar klios issa? Daor! — Is a whale a fish? No!
  • qana [ˈqana] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I sharp
  • qanemagon [qaneˈmagon]
perfect: qanēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to sharpen. ( < qana + -emagon.)
  • qantys [ˈqantys]
n. 2sol. crab (perhaps < qana + -tys.)
  • qapa [ˈqapa]
adj. I cold (differentiates from iosre, as dija from bāne.)
  • Qarthi [ˈqarθi], Qarth
prop. n. 6for. Qarth
Konor sēter hen Qarthī issa. — That spell is from Qarth.
  • qelbar [ˈqelbar]
n. 1aq. river.
  • qelbōñe [qelˈboːɲe]
adj. II that lives/comes from the river (< qelbar + -ōñe.)[183] qelbōñe kēli river otter.
  • Qelbria [ˈqelbri͡a]
prop. n. 1aq°. the Riverlands ( < qelbar + -ria.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
  • qeldlie [ˈqeldli͡e] -ior
adj. III yellow, golden-colored, light brown, light orange
Ondos Qeldlie — Goldenhand[184]
  • qēlītsos [qeːˈliːtsos]
n. 3sol. candle ( < qēlos + -ītsos, lit. app. little star.)
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[66]
  • qēlos [ˈqeːlos]
n. 3sol. star (original meaning may be torch: cf. qēlītsos.)
Vēzos qēlossās ñuho. — My sun and stars.[65]
Onqēlos Morning Star (At least as a translation for the name Danica, having the same meaning; < ōz + qēlos.)
  • qībōños [qiːˈboːɲos]
n. 3sol. cloak (possibly the substantivized form of an unattested adjective qībōñe, cf. -ōñe)
Qībōños eman. — I have a cloak.
  • qilōnagon [qiˈloːnagon]
perfect: qilontan
v. C-fin. to scourge, to chastise (cf. qilōny whip.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
Dohaeriros istin, sindita liortā, qilonta ozbartā. — I was a slave once, bought and sold, scourged and branded.[10]
  • qilōnarion [qiˈloːnari͡on]
n. 3ter punishment, chastisement (type II substantive of active present participle of qilōnagon; lit. "scourging/chastising".)
Qilōnario Geron. — Walk of Punishment.
  • qilōny [qiˈloːny]
n. 2lun. whip
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. — Slay every man who holds a whip.
  • qimos [ˈqimos]
n. 3sol. chin
  • qintir [ˈqintir]
n. 5aq. turtle
Ñuhor qintir jorrāelzi. — They love my turtle.
  • qīzy [ˈqiːzy]
n. 2lun. pillar, support, post
  • qlādīlla [qlaːˈdiːlla]
n. 1aq°. stripe, strip, ray, bar (or any other term that looks like a stripe) (contracted *qlāduilla < qlādugon + -illa.)
  • qlādīlluragon [qlaːdiːlluˈragon]
perfect: qlādīllurtan
v. C-fin.to stripe, to put stripes on ( < qlādīlla + -uragon.)
  • qlādugon [ˈqlaːdugon]
perfect: qlādutan
v. V-fin. to drag on the ground or behind one
Belmondo bantāzma bōsa jemī qlādīlusy botilat? — Will you let them drag you back into the long night of bondage?[11]
  • qogron [ˈqogron]
n. 3ter. row, range, line; rank (prob. in the military sense; see qogror below.), pl. qogra formation
Ābris, qogrossi jemēle verdātās! — Ladies, let's get in formation![72]
  • qogror [ˈqogror]
n. 6col.3ter. ranks, group, grouping (in rows); class, type, gender (relexicalized collective of qogron.)
Jenti jevi jemēle iderēbilātās, qogrondo jevo hēdrȳ — You will select your own leader, from amongst your own ranks.
vēzenkon qogror. — “solar class”.[75]
  • Qohor [ˈqohor] gen. Qorho
prop. n. 3aq. Qohor
Vargo hen Qorhot issa. — Vargo is from Qohor.
  • qopsa [ˈqopsa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I rigid, stiff; difficult, hard (in the sense of difficult)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • qrīdrolagon [qriːdroˈlagon]
perfect: qrīdroltan
v. C-fin. to mix, to mix up, to confuse, to mess up (s/t - with s/o else, use a standard conjunctive construction or use →com. with the second member) ( < qrin- + rholagon.)
  • qrīdronnon [qriːˈdronnon]
n. 3ter. confusion (< qrīdrolagon + -non.)
  • qrīdronnor [qriːˈdronnor]
n. 6col.3ter. chaos[73] (collective of qrīdronnon.)[185]
Qrīdronnor hepvos issa. — Chaos is a ladder.
  • qrīdropagon [qriːdroˈpagon]
perfect: qrīdropatan
v. V-fin. to be disgraced, to take a misstep, to make a faux-pas, to be lost, to be destroyed socially, figuratively to be lost[186] (< qrin- + ropagon , lit. to misfall.)
Lo inkot ūndion, qrīdropēnna. — If I look back, I am lost.
  • qrīdrughagon [qriːdruˈɣagon]
perfect: qrīdrūdan
v. C-fin. to give up, to abandon, to throw away, to discard, to leave behind, to jettison. ( < qrin- + rughagon, with the same n-deletion rule[187] seen in bianorbiādra.)
  • qrillaodigon [qrilˈlaɔ̯digon]
perfect: qrillāettan
v. V-fin.. to abduct, to rape, to violate ( < qrin- + laodigon.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • qrimbrōsta [qrimˈbroːsta]
adj. I cursed (passive perfect participle of qrimbrōzagon.)
  • qrimbrōzagon [qrimˈbroːzagon]
perfect: qrimbrōstan
v. C-fin. to curse in the arcane sense (lit. to name badly, < qrin- + brōzagon.)
  • qrimbrōzvos [qrimˈbroːzvos]
n. 3sol. curse ( < qrimbrōzagon + -vos.
  • qrimbughegon [qrimbuˈɣegon]
perfect: qrimbughetan
v. V-fin. to drown[160] ( < qrin- + bughegon.)
  • qrimpālegon [qrimˈpaːlegon]
perfect: qrimpāletan
v. V-fin. to betray, to double-cross (object can take hen or →dat. - or an oblique applicative can be used) ( < qrin- + pālegon.)
  • qrimpālekio [qrimˈpaːleki͡o]
n. 3lun. traitor, turncoat, double-crosser ( < qrimpālegon + -kio.)
  • qringaomagon [qriŋˈgaɔ̯magon]
perfect: qringōntan
v. C-fin. to fail, to make a mistake, to err; to sin. ( < qrin- + gaomagon.)
"Skorion massitas?" "Qringōntan." — "What happened?" "I failed."
Valar Qringaomis. — All men must fail.[188]
  • qringaomio [qriŋˈgaɔ̯mi͡o]
n. 3lun. evildoer ( < qringaomagon + -io.)[189]
  • qringaomnon [qriŋˈgaɔ̯mnon]
n. 3ter. sin, misdeed ( < qringaomagon + -non.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
hen pōjo qringaomnoti for their sins
Dohaerirossa hen pōjo belmondo daerēdas se hen pōjo qringaomnoti Āeksia īlinurtas. — She has freed the slaves from their chains and crucified the Masters for their sins.
  • qrīnio [ˈqriːni͡o]
n. 3lun. tyrant, dictator (contains qrin- + -io.)
  • qrinumbagon [qriˈnumbagon]
perfect: qrinumptan
v. C-fin. to stay beyond one’s welcome, to occupy →loc. ; to antagonize →dat. ( < qrin- + umbagon.)
  • qrinuntenka [qrinunˈteŋka]
adj. I hostile, villainous, antagonistic[190] ( < qrinuntys + -enka.)
  • qrinuntenkāves [qrinunteŋˈkaːves]
n. 4sol. antagonism[40] ( < qrinuntenka + -āves.)
Dobotēdāves. Nāgīdāves. Qrinuntenkāves. — Ignorance. Inequality. Antagonism.[41]
  • qrinuntys [qriˈnuntys]
n. 2sol. occupier, enemy, villain, foe (perh. < qrinumbagon + -tys.)
Jevys qrinuntys jemo paktot issa — Your enemy is beside you.
  • qryldes [ˈqryldes]
n. 4sol. male pig, boar
  • quba [ˈquba] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I low (physically, in status or quality); poor, bad, inferior; early (temporally)
qubirī [qu'biriː]
adv. badly, poorly ( < quba + -irī.)
Dārys azantī qubirī jemas. — The king is leading the soldiers poorly.
  • qubemagon [qubeˈmagon]
perfect: qubēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to lower ( < quba + -emagon.)
  • *qubor [ˈqubor]
n. 1aq/3aq. speculatively bad place or thing, badness
Qubroti jās! — Fuck off![191]
  • qulbes [ˈqulbes]
n. 4sol. chicken (female), hen
  • qumblie [ˈqumbli͡e]
adj. III thick
Qumblie geltī emā. — You have a thick helmet.
  • qupēgrie [quˈpeːgri͡e]
adj. III terrible ( < possibly the same root as in quba + -ēgrie.)
Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. — His Valyrian is terrible[11]
  • quptenka [qupˈteŋka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I vulgar, common, popular, uncivilized, pagan; Quptenkys Ēngos The Common Tongue; ( < quptys.)
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
  • quptyr [ˈquptyr]
n. 6col.2sol. rabble, mob, riffraff, lowlifes, uncivilized people, commoners (collective of quptys.)
  • quptys [ˈquptys]
n. 2sol. heathen, pagan, infidel ( < quba + -tys.)
Quptyssy pontālī johegzi se jomōzū. — The heathen continue to slaughter each other and you continue to get drunk
  • qurdon [ˈqurdon]
n. 3ter. table
  • qūvir [ˈquːvir]
n. 5aq. lamentation, grief, mourning (cf. qūvy.)
  • qūvrir [ˈquːvrir]
n. 6col.5aq. mourning, lamentation, grief (used when a mass of people are mourning, such as mourners at a funeral or when a nation grieves for a departed ruler) (collective of qūvir.)
  • qūvy [ˈquːvy]
n. 2lun. tear
  • qūvyn [ˈquːvyn]
n. 6pauc.2lun. a fit of tears (a sudden, short burst of tears that quickly disappears); cloudburst (a sudden violent rainstorm) (paucal of qūvy.)
  • qūvyr [ˈquːvyr]
n. 6col.2lun. sadness, sorrow (in general) (collective of qūvy.)
  • qȳbor [ˈqyːbor]
n. 3aq. mother's younger brother, maternal uncle younger than mother[48].
Ñurho qȳbro anni kostōbi issi. — My uncle's horses are powerful.
  • qȳbranna [qyːˈbranna]
n. 1lun. mother's younger brother's child, cousin by maternal uncle younger than mother[48].
Ñuha qȳbranna sȳz annī ēza. — My cousin has a good horse.

