Dothraki word class that we'll call, for want of a better word, verbal auxiliaries, are not as closely related to verbs as auxiliary verbs usually are. They do not directly affect the verb's conjugation, they do not conjugate themselves and syntactically they are postpositions to the subject of the sentence. Nevertheless, they affect the relation between the subject and the verb and accommodate a large part of dothraki's voice, aspect and modality system.
Nem — Passive
Dothraki passive is effectuated with verbal auxiliary, nem. The subject takes the semantical role of an object, but retains it's position and case, and still affects the verb conjugation. The instigator of the action can be (re-)introduced as a complement with preposition ki.
- Anha nem vo vaddrivok. — "I will not be killed."
- Anha nem kem ma moon ki maisi mae. — "I was married to her by her mother."
Nemo — Reflexive
When the verb is transitive, but the subject inflicts the action on themself, auxiliary nemo is used. As with the passive, the syntactical place of the primary object is just left empty.
- Anha nemo vo vaddrivok. — "I will not kill myself."
- Anha nemo kem ma moon. — "I married myself to her."
Ray — Perfect
Ray can be loosely translated as "already". When used with a past tense verb it effectuates the past perfect.
- Anha ray addrivo vosecchi chiories. — "I have never killed a woman."
Zin denotes to continuation of the action. It loosely translates to "still".
- Anha zin addrivak mahrazhis. — "I'm still killing men."
Laz closely compares to english auxiliary verb can. It of course does not inflect, but when used with a past tense verb, it acquires a counterfactual sense, could.
- Anha laz addrivak mahrazhes. — "I can kill a man."
- Anha laz addriv chiories, vosma otok rek. — "I could kill a woman, but won't do that."
Vil translates to to manage to.
- Anha vil addriv mahrazhes. — "I managed to kill a man."
Eth translates to must.
- Anha'th addrivak mahrazhes. — "I must kill the man."
- Yer eth vos addrivi chiories. — "You must not kill women."
Ish translates to might.
- Anha'sh addrivak mahrazhes. — "I might kill the man."
- Yer ish vos addrivi chiories. — "You might not kill women."
Jif translates to should.
- Anha jif addrivak mahrazhes. — "I should kill the man."