The Dothraki language has 20 consonants, 4 vowels and 2 glides.
|ch||t͡ʃ||ch||check||can be aspirated|
|k||k||k||kill||can be aspirated|
|r||ɾ, r||rr||trilled when at the beginning of the word and followed by a vowel; at the end of the word; when doubled; tap medially elsewhere|
|t||t̪||t'||stop, top||can be aspirated, dental|
Apart from names, the letters p, b, u and x do not appear in the ortography of diegetically modern Dothraki, and c appears only in the digraph ch.
For phonemes that are marked with digraph, the geminate has a reduced ortography, eg. kkh instead of khkh. This does not affect the pronunciation, these are geminates just as any others.
|Plosive||t [t̪]||k [k]||q [q]|
|Voiced Plosive||d [d̪]||g [g]|
|Voiced Affricate||j [d͡ʒ]|
|Voiceless fricative||f [f]||th [θ]||s [s] sh [ʃ]||kh [x]||h [h]|
|Voiced fricative||v [v]||z [z] zh [ʒ]|
|Nasal||m [m]||n [n̪]|
|Glide||w [w]||y [j]|
The digraphs kh, sh, th and zh are all fricatives, while ch and j are affricates.
Doubled consonants are always pronounced geminated.
Dothraki has four phonetically distinct vowels:
There are no diphthongs or long vowels.
As in any natural or natural-aspiring language, there are some phones in Dothraki that are considered - and even heard - the same with each other.
Some phonemes change according to the surrounding phones, to ease the pronunciation.
- As [q] sound is produced far in the throat, if there is a vowel immediately following, that vowel shifts considerably - so much so, that we have opted on marking this shift in IPA pronunciation guides in vocabulary.
Dothraki normal after q i i e e e ɛ o o ɔ a a ɑ
- In syllabe-final position, h [h] shifts to [ħ]
There is no definite line between complementary variation and free variation; some variation happens always when the surrounding phones call for it, some may happen. Some variation is indifferent of the surrounding phones.
- While Dothraki has no labial plosives, [p] or [b], both of these have been available in the past and have developed into [f] and [v], respectively. The [p] and [b] phones can still be met as free variants of f [f] and v [v], and should generally go unnoticed.
- With only four vowel phonemes, Dothraki vowels have more room to shift than in most languages. They should be treated as little less precisely placed than eg. vowels in English.
- Following velar consonant, k [k], kh [x] or g [g], o [o] may shift as far as to [u].
- Voiceless stops, t [t], k [k] and q [q] even ch [t͡ʃ] may be aspirated.