R

  • R'hllor, Rullor [rulˈlor][192]
prop. n. 6for.⊙° R'hllor, the Lord of Light ( < Asshai'i, rendered phonetically as it would be pronounced in High Valyrian.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
  • raedes [ˈraɛ̯des]
n. 4sol. scorpion
  • rāelagon [ˈraːɛ̯lagon]
perfect: rāeltan
v. C-fin. to maintain, to keep, to hold onto, to hold back, to retain in some place or state →loc.
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza. — He holds us safe.
  • rāenābagon [raːɛ̯ˈnaːbagon]
perfect: rāenāptan
v. C-fin. to clean, to wash s/t off of s/o →dat. ( < rāenagon + -ēbagon.)
  • rāenābion [raːɛ̯ˈnaːbi͡on]
n. 3ter. bathroom ( < rāenābagon + -ion; lit. "washing place".)
  • rāenagon [ˈraːɛ̯nagon]
perfect: rāentan
v. C-fin. to wipe, to brush s/t off of s/o →dat.
Dohaerirot ñuhe annī rāenagon sētan. — I made the servant brush my horse.
  • rāenion [ˈraːɛ̯ni͡on]
n. 3ter. shore, beach, strand (probably connected to rāenagon and rāenābagon, with the idea of the land that the sea washes.)
  • rakegon [raˈkegon]
perfect: raketan
v. V-fin. to participate, to take part , to have a hand in s/t →inf. or va, with s/o →dat.; to accompany s/o →dat. to somewhere → va
Astapor dāeremagon raketan. — I took part in freeing Astapor.
  • rakella [raˈkella]
n. 1aq°.experience (a specific experience) ( < rakegon + -illa.)
  • rakellar [raˈkellar]
n. 6col.1aq°. experience (cumulatively) (collective of rakella.)
  • rāpa [ˈraːpa]
adj. I soft
  • rāpemagon [raːpeˈmagon]
perfect: rāpēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to soften[193] s/t in the sense of making something soft ( < rāpa + -emagon.)
  • rāpūljagon [raːˈpuːʎagon]
perfect: rāpūltan
v. C-fin. to soften in the sense of becoming soft. (rāpa + -ūljagon.)
  • raqagon [raˈqagon]
perfect: rattan[194]
v. C-fin. to appreciate, to like, to love "lighter" than jorrāelagon,[195] to enjoy
Dohaeriakson raqan. — I like to be served.[43]
Avy jorrāelan. Avy raqan. — I love you. I love you.
Nuiōrkī sōnari raqō daor? — Are you enjoying winter in New York?[196]
  • raqiarzy [raˈqi͡arzy]
n. 2lun beloved[197] (nominalized aorist passive participle of raqagon.)
  • raqiros [raˈqiros]
n. 3sol. friend (relex. aor. part. of raqagon.)
Zūgagon daor, ñuhys raqiros. — Don’t be afraid, my friend.
  • raqnon [ˈraqnon]
n. 3ter. love[150], appreciation
Raqnon nākostōbāves issa. — Love is weakness.
  • rēbagon [ˈreːbagon]
perfect: rēptan
v. C-fin. to go through, to move through, to walk, to pass; to undergo[198] (contains -ēbagon.)
Prūmiā līrinoso rēbās! — Walk with a smile in your heart!
Ynot rēbagon. — Let me pass.
  • rēko [ˈreːko]
n. 3lun. rose
  • reks [reks]
n. 3sol. frog
  • relgos [ˈrelgos]
n. 3sol. mouth of a human.
Avera ñuhȳ relgot eman. — I have the grapes in my mouth.
  • remio [ˈremi͡o]
n. 3lun. gate, city gate (common root *re- with rēbagon.)
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • renigon [reˈnigon]
perfect: renitan
v. V-fin. to touch e.g. with the hand; for inanimate subjects, use the instrumental passive jenigon.
  • resagon [reˈsagon]
perfect: restan
v. C-fin. to lean, to list to one side, in the nautical sense.
  • Rhaegal [ˈr̥aɛ̯gal]
prop. n. 6for.lun[199] Rhaegal
  • rhaenagon [ˈr̥aɛ̯nagon]
perfect: rhēdan
v. C-fin. to meet; to find, to encounter, to discover
Riña Dovaogēdo muñe rhaenas. — The girl finds the Unsullied's mother.
to begin, to start (idiomatic usage: the object is an event, a season or a time period).
Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. — I begin my day with tea.[200]
  • rhakion [ˈr̥aki͡on]
n. 3ter. shack
  • rhēdegon [ˈr̥eːdegon]
perfect: rhēdetan
v. V-fin. to know a person, to be acquainted with (the eventative form of rhaenagon, to meet.)
Ābra kepe rhēdes lua vala raqiros issa. — The man whose father the woman knows is a friend.
  • rhēdessiarza [r̥eːdesˈsi͡arza]
adj. I renown, well-known, well thought of, universally recognised, noble (passive aorist participle of rhēdegon; lit. "who is -generally, universally- known".)
  • rhinka [ˈr̥iŋka]
adj. I (of a material or texture) rough, coarse; by extension unpleasant[201]
  • rholagon [r̥oˈlagon]
perfect: rholtan
v. C-fin. to mix[185], to mix up, to mix together, to blend (to convey that something mixes with something else, use either a standard conjunctive strategy, or put the second element in the comitative).
  • rhotton [ˈr̥otton]
n. 3ter. beard
  • rhovagon [r̥oˈvagon]
perfect: rōdan
v. C-fin. to shout, to bark, to make a frightful or ugly sound, to make a terrible noise (perh. onomatopoeic)
Jaohossa rhovis. Jaohossa rhovisi — The dogs are barking. Dogs bark.[65]
  • rhovio [ˈr̥ovi͡o]
n. 3lun. thunder, thunderclap, thunderstrike ( < rhovagon + -io.)
  • rhovior [ˈr̥ovi͡or]
n. 6col.3lun. thunder (more common when talking about the phenomenon in general, instead of rhovio.) (collective of rhovio.)
  • rhovnes [ˈr̥ovnes]
n. 4sol. auction ( < rhovagon + -nes.)
  • rhūqes [ˈr̥uːqes]
n. 4sol. dove, pigeon (onomatopoeic)
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.[4]
  • riāzma [ˈri͡aːzma]
n. 1lun. canyon (specifically) ( < rios + -āzma.)
  • rīgles [ˈriːgles]
n. 4sol. honor, distinction (poss. related to rijagon)
inst. rīglose with honor ued adverbially as an equivalent to it is an honor
Riglose Belmot Pryjatys rhaenan. — It is an honor to meet the Breaker of Chains.[10]
  • rijagon [riˈɟagon]
perfect: riddan
v. C-fin. to praise, to laud (cf. rijes.)
Dārys azanti rijas. — The king praises the soldier.[202]
  • rijes [ˈriɟes]
n. 4sol. praise, compliment (cf. rijagon.)
rijes aōt praise to you, poss. an expression for congratulations![203]
Rijes aōt, Papayus! — Praise to you, Papaya![34]
  • rijībagon [riˈɟiːbagon]
perfect: rijīptan
v. C-fin. to worship; to praise; to obey ( < rijagon + -ībagon.)
Aōhoso ziry rijībiā, se ñuhoso ziry rijībin. — You worship Him your way, and I'll worship Him mine.
  • rijībarys [riˈɟiːbarys]
n. 2sol. dependence ( < rijībagon + -arys.)
  • rijīblion [riˈɟiːbli͡on]
n. 3ter. temple, church, place of worship ( < rijībagon + -lion.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[47]
  • rijnor [ˈriɟnor]
n. 6col.3ter. praise ( col. of *rijnon < rijagon + -non.)
Rijnondi praise (to you) poss. an expression for congratulations[204]
Rijnondi, Donis! — Praise (to you), Don!
  • riña [ˈriɲa]
n. 1lun. girl, maiden; child
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn riñe dōre ōdrikātās. — slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.
coll. riñar children.
Lo zȳhyz zaldrīzesse Āeksiō Ōñō irudy Daenerot issi, sepār Daenerys Āeksiō irudy riñarta zȳhot issa. — Just as her dragons are a gift from the Lord of Light to Daenerys, so then is Daenerys a gift from the Lord to her children.[12]
  • riñītsos [riˈɲiːtsos]
n. 3sol. little child; little girl[205] (riña + -ītsos.)
  • rios [ri͡os] gen. riho
n. 3sol canyon, valley
Zaldrīzes rihot ilza! — There is a dragon in the valley!
  • ripo [ˈripo]
n. 3lun. core, pit of a fruit, stone of a fruit, meat of a nut.
  • rīza [ˈriːza]
n. 1lun. reptile, lizard
ñoghoqitta rīza — armless lizard[58]
  • rizmon [ˈrizmon]
n. 3ter. sand
  • rizmor [ˈrizmor]
n. 6col.3ter. desert, wastes (collective of rizmon.)
  • rōbir [ˈroːbir]
n. 5aq.[20] fig.
Sparos rōbir angotas. — Who bit the fig?
  • rongenka [roŋˈgeŋka]
adj. I leather ( < rongon + -enka.)
  • rongon [ˈroŋgon]
n. 3ter. leather, hide
  • ropagon [roˈpagon]
perfect: ropatan[206]
v. V-fin. to fall
Averilloma mittys ropatas. — The drunken fool fell.
  • ropakagon [ropaˈkagon]
perfect: ropattan
v. C-fin. to cause to fall, to fell, to push over, to knock over, to knock down; to displace, to replace with s/t →ins. ( < ropagon + -kagon.)
sȳndor ropakagon to cast a shadow (see sȳndor)
  • rōva [ˈroːva] , comp. rōvykta
adj. I big, large
Davido zaldrīzes aōhos zaldrīzose rōvyktys issa. — David’s dragon is bigger than your dragon.
  • rōvēgrī [roːˈveːgriː]
adv. greatly, enormously ( < rōvēgrie + .)
Rōvēgrī qringōntan. — I’ve erred enormously[207]
  • rōvēgrie [roːˈveːgri͡e]
adj. III huge, enormous; colloquially great, excellent, awesome ( < rōva + -ēgrie.)
Kony rōvēgrior blēnon issa! — That is an enormous mountain!
rōvēgrior intj. "excellent"[65]
  • ruaka [ˈru͡aka]
adj. I dull; ineffective
  • ruaragon [ru͡aˈragon]
perfect: ruartan
v. C-fin. to hide, to conceal hen →dat.[208] from...
Kēli hen aōt ruarza. — The cat is hiding from you.[209]
  • ruarilaksa [ru͡ariˈlaksa]
adj. I secret, private (passive future participle of ruaragon; lit. "which will be hidden".)
  • rudigon [ruˈdigon]
perfect: ruditan
v. V-fin. to dig
  • rudirys [ruˈdirys]
n. 2sol. hole, pit (specifically, one that has been dug) ( < rudigon + -tys with rhotacism)
  • rughagon [ruˈɣagon]
perfect: rūdan
v. C-fin. to drop; in the reflexive to quit hen →dat. something.
Aōle rūda, nūmāzma issa. — You quit, you mean.
  • rūklon [ˈruːklon]
n. 3ter. flower[210]
Rūkluni ynot teptas lua vala bisy issa. — This is the man who gave me some flowers.
  • rūnagon [ˈruːnagon]
perfect: rūntan
v. C-fin. to remember
Jelmor rūnis. — The North remembers[97]
Jelmor rūnas. — The North remembers[97]
  • rūnarys [ˈruːnarys]
n. 2sol. nostalgia, reverie, (mental) trauma (the concepts are intertwined in High Valyrian) ( < rūnagon + -arys.)
  • rūni [ˈruːni]
n. 5lun. memory (i.e. a single memory) (cf. rūnagon.)
  • rūniapos [ˈruːni͡apos]
n. 3sol. letter, note ( < rūnagon + -iapos.)
  • rūnir [ˈruːnir]
n. 6col.5lun. memory (i.e. one's memory) (collective of rūni.)
  • rūs[211] [ruːs] rūh-
n. 3sol. infant, baby, child.
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza, kesrio syt lanta iksan, rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — He holds us safe, for now I am two, with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • [ryː]
post.→gen. between, in between, through, across, throughout, all in reference to a time period e.g. one's life.
Jevo glaesoti rȳ buzdari istiat. — You have been slaves all your life.
  • rȳbagon [ˈryːbagon]
perfect: ryptan
v. C-fin. to hear; to obey, to heed.
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • ryptegon [ˈryptegon]
v. V-fin. to listen (eventative of rȳbagon.)
  • rytsa [ˈrytsa]
adj. I healthy
  • rytsas [ˈrytsas]
exp. hello. ( < rytsa)
  • rytsuragon [rytsuˈragon]
v. C-fin. to call, to greet ( < rytsas + -uragon.)
  • rytsurnon [ryˈtsurnon]
n. 3ter. regard, greeting ( < rytsuragon + -non.)
Lannisteri rytsurna pōja jittis. — The Lannisters send their regards.[212]
  • rȳvȳdragon [ryːˈvyːdragon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to mediate, to mediate between ( < rȳ- + v- + ȳdragon.)

