Dothraki has five noun cases. Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Allative and Ablative. The declension of nouns depend on whether it is an animate or inanimate noun and for animate nouns it also depends on plurality.
The nominative case is the basic form of the noun. This is used when the noun is the subject of a sentence. This is also the dictionary form of the noun so when you see a noun in the vocabulary it is generally in the nominative form unless otherwise specified. There is also a plural form of the nominative for animate nouns (inanimate nouns are the same in singular and plural). For animate nouns the plural is marked with an /-i/ when the noun ends in a consonant and /-si/ when the noun ends in a vowel. For example the singular khalasar (horde) becomes the plural khalasari (hordes) and the sigular khado (body) becomes the plural khadosi (bodies)
The accusative case is when the noun appears as the object of a sentence. For inanimate nouns the accusative form is simply the bare stem of the word unless that form is changed by epenthesis. The nominative jano then turns into the accusative form jan.
Example: Anha frakh jan. "I touched the dog".
For animate nouns the accusative case is denoted by the suffix /-es/ regardless of what letter the noun ends in except for with plurals (that end in /-i/) where the accusative is only an /-s/.
Example: Lajak atthasa rizhes. "The warrior defeats the son". Lajaki atthasish rizhis. "The warriors defeated the sons."
The genitive case is the possessive case and is mostly used when the noun is in possession of something but it is also used to express other concepts. For inanimate nouns the genitive case is formed by adding the suffix /-i/ to the stem of the noun. So jano would turn into jani.
Example: Hadaen jani "The food of the dog"
For animate nouns the genitive is formed by adding the suffix /-(s)i/ to the end of the word.
Example: ko rizhi "the bodyguard of the son" The plural does not differ even with animate nouns.
The allative case is used to denote movement towards the noun. For inanimate nouns the allative case is formed by adding the suffix /-aan/ to the stem of the noun.
Example: So jano would turn into janaan.
For animate nouns the allative is formed with the suffix /-(s)aan/ for singular and the suffix /-(s)ea/ for plural.
Example: rizhaan means "to the son" and rizhea means "to the sons".
The ablative case is used to denote movement away from the noun. For inanimate nouns the ablative case is formed by adding the suffix /-oon/ to the stem of the noun.
Example: So jano would turn into janoon.
For animate nouns the ablative is formed by the suffix /-(s)oon/ for singular and the suffix -(s)oa for plural.
Example: rizhoon means "from the son" and rizhoa means "from the sons"
|singular animate, stem -C||/—/||/-es/||/-i/||/-aan/||/-oon/|
|singular animate, stem -V||/—/||/-es/||/-si/||/-saan/||/-soon/|
|plural animate, stem -C||/-i/||/-is/||/-i/||/-ea/||/-oa/|
|plural animate, stem -V||/-si/||/-es/||/-si/||/-sea/||/-soa/|
|inanimate||varies||/—/ or /-e/||/-i/||/-aan/||/-oon/|
Sample words: qeso "basket"; os "path"; sondra "dragon glass"; mawizzi "rabbit"; jelli "cheese".
Sondra, mawizzi and jelli have accusative affected with epenthesis.
|Singular and plural|
Sample words: rizh "son"; ko "bodyguard"; dave "rosemary bush"; mai "mom"