S

  • saelie [ˈsaɛ̯li͡e] -ior
num. adj. III third
  • sagon [ˈsagon]
perfect: istan
v. irreg. to be. 3s forms issa[213] and kessa[4] may be used to mean yes.
  • sahagon [saˈhagon]
perfect: sētan
v. irreg. to use; to cause, to force →dat.+inf.
Dohaerirot ñuhe annī rāenagon sētan. — I made the servant brush my horse.
  • sambar [ˈsambar]
n. 1aq. cloud
  • sambrar [ˈsambrar]
n. 6col.1aq. fog (col. of sambar cloud.)
  • se [se]
conj. and
Gryves se Riña Litse. — The Bear and the Maiden Fair.
  • selagon [seˈlagon]
perfect: seltan
v. C-fin. to move, to go, to make for, to head to somewhere →dat., as a group with a predesignated destination in mind (expected subject is plural); to agree to something →dat., with someone →com.
  • sēnagon [ˈseːnagon]
perfect: sēntan
v. C-fin. to kill[214], to murder
Perzys zaldrīzi sēnagon kostos daor. — Fire cannot kill a dragon.
  • sentys [ˈsentys]
n. 2sol. killer, slayer ( < sēnagon + -tys.) ,[e short, perhaps typographic mistake]
  • sepār [ˈsepaːr]
conj. and especially where consecutivity is implied, and then, and so, next; therefore, thus; just so ( < se + pār.)
Mirri ōdria uēpi dōrī drējī zgiēñisi, sepār hen mībājȳr udīr ānogrosa anehussi. — Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.
conj. just as, as
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
in conditionals then...
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[12]
adv. also, even, and also
  • sesīr [ˈsesiːr]
conj. and now, and so, and ( < se "and" + sīr "now".)
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
adv. also, even, and also
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • sētegon [ˈseːtegon]
v. V-fin. to make, to create, to bring forth, to bring into being, to conjure; to shape, to form, to give form to, to mould, to fashion, to work (e.g. some substance); to smith, to forge (eventative of sahagon.)[215]
Belma se pōnte sētessis lȳri nāpāstyri ozzālilāt? — Will you burn away the chains and the nonbelievers who make them?[11]
  • sētekio [ˈseːteki͡o]
n. 3lun. smith, forger ( < sētegon + -kio)
  • sētelion [ˈseːteli͡on]
n. 3ter. forge, smithy, smithery, works ( < sētegon + -lion)
  • sētenon [ˈseːtenon]
n. 3ter. smithing, working, moulding, creation; magic, wizardry, conjuring, enchantment ( < sētegon + -non)
  • sēter [ˈseːter]
n. 3aq. spell, magic spell, enchantment (cf. sētegon.)
  • sēterys [ˈseːterys]
n. 2sol. form, shape ( < sētegon + -rys)
  • sētio [ˈseːti͡o]
n. 3lun. wizard, magician, conjuror ( < sētegon + -io)
  • sīglie [ˈsiːgli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III seventh
  • sigligon [siˈgligon]
perfect: siglitan
v. V-fin. to bear again, to give birth to anew; to reinstantiate, to reinitiate, to restart, to reboot; to reignite ( < sikagon + -ligon.)
in the passive to be born again, to be reborn
Vȳs verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!
  • sikagon [siˈkagon]
perfect: sittan
v. C-fin. to give birth to, to birth, to bear (in the passive, to be born) (prob. sagon, or its aorist sigon, + -ikagon.)
Tubī hae kesīr sittāks, sesīr kirine iksan. — You were born on a day like this one, and so I am happy.
to ignite, to light on fire or a candle
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[66]
to initiate, to instantiate
  • sikarys [siˈkarys]
n. 2sol. placenta, afterbirth ( < sikagon + -arys)
  • sīkuda [ˈsiːkuda] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I seven
  • sīkudēpsa [siːkuˈdeːpsa] indec.
num. seventy
  • sīmonagon [siːmoˈnagon]
perfect: sīmontan
v. C-fin. to rise; to grow in size or proportion (the definition will change depending on the subject).
  • sindigon [ˈsindigon]
perfect: sindita
v. V-fin. to buy[216], to purchase
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
Dohaeriros istin, sindita liortā, qilonta ozbartā. — I was a slave once, bought and sold, scourged and branded.[10]
  • sindilion [ˈsindili͡on]
n. 3ter. market, marketplace ( < sindigon + -lion.)
Dārys dāriā sindiliot udekurzi. — The king and the queen are approaching the marketplace.
  • siñagon [siˈɲagon]
perfect: sīdan
v. C-fin. to become, to come to be, to turn into; to go as ( < sagon + -iñagon.)
  • siñon [ˈsiɲon]
n. 3ter. birth ( < siñagon + -on)
  • sīr [siːr]
adv. now, already
Yn dāeri vali sīr issi — But you are free men now.
lo sīr now that
Jemēlo kaerīnnon ivīlībilāt, lo sīr Dāria Daenerys jemī ivīlībagon kesīr īlos daor? — Will you fight for your own salvation, now that Queen Daenerys is not here to fight for you?[11]
  • sīrgo [ˈsiːrgo]
adv. prior, previously, before (now), beforehand (sīr + go.)
Sīrgō parklon iprattā? — Have you eaten meat before?
  • sīudīblie [siːuˈdiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III seventieth
  • skore [ˈskore] -ior
int.pron. adj. II which for inanimates, what
  • skorī [ˈskoriː]
int.pron. when, at what time
Skorī vala rōbir angotas? — When did the man bite the fig?
conj./rel.pron. when
Skorī dēmalȳti tymptir tymis, ērinis iā morghūlis. — When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die.
  • skorion [ˈskori͡on]
int.pron. 3ter. what esp. for places, mass nouns, and abstracts
"Skorion massitas?" — "What happened?"
skorio syt why
  • skoriot [ˈskori͡ot]
int.pron. where (loc. of skorion.)
SKORIOT ÑUHYZ ZALDRĪZESSE ISSI?![79] — WHERE ARE MY DRAGONS?![217]
  • skorkydoso [skorkyˈdoso]
int.pron. how, by what way, by what means ( < skore + -kydoso.)
Skorkydoso udlilat? — How will you respond?[11]
Skorkydoso glaesā? How are you?[65]
  • skorlūs [ˈskorluːs]
int.pron. what kind of →gen. ( < skore + lūs.)
  • skoros [ˈskoros]
int.pron. 3sol. what esp. for concrete, countable items
Skoros otāpā? — What do you think?
Skoroso jemēle brōzāt? — What are your names?
Skoros gaomā? — What are you doing?[218]
skoro syt why
Skoro syt ipradā? — Why are you eating?
hae skorot →eq. How with adjectives and adverbs.
Hae skorot vala bōsāpa issa? — How tall is the man?
  • skorverdon [skorˈverdon]
int.pron. 3ter. how many, what amount, what number →gen., usually pl., followed by a 3sg. verb (the pronoun being considered the subject of the question modified by a genitive of content) ( < skore + verdon).
Skorverdon valoti ēdrus? — How many men are sleeping?
  • skorȳso [skoˈryːso]
int.pron. why; conj. because properly used in this sense only in response to a question. (instrumental of skoros.)
  • Sōdrurlion [soːˈdrurli͡on]
prop. n. 3ter. Winterfell ( < sōnar + -urlion)
  • soljagon [soˈʎagon]
perfect: soltan
v. C-fin. to sail (cf. soljanna)
  • soljanna [soˈʎanna]
n. 1lun. rudder ( < soljagon + -anna.)
  • sōlutty [soːˈlutty]
n. 2lun. scroll
Sōlutti gūrogon aōhe mandie sytilības. — Your older sister should get a scroll.
  • sombāzmion [somˈbaːzmi͡on]
n. 3ter. castle[219], fortress ( < somby + -āzma + -ion.)
  • sombion [ˈsombi͡on]
n. 3ter. fort, fortification ( < somby + -ion, lit. shielding place)
  • somby [ˈsomby]
n. 2lun. shield
  • sōna [ˈsoːna]
n. 1lun. snow. gen.col. Sōnaro Snow surname used by acknowledged bastards in The North of Westeros.
  • sōnar [ˈsoːnar]
n. 6col.1lun. winter[220] (relex. col. of sōna.)
Sōnar Māzis — Winter Is Coming
  • sōpagon [ˈsoːpagon]
v. C-fin. to laugh
  • sōvegon [ˈsoːvegon]
v. V-fin. to fly
  • sōvemagon [soːveˈmagon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to make fly ( < sōvegon + -emagon.)
Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. — Stories can make us fly.[221]
  • sōvion [ˈsoːvi͡on]
n. 3ter. butterfly ( perhaps < sōvegon.)
  • spare [ˈspare] -ior
int.pron. adj. II which for animates
Spare vale ābra urnes? — Which man does the woman see?
  • sparion [ˈspari͡on]
int.pron. 3ter. who esp. for mass nouns, and abstracts.
  • sparos [ˈsparos]
int.pron. who esp. for concrete, countable entities.
Sparos rōbir angotas. — Who bit the fig?
sparo syt For whom? On account of whom? For whose sake?
  • spryjagon [spryˈɟagon]
v. Insv. V-fin. to destroy, to break for inanimate subjects ( < s- + pryjagon)
  • stepagon [steˈpagon]
perfect: steptan
v. Insv. C-fin. to share.
Zȳhi perzi stepagon Āeksio Ōño jorepi, se morghūltas lī qēlītsos sikagon. — We beg the Lord to share his fire, and light a candle that has gone out.[66]
  • sūmar[222] [ˈsuːmar] sūbr-
n. 1aq. tea
Sūbroma tubis rhaenin. — I begin my day with tea.[200]
  • suvion [ˈsuvi͡on]
n. 3ter ice
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[33]
  • sylugon [syˈlugon]
perfect: sylutan
v. V-fin. to try[223] (cf. sylvia.)
Elēni ñuhe jogeltigon sylutis, sepār jevon jogeltigon sylussi. Yn kostosy daor. — They tried to silence my voice, as they try to silence yours. But they cannot.
  • sylutegon [syluˈtegon]
v. V-fin. trans. to taste something[44] (eventative of sylugon.)
Averille sylutetā? — Have you tasted the wine?
  • sylvia [ˈsylvi͡a]
n. 1lun. wisdom (cf. sylugon, the sense being experience.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[47]
  • sylvie [ˈsylvi͡e]
adj. III wise
  • sȳndor [ˈsyːndor]
n. 3aq.[224] shadow [173]
Peldiō sȳndor. — The viper's shadow.
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[80]
col. sȳndror darkness
… se sȳndrori jorrāelis lȳr… — … and those who love the darkness…[11]
Hen sȳndrorro, ōños. — From darkness, light.[225]
pauc. sȳndrun shade
sȳndor ropakagon to cast a shadow (see ropakagon)
  • sȳndrilla [syːnˈdrilla]
n. 1aq°. color (< sȳndor + -illa.)
Sparior sȳndrilla Rhaegal issa? — What color is Rhaegal?
  • sȳrī [ˈsyːriː]
adv. well
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.
  • Syrio [ˈsyri͡o]
prop. n. 3aq. Syrio (cf. sȳz.)
Sȳrī avy ūjus dohaeragon. — May it serve you well.
  • syt [syt]
postp.→gen. for. Skoro syt why? (prob. historically the locative or dative of an unknown or lost noun, perhaps something like *sion, or maybe something related to sȳz, with the idea of for the good of....)
rūso zȳhosy gōvilirose zijo syt pyghas lue prūmie. — with his child beneath the heart that beats for him.
  • sytiderēbagon [sytideˈreːbagon]
perfect: sytiderēptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to chose for, select for. +acc: the person for whom the thing is selected (this applies even in the passive), +dat: the thing selected. ( < syt- + i- + derēbagon.)
Vala rōbrȳti Aeri sytiderēbza. — The man selects figs for Aerys."
Aeri sytiderēbaks. — Aerys is selected for.
  • sytilībagon [sytiˈliːbagon]
perfect: sytilīptan
v. C-fin. to belong; to be for. (prob. < syt- + il- + -ībagon.)
  • sytinevegon [sytineˈvegon]
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to go out with, to date ( < syt- + i- + nevegon lit. to carry for)
  • sytiotāpagon [syti͡oˈtaːpagon]
perfect: sytiotāptan
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to advise, to counsel ( < syt- + i- + otāpagon, lit. to think for)
  • sytiotāpio [syti͡oˈtaːpi͡o]
n. 3lun?' advisor ( < sytiotāpagon + -io.)
Lo Dārie se pāsābari sytiotāpia lōtirī jorrāeloty, sepār dōre vala arlī īlōn belmurilza. — If we are steadfast in our love for the Queen and her faithful advisors, no man will ever lock us in chains again[12]
  • sytivīlībagon [sytiviːˈliːbagon]
v. Obl. appl. C-fin. to fight for →acc. ( < syt- + i- + vīlībagon "to fight".)
Yne sytivīlībilāt? Hae dāero valoti? — Will you fight for me? As free men?
  • sȳz [syːz] sȳrior
adj. II good, well-made
Kydȳptakson sȳz kesos. — It would be good to have been measured.[43]
Yn kesys tubis hen mirro tubiot sȳrpys issa. — But today is as good a day as any.[226]
Jaehossas sȳris sātās — Gods be good![82]

T

  • tāemītsos [taːɛ̯ˈmiːtsos]
n. 3sol. stick (diminutive of unattested root tāem- + -ītsos, presumably meaning something like branch.)
  • Taena [ˈtaɛ̯na]
prop. n. 1lun. Taena
Taena hen Mȳrot issa. — Taena is from Myr.
  • tala [ˈtala]
n. 1lun. daughter[227]; coll. talar children
  • taoba [ˈtaɔ̯ba]
n. 1lun. boy
  • Targārien [tarˈgaːri͡en]
prop. n. 4ter.[20] Targaryen a family name.
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen.
  • tatagon [taˈtagon]
perfect: tetan
v. C-fin. to finish.
  • tēgie [ˈteːgi͡e] -ior
adj. III curved
  • tēgigon [ˈteːgigon]
v. V-fin. intrans. to curve, be curved.
  • tēgir [ˈteːgir]
n. 5aq. curve
  • tegon [ˈtegon]
n. 3ter. ground. pauc. tegun land. coll.[228] tegor lands collectively.[229]
  • tegōñe [teˈgoːɲe] -or
adj. II terrestrial ( < tegon + -ōñe.)
  • tegun [ˈtegun]
n. 6col.3ter. land. coll. tegor lands collectively.[229] (relex. pauc. of tegon)
Sȳndror ilis luo tegunno Mordrot. — In the land of Mordor, where the shadows lie[80]
  • tēmagon [ˈteːmagon]
v. to prick, to poke
Rōvon dēmalion rōvi jenti tēmas. — A great throne pokes a great leader.
  • temby [ˈtemby]
n. 2lun. leaf.
  • tembyr [ˈtembyr]
n. 6col.2lun. book.[230] (col. of temby.)
  • tepagon [teˈpagon]
perfect: teptan
v. C-fin. to give, used with a 1st or 2nd person subject or recipient (otherwise see irughagon.)
Kesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. — Today I give you freedom.
  • tepilla [teˈpilla]
n. 1aq°. mercy (contains -illa, cf. tepagon) [231]
  • tepilloma [teˈpilloma]
adj. invar. merciful (comitative of tepilla)
  • teptys [ˈteptys]
n. 2sol. teacher, instructor, mentor ( < tepagon + -tys.)
Issa, ñuhys teptys, zaldrīzesse Daeneromy ēdrusi. — Yes, my teacher, the dragons are sleeping with Daenerys.
  • teta [ˈteta]
adj. I absolute (passive perfect participle of tatagon.)
  • Thoros [ˈθoros]
prop. n. 3sol(?) Thoros, a name.
  • tīkor [ˈtiːkor]
n. 6col.3sol. flock of birds[232] (col. of tīkos.)
  • tīkos [ˈtiːkos]
n. 3sol. feather[232]
  • tīkun [ˈtiːkun] (pauc. of tīkos.)
n. 6pauc.3sol. wing[232]
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
  • timpa [ˈtimpa] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I white; light; light-colored; grey (light); pink
Bonys timpys hontes gevie issa! — That white bird is beautiful!
  • tindon [ˈtindon]
n. 3ter. root
  • tista [ˈtista] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I dry (poss. a perf. part.)
  • tistālior [tisˈtaːli͡or]
n. 6col?.3ter? bank (prob. coll. of *tistālion store room lit. drying place < tista + -lion.)
Āegenkor Tistālior jāhor gūrotriri emilza. — The Iron Bank will have its due.[6]
  • tolī [ˈtoliː]
adv. above; after; beyond[67]
Timpys hontes tolī ūndan. — I saw a white bird overhead.
excessively, too, too much
Mittys iksā. Āeksia tolī kostōbi issi. — You’re a fool. The masters are too strong.
Ñuhor qȳbor kisalbār tolī iprattas. — My uncle ate too much at the banquet.
more[4]
Tolī rhūqo lōtinti, kostilus. — More pigeon pie, please.
  • tolie [ˈtoli͡e] -ior
adj. III other (perh. lit. higher, cf. tolī, toliot.)
Muñar aōt teptas lue brōzi, iā mirre tolie iderēbās. — Choose the name your parents gave you, or any other.
  • toliot [ˈtoli͡ot]
post.→gen. above, over; after[67]
  • tolmīhy [tolˈmiːhy]
n. 2sol. stranger, lit. the one who comes from afar ( Type I substantivised form of adjective *tolmīha < tolmio + -īha)
  • tolmio [ˈtolmi͡o]
n. 3lun. far side, far wall[233]
  • tolmiot [ˈtolmi͡ot]
adv. far
post.→gen. across (loc. of tolmio, "far side." This is why it can be combined with hen.)
Olvie hen embraro tolmiot nykēlot avy ivestragon issa. — So much news I have to give you from over the seas.
  • tolvie [ˈtolvi͡e] -ior
adj. III every
Qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās. — Slay every man who holds a whip.
  • tolviot [ˈtolvi͡ot]
indef.pron. everywhere ( < tolvie.)
Dovaogēdi tolviot ilzi! — There are Unsullied everywhere!
  • tolvȳn [ˈtolvyːn]
indef.pron. 6pauc.2sol everything
Zokla tolvȳni iprattas! — A wolf ate everything!
  • tolvys [ˈtolvys]
indef.pron. 2sol. everyone ( < tolvie.)
Tolvys morghūlis. — Everyone must die.
  • tolys [ˈtolys]
indef.pron. 2sol. someone else ( < tolie.)
Kostilus, sēter tolot tepās. — Please give the spell to someone else.
Kirimvose daor. Toli jorrāelan. — No thank. I love someone else.
  • tōma [ˈtoːma] -ys, -on, -on
num. adj. I five
  • tōmelie [ˈtoːmeli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fifth
  • tōmēpsa [toːˈmeːpsa] indec.
num. fifty
  • tōmīblie [toːˈmiːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III fiftieth
  • tōmītsos [toːˈmiːtsos]
n. 3sol. elderberry ( < tōmo + -ītsos.)
  • tōmo [ˈtoːmo]
n. 3lun. elderberry plant ( < tōma, referring to the five-petaled blossoms.)
  • trēsy [ˈtreːsy]
n. 2lun. son.[234]
Tȳni Trēsi — Second Sons
  • trūma [ˈtruːma]
adj. I deep
  • trūmirī [ˈtruːmiriː]
adv. deeply ( < trūma + .)
  • tubis [ˈtubis]
n. 5sol. day; kesȳ tubī, tubī[4] adv. today
Kesȳ tubī jemot dāervi tepan. — Today I give you freedom.
Tubī daor. — Not today.[4]
  • turgon [ˈturgon]
n. 3ter. worm.[235]
  • tymagon [tyˈmagon]
perfect: tymptan
v. C-fin. to play, to frolic
Riña tymptir raqiroso tymptas. — The girl played the game with a friend.
  • tymptir [ˈtymptir]
n. 5aq. game (substantivized perf. part. of tymagon.)
Tymptir Dēmalȳti — A Game of Thrones[38]
  • tȳne [ˈtyːne] -ior
num. adj. II second; secondary.
  • Tyros [ˈtyros]
prop. n. 3sol. Tyrosh
Tyros! Ñuhos arlies lentos! — Tyrosh! My new home!
  • tyvagon [tyˈvagon]
perfect: tȳdan
v. C-fin. to crawl, to creep
  • tyvaros [tyˈvaros]
n. 3sol. serpent, snake (subst. part. of tyvagon.)

U

  • ubēriros [uˈbeːriros]
n. 3sol. vest (type I subst. pres. part. of the loc. appl. of bērigon, lit. that which is hanging on something)
  • ubles [ˈubles]
n. 4sol. eel
  • ūbnon [ˈuːbnon]
n. 3ter. wait, anticipation, waiting period, hiatus ( < the root *ūbr- as seen in ūbrie + -non)
  • ūbremagon [uːbreˈmagon]
perfect: ūbrēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to raise, to rear, to tend, to grow plants and children ( < ūbrie + -emagon)
  • ūbrie [ˈuːbri͡e]
adj. III ripe, mature, ready (of vegetation)
  • ūbriljagon [uːbriˈʎagon]
perfect: ūbriltan
v. C-fin. to ripen, to mature, to grow ( < ūbrie + -iljagon)
  • udekuragon [udekuˈragon]
perfect: udekurtan
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to near, to approach, to step towards →dat. something ( < u- + dekuragon.)
Dārys dāriā sindiliot udekurzi. — The king and the queen are approaching the marketplace.
  • udēmagon [uˈdeːmagon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to sit down on, to sit on ( < u- + dēmagon)
  • udir [ˈudir]
n. 5aq. word[236]
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
May also be used, just like English word, in the sense of news:
Se vasīr dorior udir Drogo bē? — And still no word of Drogon?[237]
  • udligon [uˈdligon]
perfect: udlitan
v. V-fin. to respond, to answer, to reply (poss. *ud- seen udir + -ligon.)
May be used intransitively:
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
or transitively:
Jeva jorepna ryptas se pōnte udlitas. — He has heard your prayers and answered them.
  • udlinon [uˈdlinon]
n. 3ter. response, answer, reply ( < udligon + -non)
  • udrāzma [uˈdraːzma]
n. 1lun. command, order ( < udr- + -āzma.)
Udrāzmī jemot maghon daor. — I do not bring you commands.
  • udrimmi [uˈdrimmi]
adj. invar. witty, clever, quick-witted, always having the right word at the right moment (com. of udrin.)
Bony udrimmi taoba issa! — That one is a clever boy!
  • udrin [ˈudrin]
n. 6pauc.5aq. phrase, saying, aphorism (paucal of udir)
  • udrir [ˈudrir]
n. 6col.5aq. speech, language (relex. coll. of udir.)
Dōrior dārion udrirzi mijessis. — There’s no country without a language.
Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? — Do you speak Valyrian?[65]
  • uēmagon [ˈu͡eːmagon]
v. C-fin. to vomit (could possibly be a Loc. appl. from u-, but if so the base verb is not yet attested. The long ē makes emagon highly unlikely.)
  • uēpa [ˈu͡eːpa]
adj. I old
Nyke Daenerys Jelmāzmo hen Targārio Lentrot, hen Valyrio Uēpo ānogār iksan. — I am Daenerys Stormborn of the House Targaryen, of the blood of Old Valyria.
  • uēs [u͡eːs] uēh-
n. 3sol. squid
' — Sȳz uēs issa.
  • ūja [ˈuːɟa]
pers.pron. it, (he, she) (terrestrial, aquatic).
  • ūliapos [ˈuːli͡apos]
n. 3sol. key (contains -iapos, cf. ūlio)
  • ūlio [ˈuːli͡o]
n. 3lun. falcon
Spare ūlio gevie issa? — Which falcon is beautiful?.
  • umāzigon [uˈmaːzigon]
perfect: umastan
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to come to, to arrive at
Ñuho kisalbrot umāzīt? — Are you coming to my banquet?
  • umbagon [ˈumbagon]
perfect: umptan[88]
v. C-fin. to stay, to wait, to remain[238]
  • ūndegon [ˈuːndegon]
perfect: ūndetan
v. V-fin. to see, to catch sight of, to sight; when used intransitively to look[186] , metaphorically to be x years old (eventative of urnegon.)
Olvī voktī Rulloro Qelbriā ūndessun daor. — I don’t see many priestesses of R’hllor in the Riverlands.
Ābre kustittas lue vale ūndetan. — I saw the man who encouraged the woman.
Tyrio kepa tōme tōmēpsā jēdari ūndas. — Tyrion's father is fifty-five years old.
  • unektogon [uˈnektogon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to cut out, to cut off ( < u- + nektogon.)
  • ūñagon [ˈuːɲagon]
perfect: ūntan
v. C-fin. to count
  • urnēbagon [urˈneːbagon]
v. C-fin. to watch. ( < urnegon + -ēbagon.)
Mastas. Valar urnēbis. — It has come. All men must watch.[239]
  • urnēbion [urˈneːbi͡on]
n. 3ter. watch.
Sesīr Urnēbion Zȳhon Keliton Issa. — And Now His Watch Is Ended.
  • urnegon [ˈurnegon]
perfect: ūndan
v. V-fin. to see.
  • usōvegon [uˈsoːvegon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to apologize ( < {u- + sōvegon.)

V

  • va [va]
prep.→loc. towards, at, near; →dat. to, all the way up to.
Va oktio remȳti vale jikās. — Send a man to the city gates.
  • vāda [ˈvaːda]
n. 1lun. calf
  • vāedagon [ˈvaːɛ̯dagon]
perfect: vāettan[88]
v. C-fin. to sing
  • vāedar [ˈvaːɛ̯dar]
n. 1aq. song
Ziry kivio dārilaros issa, se zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire.[33]
  • vala [ˈvala]
n. 1lun. man. Valar morghūlis All men must die, a common greeting. Valar dohaeris All men must serve, the response to valar morghūlis
Henujagon jaelza lua vala mirre henujagon kostas. — Any man who wishes to leave may leave.
  • valenka [vaˈleŋka]
adj. I male.(contains -enka.)[240]
  • valonqar [vaˈloɴqar]
n. 1aq. younger brother[241]; younger male cousin by father's brother or mother's sister[48].
  • Valyre [vaˈlyre]
adj. II. Valyrian.
Iōnos Valyre korzī ēza. — Jon has a Valyrian sword.
  • Valyria [vaˈlyri͡a]
prop. n. 1lun. Valyria; the Valyrian language.
Zȳha Valyria qupēgrie issa. — His Valyrian is terrible[11]
Valyrio, Valyrio udrir the Valyrian language.
Valyrio muño ēngos ñuhys issa. — Valyrian is my mother tongue.
  • Valyrīha [valyˈriːha]
adj. I. Valyrian. ( < Valyria + -īha.)
  • Valyrīhy [valyˈriːhy]
n. 2lun. Valyrian, i.e. a Valyrian person, or a person from the Valyrian peninsula. (Substantivized form of Valyrīha.)
  • Valyry [vaˈlyry]
n. 2lun. Valyria, a Valyrian person.
  • valzȳrys [valˈzyːrys]
n. 2sol. husband ( < vala + -zȳrys.)
Nykēlo syt ūndon daor luo valzȳro ñōghossi ōressiks. — I find myself held by the arms of a husband I never expected to have.
  • vamiot [ˈvami͡ot]
adv. near (possibly the locative of an unknown noun, containing va-)
Vamiot raqiros eman. — I have a friend nearby.
  • vandis [ˈvandis]
n. 5sol. bull, male head of cattle
  • vaodekuragon [vaɔ̯dekuˈragon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to near, to approach, to step towards →dat./gen. something ( < va- + the more common udekuragon.)
  • vaogemagon [vaɔ̯geˈmagon]
perfect: vaogēdan
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to sully, to defile ( < *vaog- seen in vaogenka + -emagon.)
Hae jeme istin. Sindity se liorty, qilonty se ozbārty, qrillaetty se vaogēdy. — I was once as you are now. Bought and sold, scourged and branded, raped and defiled.
  • vaogenka [vaɔ̯ˈgeŋka] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I dirty, muddy ( < vaog-, as in dovaogedy, + -enka.)
  • vaokses [ˈvaɔ̯kses]
n. 4sol. spider. [242] (perh. related to vaogenka?)
  • vaoresagon [vaɔ̯reˈsagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to prefer, to favor →gen/dat. ( < va- + u- + resagon)
Valo luo vaoresan. — I prefer one which is a man‘s.
  • vaoreznon [vaɔ̯ˈreznon]
n. 3ter. favor ( < vaoresagon + -non.)
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • vapār [ˈvapaːr]
prep. until ( < va + pār, lit. to then)
  • Vargo [ˈvargo]
prop. n. 3aq. Vargo
Vargo hen Qorhot issa. — Vargo is from Qohor.
  • vasīr [ˈvasiːr]
adv. still, as yet, so far ( < va + sīr.)
Se vasīr Drogon ūndetoks daor? — And as yet Drogon hasn’t been sighted?[237]
  • vasrie [ˈvasri͡e], vaɟie [ˈvaɟi͡e] -ior
adj. III thin
  • vēdros [ˈveːdros]
n. 3sol. anger
Vēdroso, vīlīpti. — In anger, we fought.
  • vēdrugon [ˈveːdrugon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to sleep at? on? ( < v- + ēdrugon)
  • vējes [ˈveːɟes]
n. 4sol. fate, doom, including The Doom of Valyria[243](perh. akin to vēzos.)
Lodaor hēnkos vējose hae Astaprot Yunkai botilza. — Otherwise, Yunkai will suffer the same fate as Astapor.
in the inst. vējose! intj. "By fate!"[244]
  • vējōñe [veːˈɟoːɲe] -or
adj. III. southern ( < vēzor + -ōñe.)[96]
  • velkrys [ˈvelkrys]
n. 2sol. stag, male deer.[30]
  • vellaros [ˈvellaros]
n. 3sol. trousers, pants ( < v- + ellagon)
Vala mērī vellaros ziksannā joneves. — The man is wearing only pants and a hat.
  • velma [ˈvelma]
n. 1lun. father's older sister, paternal aunt older than father[48].
Dārys īlve velme majaqsa. — The king admires our aunt.
  • velmanna [velˈmanna]
n. 1lun. father's older sister's child, cousin by paternal aunt older than father[48].
Riña ñuhī velmannī izūgas. — The girl fears my cousins.
  • verdagon [ˈverdagon]
perfect: vēttan
v. C-fin. to arrange; to make (a decision) (cf. verdon.)
Lo jention mirre nūmāzme ēza, iderenna qopsa verdagon issa. — If leadership is about anything, it’s about making hard choices.
  • verdilla [verˈdilla]
n. 1aq°. framework ( < verdagon + -illa, lit. the result of arranging.)
  • verdligon [ˈverdligon]
perfect: verdlitan
v. V-fin. to remake, recreate ( < verdagon + -ligon.)
Vȳs verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!
  • verdon [ˈverdon]
n. 3ter. sum, figure, amount, number (cf. verdagon.)
Keson verdon harrenkon iksos daor. — This amount is not appropriate.
  • Vesteros [ˈvesteros]
prop. n. 3sol. Westeros
Dāria Sikudo Dārȳti Vestero — the Queen of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros
  • vestragon [ˈvestragon]
perfect: vestretan
v. C-fin. to say
Skoros morghot vestri? — What do we say to death?[245]
with impersonal subject it seems →dat. to[246]
  • vestretir [ˈvestretir]
n. 5aq. saying, statement[247], proclamation, pronouncement (substantivized perfect participle of vestragon, lit. that which has been said.)
  • vestriarzir [vesˈtri͡arzir]
n. 5aq.[248] story, tale, narrative, history (substantivized aorist passive participle of vestragon, lit. that which is (ever/habituatlly/generally) told.)
Vestriarja īlōn sōvemagon kostis. — Stories can make us fly.[221]
  • vēttegon [ˈveːttegon]
v. V-fin. to finalise, to set, to settle (eventative of verdagon)
  • vēttīlaksir [veːtˈtiːlaksir]
n. 5aq. contest, dispute, match, game (substantivized future participle of vēttegon)
  • vēttir [ˈveːttir]
n. 5aq. a law (referring to a specific one), regulation[249] (substantivized perfect participle of verdagon, lit. what has been arranged.)
col. vēttrir the law (all the laws combined to form the full set of laws for a city or state)
Vēttrir vēttrir issa. — The law is the law.[250]
  • vēzenka [veːˈzeŋka]
adj. I solar ( < vēzos + -enka.)
vēzenkon qogror. — “solar class”.[75]
  • vēzor [ˈveːzor] vēj-
n. 3aq. south (cf. vēzos.)[96]
  • vēzos [ˈveːzos]
n. 3sol. sun
Vēzos qēlossās ñuho. — My sun and stars.[65]
  • vilagon [viˈlagon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to be at, to lie at, to rest at, to be in, to be on ( < v- + ilagon)
  • vīlībagon [viːˈliːbagon]
perfect: vīlīptan
v. C-fin. to fight
Tolvi zijo syt vilībari morghūljosy li henkiri sigliliks. — All those who die fighting for her shall be reborn in kind.
  • vīlībāzma [viːliːˈbaːzma]
n. 1lun. war, battle; coll. vīlībāzmar warfare, war in the general sense ( < vīlībagon + -āzma.); instr. vīlībāzmosa by combat (concerning a trial)
Vīlībāzma ajomemēbza, yn aderī, mōrī, aōt māzīli se hēnkirī īlvi biarvī manaerili. — The war rages on, but soon, when it is all over, we shall come to you and celebrate together.
  • vilinion [viˈlini͡on]
n. 3ter. port, landing (perh. < vilagon)
  • viōdy [ˈvi͡oːdy]
n. 2lun. sauce
  • viōragon [ˈvi͡oːragon]
v. Loc. appl. C-fin. to stand on ( < v- + iōragon)
  • Viserion [viˈseri͡on]
prop. n. 3ter. Viserion
  • Viserys [viˈserys]
prop. n. 2sol. Viserys
Viserys Daenero lēkia issa. — Viserys is Daenerys's brother.
  • vokemagon [vokeˈmagon]
v. C-fin. (irreg.) to purify (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in voktys, + -emagon.)
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • voktys [ˈvoktys]
n. 2sol. priest, priestess. (From a root *vok- pure, also seen in vokemagon, + -tys.)
Voktys Eglie aōt gaomilaksir teptas. — The High Priest gave you a mission.
  • Volantīha [volanˈtiːha]
adj. I. Volantene. ( < Volantis + -īha.)
Jehikarȳ Kinvaro iōrat, Eglio Vokto hen Rijībliot Volantīhot, Drīvo Perzo, Sylvio Ōño, Dohaeriro Ēlio Āeksio Oño syt. — You stand in the presence of Kinvara, High Priestess of the Red Temple of Volantis, the Flame of Truth, the Light of Wisdom, the First Servant of the Lord of Light.[47]
  • Volantis [voˈlantis]
prop. n. 5sol. Volantis
Sȳrior averilla Volantī ilza. — There is good wine in Volantis.
  • vōljes [ˈvoːʎes]
n. 4sol. raven
Vōljesse ēdrusi. — The ravens are sleeping.
  • vollie [ˈvolli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III ninth.
  • volpe [ˈvolpe]
n. 4lun. foresight; coll. volper caution
  • vōre [ˈvoːre] -ior
num. adj. II nine.
  • vōrēpsa [voːˈreːpsa] indec.
num. ninety.
  • vōrīblie [voːˈriːbli͡e] -ior
num. adj. III ninetieth.
  • vūjigon [ˈvuːɟigon]
perfect: vūjitan
v. V-fin. to kiss
Perzo Vūjita — Kissed by Fire
Vala abre vūjitas. Vale abra vūjitas. — The man kissed the woman. The woman kissed the man.[65]
  • vumbiarzy [vumˈbi͡arzy]
n. 2lun. room (possibly the substantivized passive aorist participle of u- + umbagon, lit. that which one usually stays in)
Drīvose ñuhā vumbiarzȳ ēdrun. — Actually, I am sleeping in my room.
  • vūndegon [ˈvuːndegon]
v. Loc. appl. V-fin. to survey ( < v- + ūndegon)
  • vȳs [vyːs] vȳh-
n. 3sol world, planet
Vȳs verdlios perzomy siglitaks! Dāria Zaldrīzoti! — From the fire she was reborn to remake the world! The Dragon Queen!

Y

  • ybon [ˈybon]
n. 3ter. knee
  • ȳdragon [ˈyːdragon]
perfect: ȳdratan
v. Obl. appl. V-fin. to speak, to speak to →acc. ( < i- + udir.)
Brandon vōlī ȳdragon kostas. — Bran can speak to ravens.
of languages, →inst.
Quptenkos Ēngoso ȳdrassis? — Do you speak the Common tongue?
Udrirzi Valyrio ȳdrā? — Do you speak Valyrian?[65]
  • ȳgha [ˈyːɣa]
adj. I safe
Ȳghāpī īlōn rāelza — He holds us safe
perzo bē ȳgha fireproof (lit. safe on (the subject of) fire)
  • ykynagon [ykyˈnagon]
v. V-fin. to smell
Sȳrior havon ykynan. — I smell good bread.
  • yn [yn]
conj. but.
qilōni pilos lue vale tolvie ossēnātās, yn riñe dōre ōdrikātās. — slay every man who holds a whip, but harm no child.
  • yne, ynot etc., see nyke.
  • ȳrda [ˈyːrda] -ys, -on, -or
adj. I narrow
  • yrgos [ˈyrgos]
n. 3sol. neck
Sparo gevie yrgos kony issa? — Whose beautiful neck is that?
  • ȳs [yːs] yv-
n. 3sol. art

Z

  • zāeres [ˈzaːɛ̯res]
n. 4ter°. crystal a specific one (cf. zāeron.)
  • zāeron [ˈzaːɛ̯ron]
n. 3ter. crystal the substance (cf. zāeres.)
  • zāeror [ˈzaːɛ̯ror]
n. 6col.3ter. crystal formation, crystal (collective of zāeron.)
  • zālagon [ˈzaːlagon]
perfect: zāltan
v. C-fin. to burn. va daorunta zālagon to burn away, to burn to nothing
Pyryrzy napasirossa vokemilzi, va daorunta ñelli qringaomnā pōjo zālari. — They will purify nonbelievers by the thousands, burning their sins and flesh away.
  • zālarys [ˈzaːlarys]
n. 2sol. burn, burn mark, evidence of burning ( < zālagon + -arys)
  • Zaldrīzdōron [zaldriːzˈdoːron]
prop. n. 3ter. Dragonstone. ( < shortening from Zaldrīzo dōron)[251]
  • zaldrīzerme [zaldriːˈzerme]
adj. invar. all-powerful, indestructible, invincible (idiomatic use of the comitative of zaldrīzer, lit. "with all the dragons".)
Taoba zaldrīzerme jenti majaqsa. — The boy admires the indestructible leader.
  • zaldrīzes [zalˈdriːzes]
n. 4sol. dragon. ( < zālagon + rīza.)
Zaldrīzes buzdari iksos daor. — A dragon is not a slave.
zaldrīzo ānogar — Blood of the dragon[252]
  • zān [zaːn]
adv. yesterday
Zān hen Lyvot ābre ūndan. — Yesterday I saw a woman from Lys.
  • zēa [ˈzeːa]
n. 1lun. jade ( < Asshai'i [ðʰeːa] "jewel"[253])
  • zenturlion [zenˈturli͡on]
n. 3ter. inn, hotel ( < zentys + -urlion.)
Dāria arlȳro zenturliot ēdrus. — The queen is sleeping at a new hotel.
  • zentys [ˈzentys]
n. 2sol. guest
Bisi vali īlvyz zentyssy issi. — These men are our guests.
  • Zēo Embar [ˈzeːo ˌembar]
n. 1aq. the Jade Sea (cf. zēa)
  • zgeltigon [ˈzgeltigon]
v. Insv. V-fin. to cover, to cover up of things ( < z- + geltigon)
  • zgiēñemagon [zgi͡eːɲeˈmagon]
perfect: zgiēñēdan
v. Insv. C-fin. (irreg.) to cure, to treat, to heal of things e.g. a drug or procedure ( < z- + giēñemagon)
  • zgiēñemvos [zgi͡eːˈɲemvos]
n. 3sol. cure, medicine, treatment ( < zgiēñemagon + -vos)
  • ziksanna [ziˈksanna]
n. 1lun. hat, cap ( < ziksos + -anna.)
Vala mērī vellaros ziksannā joneves. — The man is wearing only pants and a hat.
  • ziksos [ˈziksos]
n. 3sol. neck, scalp (the part of the body extending from the back of the head and covering the back of the ears and the back of the neck, down to where the spine begins.)
  • ziksoso [ziˈksoso]
adv. as one will, as one likes, as one wishes, in the way one will, in one's way where one can be replaced by you, he, she, it, they; as accustomed, as expected (inst. of ziksos.)
Āeksiot zȳhon vaoreznon jepin, se ziksoso udlissis. — I ask the Lord for His favor, and He responds as He will.
  • zīragon [ˈziːragon]
perfect: zīrtan
v. C-fin. to freeze intransitive; to become frozen
  • zīrta [ˈziːrta]
adj. I frozen (pass. perf. part. of zīragon.)
zīrtys perzys[175] frozen fire, dragonglass, obsidian
  • ziry [ˈziry]
pers.pron. he, she, (it) (solar & lunar).
  • zirȳla [ziˈryːla]
refl. 1lun. himself, herself, itself
  • zōbrie [ˈzoːbri͡e], -ior
adj. III dark; black; dark-colored; grey (dark); purple
Tīkuni Zōbrī, Udra Zōbriar — Dark Wings, Dark Words
  • zokla [ˈzokla]
n. 1lun. wolf
Zokla kēlio kostōbirī angotas. — The wolf bit mightily into the lion.
  • zoklākogon [zoˈklaːkogon]
v. V-fin. to entice, to entreat →loc. somebody ( < zokla + -ākogon.)
Iōnot zoklākō? — Are you enticing Jon?
  • zoklītsos [zoˈkliːtsos]
n. 3sol. little wolf ( < zokla + -ītsos.)
  • zūgagon [ˈzuːgagon]
perfect: zūgdan
v. C-fin. to be afraid, to fear →dat.
Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras. — The knight says that even the brave men fear death.
  • zūger [ˈzuːger]
n. perh. 4sol. or 6col. fear[64]
Sȳndroso lykāpa, myrdomy aderpa, iēdrosa gīdāpa. Zūger korzose trūmȳtrī nektossis. — Quiet as a shadow, swift as a deer, calm as still water. Fear cuts deeper than swords.
  • zȳha [ˈzyːha] -ys, -on, -or
poss. adj. I his, her, its.
  • zȳhon [ˈzyːhon]
poss.pron. 3ter. his, hers, its.
Zȳhon suvio perzō vāedar issa. — His is the song of ice and fire.[33]

Abbreviations

act. active
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aor. aorist
aq. or aquatic
comp. comparative
conj. conjunction
dem. demonstrative
eq. equative
exp. expression
fut. future
int. interrogative
intj. interjection
lun. or lunar
n. noun
num. numeral
part. participle
pass. passive
perf. perfect
perh. perhaps
poss. possessive, possibly
postp. postposition
prep. preposition
pres. present
prob. probably
pron. pronoun
relex. relexified
sol. or solar
subst. substantive, substantivized
sup. superlative
ter. or terrestrial
v. verb
C-fin. consonant-final
V-fin. vowel-final
→acc. triggers accusative
→gen. triggers genitive
→dat. triggers dative
→inst. triggers instrumental
→loc. triggers locative
s/o someone
s/t something
s/w somewhere
d/o direct object
a/o applied object
° unexpected gender

Further Information

For information on conjugation, declension, etc. see the pages below.

High Valyrian Verb Conjugation

High Valyrian Verb Tables

High Valyrian Noun Declensions

High Valyrian Adjectives

High Valyrian Pronouns

For words listed according to subject matter, see

Non-Canonical Content

For a list of words devised by learners, see High Valyrian Non-Canonical Vocabulary

Notes

  1. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52258261806/thank-you-for-the-castithian-my-friend-and-i-just
  2. 2.0 2.1 https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/338005118010130432, https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/347619785397370880
  3. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/174603720876/suppose-i-were-discussing-a-d%C4%81rilaros-a-voktys
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2014/5/8/high-valyrian-101-learn-and-pronounce-common-phrases
  5. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92768950255/hello-i-was-just-wondering-if-like-in-a-previous-post
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-38103
  7. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92768950255/hello-i-was-just-wondering-if-like-in-a-previous-post
  8. Because they controlled the gold and silver and other objects of material wealth.
  9. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474704833518116864
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/163414677489/valyrian-dialogue-episode-702-of-game-of-thrones
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143383597638/valyrian-and-dothraki-dialogue-episode-601-of
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145864394290/valyrian-dialogue-episode-608-of-game-of-thrones, vowel quantities reconstructed.
  13. Form reconstructed from perfect angotas. May be incorrect.
  14. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92671165154/hi-mr-peterson-i-admire-what-you-did-for-game-of
  15. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118300113747/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-blood-of
  16. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145212291778/hi-my-name-is-jadie-i-was-wondering-if-you-could
  17. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88694557124/love-your-work-in-game-of-thrones-i-was-wondering-if#comment-1434792964
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119626846322/ive-been-looking-around-the-hv-wiki-pages-and-the
  19. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/gryves-se-rina-litse/#comment-2143
  20. 20.00 20.01 20.02 20.03 20.04 20.05 20.06 20.07 20.08 20.09 20.10 20.11 Gender confirmed
  21. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/451498834666221568
  22. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/451761993121161216
  23. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85570
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69709127260/hi-huge-fan-of-your-work-on-thrones-really-brougt-the
  25. Lexical form, gender, gloss: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/348732679384076288; etymology: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/348858959114948609
  26. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/438934775563157505
  27. 27.0 27.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7846
  28. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/78803739713/hi-david-a-friend-of-mine-wants-to-get-all-men-must
  29. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/ask#comment-1674963176
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7851
  31. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335166657926410240
  32. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/509053010991788032
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/07/vaes-dothrak-vimithreri/#comment-5004
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/
  35. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94646713173/how-do-you-say-to-rain-in-hv-is-it-daomio-ropagon
  36. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/424640427719786497
  37. Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. , revealed before release at https://twitter.com/GretchenAMcC/status/635850295130595328?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw
  38. 38.0 38.1 http://www.whosay.com/articles/1559-how-do-you-say-game-of-thrones-in-high-valyrian
  39. 39.0 39.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-46878
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/130164397557/i-saw-your-high-valyrian-translation-of-reform
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/09/how-would-donald-trump-sound-dothraki
  42. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93606199925/whats-all-women-must-die-in-high-valyrian-wink
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91382440334/is-there-such-a-thing-as-a-passive-infinitive-in-high#permalink-notes
  44. 44.0 44.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84258
  45. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/144113158257/hi-mr-peterson-thanks-for-translating-but-we
  46. as opposed to ordinary fire, originally a more animate version of fire, as compared to perzys.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/144812959909/valyrian-dialogue-episode-605-of-game-of-thrones
  48. 48.00 48.01 48.02 48.03 48.04 48.05 48.06 48.07 48.08 48.09 48.10 48.11 48.12 48.13 48.14 48.15 https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/809562861118754816
  49. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91682702722/valar-morghulis-i-need-some-help-in-translating-a
  50. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91661010691/hi-mr-peterson-i-have-a-friend-who-wants-to-know-how
  51. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119452523036/any-chance-youre-allowed-to-provide-a-transcript
  52. https://www.facebook.com/eleni.mandell.1/posts/10153866837815220
  53. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/452973907188793344
  54. The word for “sea” in High Valyrian is embar (or, more figurately, embrar) —DJP
  55. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94386491674/how-do-you-say-otter-in-high-valyrian
  56. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121691127784/hey-i-recently-got-a-pet-snake-and-wanted-a-name
  59. 59.0 59.1 https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/508612.David_J_Peterson (Not clear if mirros should be translated "something," or "anything," but the former seems more appropriate for a Type 1 substantive.
  60. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85299
  61. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/53805143580/hi-david-im-a-huge-fan-of-your-work-d-i-have-a
  62. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85573
  63. 63.0 63.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/134348169425/hi-there-im-sprekenze-dick-from-the-question
  65. 65.00 65.01 65.02 65.03 65.04 65.05 65.06 65.07 65.08 65.09 65.10 65.11 65.12 65.13 65.14 Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. 
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 66.4 66.5 66.6 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143745488442/high-valyrian-dialogue-episode-602-of-game-of#comment-2658413687
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/elat-kathivezhofari/
  68. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/576521593104543744 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/113644671562/could-you-tell-us-wheel-so-that-we-can-do-im
  69. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/146907290806/how-would-i-say-all-men-must-learn-in-high
  70. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/889350967266648064
  71. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1265, http://www.vulture.com/2013/04/game-of-thrones-dothraki-language-inventor.html
  72. 72.0 72.1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S09FAz70qKg&feature=youtu.be&t=18
  73. 73.0 73.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96486949844/i-was-just-recommended-your-blog-and-wow
  74. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91890097707/i-want-her-collar-to-have-inscribed-in-it-in-high
  75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 The names for the solar and lunar genders were long thought to be vēzenkor qogror and hūrenkor qogror, due to this comment, but DJP has since clarified that that was in error, and that qogror is indeed terrestrial, precisely as one would expect. As this error has persisted uncorrected for two years, it has already been propagated to any discussions of HV on the internet. If you are in a position to do so, please correct any references you may find to ˣvēzenkor qogror or ˣhūrenkor qogror to vēzenkon and hūrenkon respectively.
  76. The applied object is the central complement of the verb and it is a mistake to omit it, though many modern speakers mistakenly do.
  77. 77.0 77.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/97662740892/hey-hey-hi-i-was-wondering-if-you-could-tell-me
  78. http://www.dothraki.com/2011/09/the-header-script/#comment-93965
  79. 79.0 79.1 Generally, when it comes to "being" in a certain place, ilagon must be used. In some contexts sagon may also be used, but the rule is not yet clear. We know that "Who is at the Inn at the Crossroads?" must be Sparos Īliliot Zenturliot ilza? ( ˣissa is not permitted here), but "Where are my dragons?" may be either Skoriot Skoriot ñuhyz zaldrīzesse issi? or Skoriot Skoriot ñuhyz zaldrīzesse ilzi?
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121116158163/can-you-translate-in-the-land-of-mordor-where
  81. Probably refers to throwing seeds on the ground in amounts, rather than digging a hole to place the seed.
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 http://geekyconblr.tumblr.com/post/116039992144/this-might-be-the-coolest-special-guest
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 83.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121683073283/were-the-pit-fighters-saying-a-high-valyrian
  84. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/178052221270/i-cant-remember-if-ive-done-this-before
  85. 85.0 85.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88003383998/hmm-would-it-be-too-much-to-ask-what-let-it-go-or
  86. DJP is somewhat uneasy with this form, though he concedes it is valid:
    "As for sr > j, yes, you could list those as in free variation, though for myself, I’d be hesitant to do ioje. I like iosre better. But that doesn’t mean ioje isn’t acceptable by any means."—Email 3-29-15
  87. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/178985951281/how-would-autumn-is-here-be-in-high-valyrian
  88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107545400399/what-are-the-perfect-stems-of-umbagon-vaedagon
  89. DJP originally said this was not the applicative i-, or at least not so analyzed in Classical High Valyrian: https://www.facebook.com/Dedalvs/posts/10152824337550207?comment_id=40431635&offset=0&total_comments=7. However, in later conversation he revealed that it actually is an applicatve in origin.
  90. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/337310280780496896 et seq.
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/53797550110/does-hv-have-words-for-seasons-also-in-the-word
  92. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474603184929783809
  93. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/352348019221471233
  94. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/130206304747/hi-david-i-was-wondering-is-there-a-word-for
  95. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/84737612397/hi-ever-since-i-was-a-kid-i-wondered-if-it-was
  96. 96.0 96.1 96.2 96.3 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/139864549891/do-you-have-a-word-for-north-and-south-in-high
  97. 97.0 97.1 97.2 https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/163539415911/ive-been-trying-to-find-how-to-write-the-north
  98. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/163644629008/hey-david-i-was-wondering-what-is-the-valyrian
  99. 99.0 99.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/gryves-se-rina-litse/#comment-2096
  100. 100.0 100.1 100.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107610313810/jolloragon-is-to-study-so-what-does-loragon
  101. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/107328192595/hi-david-lori-from-vegas-id-love-to-tattoo
  102. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143383597638/valyrian-and-dothraki-dialogue-episode-601-of#comment-2644399467
  103. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-83146
  104. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/178052221270/i-cant-remember-if-ive-done-this-before
  105. 105.0 105.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85092
  106. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/373713198580371456
  107. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120048022336/hi-in-hv-keli-is-word-for-cat-and-itsos-is
  108. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145312330018/how-would-you-say-happy-fathers-day-in-either
  109. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92757921503/hey-dave-big-fan-of-your-got-works-and-from-what
  110. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/465550610108923904
  111. http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1chmc4/eseneziri_im_david_peterson_the_creator_of_the/c9glye7
  112. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/the-treasure-of-the-wastes/#comment-7464
  113. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92671165154/hi-mr-peterson-i-admire-what-you-did-for-game-of
  114. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/126022622650/in-a-dance-with-dragons-the-tattered-prince-says
  115. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/89727687332/you-have-such-a-fantastic-blog-perfect-dose-of
  116. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/146715030979/would-a-feast-for-crows-be-l%C4%81roti-syt
  117. http://aquestforquintessence.tumblr.com/post/121356065817
  118. 118.0 118.1 http://www.whosay.com/articles/1568-how-do-you-say-steel-steal-in-high-valyrian
  119. 119.0 119.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/88325977566/hello-im-getting-a-tattoo-pretty-soon-with-the-text
  120. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/147010602198/is-ky-vanon-plan-strategy-related-to-cyvasse
  121. 121.0 121.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121289233637/how-you-say-faceless-men-in-valyrian
  122. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121414275532/lara
  123. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2161
  124. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/588610106226384896
  125. https://twitter.com/GretchenAMcC/status/635845315715796993
  126. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52129761918/saw-this-in-a-reddit-comment-section-and-htought-it
  127. https://youtu.be/8vARzbGWV5E
  128. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7298
  129. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/146620227802/hi-quick-question-how-do-you-say-peace-in-high
  130. DJP discusses origin at http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120754560057/ajellyinthemix-replied-to-your-post-you
  131. "...You call me maegi as if it were a curse, but all it means is wise...."

    Martin, George R.R. (1996). A Game of Thrones. Bantam Dell. p. 667. ISBN 978-0-553-38679-0. 
  132. 132.0 132.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/78803739713/hi-david-a-friend-of-mine-wants-to-get-all-men-must
  133. twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/489225828203384833
  134. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94582504901/how-do-you-say-bat-in-hv
  135. https://youtu.be/l_0O_lxD0C0?t=288
  136. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  137. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-46875
  138. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/114140801248/hey-i-am-getting-a-tattoo-soon-and-ai-would-like
  139. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93815665904/i-took-a-look-at-the-high-valyrian-orthography-and
  140. "I suppose it really depends on how the speaker is feeling. You could certainly drop it straight into the lunar declension I paradigm (same as vala). You could also just strip the final -a in everything but the nominative singular and put it into the paradigm for borrowings. It’s a foreign word, so you never know." —DJP
  141. This sentence is unusual in that it was composed by Iustinus rather than DJP. However, DJP did correct this sentence, and confirm that the use of mirros in this sense was valid. As it is our only example (so far) of that usage, it seemed valid to cite it here.
  142. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/126038417371/hiya-could-you-translate-something-into-valyrian
  143. 143.0 143.1 https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/158828229020/hi-david-would-some-are-born-to-endless-night
  144. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/92747480573/hi-could-you-translate-my-name-to-high-valyrian-it-is#_=_
  145. http://tmblr.co/ZCfvzu1Ti9KAA
  146. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/122447211945/how-do-you-say-jon-snow-isnt-dead-in-valyrian
  147. 147.0 147.1 147.2 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/51979081366/i-must-say-i-love-your-work-is-there-a-translation
  148. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/158828229020/hi-david-would-some-are-born-to-endless-night
  149. https://archiveofourown.org/works/18893671
  150. 150.0 150.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/109247050112/how-to-say-love-is-weakness-in-high-valyrian
  151. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/54359640759/seeing-your-name-ask-just-a-few-ago-makes-me-curious
  152. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/95122949762/hi-i-am-a-really-big-fan-of-your-work-especially-with
  153. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/103850253334/how-do-you-say-east-in-hv-it-begins-with-naqo
  154. http://www.dothraki.com/2016/02/silent-crows/#comment-122984
  155. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/178703016578/hv-in-the-dothraki-wiki-both-%C5%8Dz-and-%C3%B1%C4%81qes-are
  156. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/400882778138349568
  157. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/491113189849853953
  158. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/349242524906438656
  159. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/82008642642/hey-im-a-huge-fan-of-the-work-you-do-on-game-of
  160. 160.0 160.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85745
  161. DJP coined it from the singer Anette Olzon, singer of the song "Amaranth" from the Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish's Dark Passion Play album!
  162. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69709127260/hi-huge-fan-of-your-work-on-thrones-really-brougt-the#disqus_thread
  163. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/#comment-85806
  164. Christian Thalmann: Hmmm, could sȳngagon "to scare" be primordially related to zūgagon "to fear", like ȳdragon "to speak" and udir "word" might be?
    David J. Peterson: I suppose it could, but in this case it is not: it's primordially related to something else.
  165. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94656655691/hi-i-absolutely-love-the-languages-you-created-for
  166. DJP does not think he created this similarity intentionally, but you never know.
  167. https://archiveofourown.org/works/18734401
  168. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/607413757350809600
  169. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-85525
  170. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/171973372300/hi-im-looking-at-high-valyrian-as-part-of-my
  171. http://www.unstuckbooks.org/1/post/2014/01/the-language-experiment-an-interview-with-david-j-peterson.html
  172. 172.0 172.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/52747943689/hi-im-a-big-fan-of-your-work-on-game-of-thrones-and
  173. 173.0 173.1 http://tmblr.co/ZCfvzu1QuCNSU
  174. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-zȳhon-keliton-issa/#comment-1178, http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7846
  175. 175.0 175.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/85073783014/whats-the-high-valyrian-word-for-dragonglass-obsidian
  176. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/171973372300/hi-im-looking-at-high-valyrian-as-part-of-my
  177. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/145864394290/valyrian-dialogue-episode-608-of-game-of-thrones
  178. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/181182992827/shall-we-begin-in-hv-please#notes
  179. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94376285120/how-do-you-say-apple-in-hv-is-it-lunar-like-gerpa#_=_
  180. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/343078908415066112
  181. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2035
  182. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/425106456510074880
  183. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94386491674/how-do-you-say-otter-in-high-valyrian
  184. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/474698086950793217
  185. 185.0 185.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96907499002/you-just-said-qridronnor-is-the-hv-word-for-chaos
  186. 186.0 186.1 https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/178052221270/i-cant-remember-if-ive-done-this-before
  187. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94740862654/you-said-bianor-biadra-was-subject-to-the
  188. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2079
  189. http://ic.pics.livejournal.com/jdm314/492753/3125/3125_300.png
  190. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/100781485428/hello-mr-peterson-first-of-all-congratulations
  191. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jwEPxemXikw
  192. It is possible that this should actually be Rullōr [rulˈloːr]: "I ɟust kept an irregular stress pattern, since it’s a borrowing. That said, it’s not as if the rules are hard and fast for how a borrowed word should be rendered. It very well could come out as Rullōr. That wouldn’t explain its nominative stress pattern (word-final), but it would explain the rest of the paradigm." —DɟP
  193. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7837
  194. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/93634645640/whats-the-past-tense-of-raqagon-raqtan-rattan
  195. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/02/relative-clauses-in-high-valyrian/#comment-7667
  196. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/137111885757/ahhhhhhh-i-havent-been-on-tumblr-in-a-few-days | New Yorkī was changed to Nuiōrkī to stay true to the High valyrian spelling and alphabet.
  197. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/60283121214/hey-there-im-a-big-fan-of-your-works-i-was-wondering
  198. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/06/valahd/#comment-100401
  199. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/07/valyrian-adjectives/#comment-2171
  200. 200.0 200.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/103841342123/hi-i-wanted-to-translate-i-begin-my-day-with
  201. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/134341895420/lexember-2015
  202. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/359200104382607360
  203. But this is not "set in stone": http://www.dothraki.com/2015/02/we-have-a-new-winner/#comment-85851
  204. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/119387023579/sorry-about-that-how-do-you-say-congratulations
  205. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/60283121214/hey-there-im-a-big-fan-of-your-works-i-was-wondering
  206. http://www.dothraki.com/2014/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save/#comment-7331
  207. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/65717684734/hey-there-david-i-was-wondering-how-would-one-say#disqus_thread
  208. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/603437916082335744
  209. http://www.whosay.com/status/davidjpeterson/1107697, https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/603293497588916224
  210. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/386360871313629184
  211. For the citation form rūs, see http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/mhysa/#comment-1926
  212. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kIDtjMe3y8&feature=youtu.be&t=51
  213. Peterson, David (2015). The Art of Language Invention : from Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the words behind world-building. New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-14-312646-1. 
  214. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/85369375334/grey-worm-says-kill-the-masters-in-valyrian-in-a (presumably the short e is a typo), http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118731657289/how-would-you-say-fire-cannot-kill-a-dragon-in
  215. Interpretation proposed by https://twitter.com/JuanPaez97/status/727006745315278848
  216. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/#comment-1764
  217. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/357282200112218115
  218. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/91693984920/rytsas-how-do-you-say-what-are-you-doing-in
  219. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/112862909962/thatsvalyrious-thank-you-mario-but-our-heir-to#comment-1891392739
  220. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/48918159946/hi-i-know-youre-busy-but-can-i-ask-you-something
  221. 221.0 221.1 http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118971485709/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-stories-can
  222. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/110910885973/how-do-you-say-tea-in-hv-is-it-subar-or
  223. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/110291243121/what-does-sylugon-mean-sylutegon-hv
  224. Formerly thought to be 6col., per http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/97579530014/how-do-you-say-the-vipers-shadow-in-hv-and#comment-1841093921. Now known to be 3aq.: http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/121116158163/can-you-translate-in-the-land-of-mordor-where#comment-2070602424
  225. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/143745488442/high-valyrian-dialogue-episode-602-of-game-of
  226. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118392872372/text-asshekh-ray-jad-its-use-your-mother
  227. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335160470984069120, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/
  228. But this has been cast into doubt by http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/94365589689/how-do-i-say-i-am-trent-of-the-land-in-high
  229. 229.0 229.1
    Tegun is actually "land" (paucal, terrestrial). Tegor would work if you need to say "lands" collective (e.g. "These are my various lands").—DJP, email, 2-9-2014.
  230. http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1chmc4/eseneziri_im_david_peterson_the_creator_of_the/c9glye7, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/08/valyrian-numerals
  231. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/180186565268/hi-david-whats-the-high-valyrian-word-for#notes
  232. 232.0 232.1 232.2 http://www.dothraki.com/2013/06/some-more-high-valyrian-inflection/#comment-2126
  233. http://www.dothraki.com/2016/01/asshekhqoyi-vezhvenagain/#comment-117032
  234. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335164222797398016, http://www.dothraki.com/2013/05/tȳni-tresi/
  235. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/335156670466490368
  236. Lexical form: https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/349242524906438656
  237. 237.0 237.1 http://www.dothraki.com/2014/06/rinar/#comment-35391
  238. https://twitter.com/Dedalvs/status/421794510801096704
  239. https://twitter.com/dedalvs/status/318527719803600896
  240. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/174603720876/suppose-i-were-discussing-a-d%C4%81rilaros-a-voktys
  241. http://www.dothraki.com/2013/04/sesir-urnebion-z%C8%B3hon-keliton-issa/#comment-1255
  242. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/106751117720/how-do-you-say-spider-and-spiderweb-in-hv
  243. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/96562098256/do-you-have-a-word-as-mentioned-in-the-books-in-high
  244. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84261
  245. http://www.makinggameofthrones.com/production-diary/2014/5/8/high-valyrian-101-learn-and-pronounce-common-phrases
  246. http://www.dothraki.com/2015/01/asshekhqoyi-anni-save-save-save/#comment-84262
  247. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/69007223679/how-would-you-say-primary-and-secondary-in-valyrian
  248. On the declension, see http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118971485709/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-stories-can#disqus_thread
  249. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/120130992540/you-wrote-vettrir-is-the-word-for-the-law-its
  250. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/117187344410/hey-david-could-you-explain-how-vettri-vettri
  251. https://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/174578518778/how-could-one-translate-dragonstone-in-high
  252. http://dedalvs.tumblr.com/post/118300113747/hi-i-was-wondering-how-you-would-say-blood-of
  253. https://archiveofourown.org/works/18893671


Vocabulary
DothrakiHigh ValyrianAstapori ValyrianMeereenese Valyrian
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